FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Racial antisemitism
Antisemitism

Main
Anti-Judaism · Antisemitism
Judeophobia · New antisemitism
Racial antisemitism
The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The term Judeophobia (also, Judaphobia) stands for fear or irrational hatred of Jews. ... Main article: Anti-Semitism The term The New anti-Semitism was coined at the outset of the 21st century to describe waves of attacks around the globe directed at Jews, Jewish organizations, Israel, and Zionism. ...

Around the world
Arabs and antisemitism
Antisemitism around the world
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Japan and antisemitism
Nation of Islam and antisemitism
Universities and antisemitism

History
Blood libel · Dreyfus Affair
History of antisemitism
The Holocaust · Holocaust denial
Judenhut · Judensau
Nazis · Wilhelm Marr
Persecution · Pogrom
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
On the Jews and their Lies
Yellow badge
Blood libels were the false accusations that Jews used human blood, especially the blood of Christian children, in religious rituals. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Wilhelm Marr (1819-1904) was a German agitator and theorist, who coined the term anti-Semitism as a euphemism for the German Judenhass, or Jew-hate. Marr was an unemployed journalist, who claimed that he had lost his job due to Jewish interference. ... Persecution of Jews includes various persecutions that the Jewish people and Judaism have experienced throughout Jewish history. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The yellow badge which Jews were forced to wear during the Nazi occupation of Europe: a black Star of David on a yellow field, with the word Jew written inside. ...

Organizations
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) is an independent body (agency) of the European Union based in Vienna whose goal is to provide the EU with objective, reliable and comparable data at European level on the phenomena of racism and xenophobia in order to help them take... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ...

Writers
Yehuda Bauer · Phyllis Chesler
Irwin Cotler · Todd Endelman
Jack Fischel · Norman Finkelstein
Abraham Foxman · Manfred Gerstenfeld
Brian Klug · Bernard Lewis
Deborah Lipstadt · Jonathan Sacks
Pierre-André Taguieff · Robert Wistrich
Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Phyllis Chesler (Ph. ... Irwin Cotler, PC , MP , OC , BA , BCL , LL.D , Ph. ... Dr. Todd Endelman Todd M. Endelman is the William Haber Professor of Modern Jewish History at the University of Michigan. ... Jack R. Fischel is professor emeritus of history at Millersville University of Pennsylvania. ... Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is a professor of political science and controversial American author. ... Abraham H. Foxman (b. ... Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld (1937 - ) is an environmental expert and business consultant with an extensive background in Jewish public affairs. ... Brian Klug is an associate professor of philosophy at Saint Xavier University, Chicago, and senior research fellow in philosophy at St. ... Prof. ... Lipstadts book: Denying The Holocaust Deborah Lipstadt is an American historian and author of the book Denying the Holocaust. ... Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks (born 1948, London) is the Chief Rabbi of the United Synagogue, the United Kingdoms main body of Orthodox synagogues. ... Pierre-Andre Taguieff, born at 1946 in Paris is a philosopher and political economist, director of research at CNRS (in a Institut dEtudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) laboratory, the CEVIPOF). ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

WikiProjects
WikiProject Jewish history
WikiProject Judaism

Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the emancipation of the Jews, Jews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism. A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...

Contents

Pre-19th century

Racial anti-Semitism existed alongside religious anti-Semitism since the Middle Ages. The New Christians (derogatively called Marranos), the offspring of Sephardic Jews who were forced to convert to Catholicism, were always under suspicion of apostasy and were persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition since 1478 and Portuguese Inquisition since 1536. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Jews were banished from Portugal in 1496. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Religious conversion is the adoption of new religious beliefs that differ from the converts previous beliefs; in some cultures (e. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[2] - is described in the Oxford Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or Western... Pedro Berruguete. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ...


It was believed that many New Christians were indeed practicing their original religion in secret and, in fact, large numbers were Crypto-Jews. The system and ideology of limpieza de sangre (cleanliness of blood) ostracized New Christians from society, regardless of their actual degree of sincerity as converts. In Portugal, the legal distinction between "New" and "Old" Christians was ended through a legal decree issued by the Marquis of Pombal in 1772. Crypto-Judaism is secret practicing of Judaism while publicly pretending to be of another faith. ... Limpieza de sangre is also a novel in the Captain Alatriste series by Arturo Pérez-Reverte. ... The Marquis of Pombal, or Marquês de Pombal, (13 May 1699 - 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese politician and statesman, prime minister of king Joseph I of Portugal throughout his reign. ...


Nationalism and anti-Semitism

Racial anti-Semitism was preceded, especially in Germany, by anti-Semitism arising from Romantic nationalism. As racial theories developed, especially from the mid nineteenth-century onwards, these nationalist ideas were subsumed within them. But their origins were quite distinct from racialism. On the one hand they derived from an exclusivist interpretation of the 'Volk' ideas of Johann Gottfried Herder. This led to anti-Semitic writing and journalism in the second quarter of the 19th century of which Richard Wagner's Das Judentum in der Musik (Jewry in Music) is perhaps the most notorious example. On the other hand, radical socialists such as Karl Marx identified Jews as being both victims and enforced perpetrators of the Capitalist system - e.g. in his article 'On the Jewish Question'. From sources such as these, and encouraged by the broad acceptance of racial theories as the century continued, anti-Semitism entered the vocabularies and policies of both the right and the left in political thought. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Das Judenthum in der Musik (Judaism in Music or Jewishness in Music) is an anti-Semitic article which was published in the Neue Zeitschrift. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London, England) was an immensely influential philosopher from Germany, a political economist, and a socialist revolutionary. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ...


The rise of racial anti-Semitism

Image of Jesus as an icon of Nordic racial purity from the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer; he is glaring at unacceptably "racially alien" Jewish converts to Christianity.
Image of Jesus as an icon of Nordic racial purity from the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer; he is glaring at unacceptably "racially alien" Jewish converts to Christianity.

Modern European anti-Semitism has its origin in 19th century pseudo-scientific theories that the Jewish people are a sub-group of Semitic peoples; Semitic people were thought by many Europeans to be entirely different from the Aryan, or Indo-European, populations, and that they can never be amalgamated with them. In this view, Jews are not opposed on account of their religion, but on account of their supposed hereditary or genetic racial characteristics: greed, a special aptitude for money-making, aversion to hard work, clannishness and obtrusiveness, lack of social tact, low cunning, and especially lack of patriotism. Image File history File links Sturmer_Nordic_Jesus. ... Image File history File links Sturmer_Nordic_Jesus. ... 1943 Stürmer issue: Satan Der Stürmer (The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 to the end of World War II in 1945, with a brief suspension in circulation during the 1936 Berlin Olympics. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


While enlightened European intellectual society of that period viewed prejudice against people on account of their religion to be declassé and a sign of ignorance, because of this supposed 'scientific' connection to genetics they felt fully justified in prejudice based on nationality or 'race'. In order to differentiate between the two practices, the term anti-Semitism was developed to refer to this 'acceptable' bias against Jews as a nationality, as distinct from the 'undesirable' prejudice against Judaism as a religion. Concurrently with this usage, some authors in Germany began to use the term 'Palestinians' when referring to Jews as a people, rather than as a religious group. Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ...


Actually, it is questionable whether Jews in general looked significantly different from the populations conducting "racial" anti-Semitism. This was especially true in places like Germany, France and Austria where the Jewish population tended to be more secular (or at least less Orthodox) than that of Eastern Europe, and did not wear clothing (such as a yarmulke) that would particularly distinguish their appearance from the non-Jewish population. Many anthropologists of the time such as Franz Boas tried to use complex physical measurements like the cephalic index and visual surveys of hair/eye color and skin tone of Jewish vs. non-Jewish European populations to prove that the notion of a separate "Jewish race" was a myth. The 19th and early 20th century view of race should be distinguished from the efforts of modern population genetics to trace the ancestry of various Jewish groups, see Y-chromosomal Aaron. A yarmulke (also yarmulka, yarmelke) (Yiddish יאַרמלקע yarmlke) or Kippah (Hebrew כִּפָּה kippāh, plural kippot) is a thin, usually slightly rounded cloth cap worn by Jews. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... The cephalic index is the ratio of the maximum breadth of the head to its maximum length (i. ... Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised ancestor of the Kohanim (singular Kohen, Cohen, or Kohane), a patrilineal priestly caste in Judaism. ...


The advent of racial anti-Semitism was also linked to the growing sense of nationalism in many countries. The nationalist context viewed Jews as a separate and often "alien" nation within the countries in which Jews resided, a prejudice exploited by the elites of many governments. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology [1] that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. ...


Elites and the use of anti-Semitism

1889 Paris, France elections poster for self-described "candidat antisémite" Adolphe Willette: "The Jews are a different race, hostile to our own... Judaism, there is the enemy!"
1889 Paris, France elections poster for self-described "candidat antisémite" Adolphe Willette: "The Jews are a different race, hostile to our own... Judaism, there is the enemy!"

Many analysts of modern anti-Semitism have pointed out that its essence is scapegoating: features of modernity felt by some group to be undesirable (e.g. materialism, the power of money, economic fluctuations, war, secularism, socialism, Communism, movements for racial equality, social welfare policies, etc.) are believed to be caused by the machinations of a conspiratorial people whose full loyalties are not to the national group. Traditionalists anguished at the supposedly decadent or defective nature of the modern world have sometimes been inclined to embrace such views. Some are of the opinion that many of the conservative members of the WASP establishment of the United States as well as other comparable Western elites (e.g. the British Foreign Office) have harbored such attitudes, and in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, some anti-Semites have imagined world Communism to be a Jewish conspiracy.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x705, 78 KB) 1889 French elections poster for self-described antisemitic candidate Adolf Willette: The Jews are a different race, hostile to ours. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (533x705, 78 KB) 1889 French elections poster for self-described antisemitic candidate Adolf Willette: The Jews are a different race, hostile to ours. ... 1889 French elections poster for self-described anti-Semitic candidate Adolphe-Léon Willette: The Jews are a different race, hostile to ours. ... The scapegoat was a goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in Judaism during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Suborder Symphyta Apocrita See text for families. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom abroad. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


The modern form of anti-Semitism is identified in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica as a conspiracy theory serving the self-understanding of the European aristocracy, whose social power waned with the rise of bourgeois society. The Jews of Europe, then recently emancipated, were relatively literate, entrepreneurial and unentangled in aristocratic patronage systems, and were therefore disproportionately represented in the ascendant bourgeois class. As the aristocracy (and its hangers-on) lost out to this new center of power in society, they found their scapegoat - exemplified in the work of Arthur de Gobineau. That the Jews were singled out to embody the 'problem' was, by this theory, no more than a symptom of the nobility's own prejudices concerning the importance of breeding (on which its own legitimacy was founded). Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, with the slogan When in doubt—look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general... -1... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... -1... Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (July 14, 1816 - October 13, 1882) was a French aristocrat who became famous for advocating White Supremacy and developing the racialist theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1853-1855). ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Legitimacy in political science, is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law as an authority. ...


Dreyfus affair

The treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus demonstrated French anti-semitism.
The treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus demonstrated French anti-semitism.

The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France for many years during the late 19th century. It centered on the 1894 treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army. Dreyfus was, in fact, innocent: the conviction rested on false documents, and when high-ranking officers realized this they attempted to cover up the mistakes. The writer Émile Zola exposed the affair to the general public in the literary newspaper L'Aurore (The Dawn) in a famous open letter to the Président de la République Félix Faure, titled J'accuse ! (I Accuse!) on January 13, 1898. Image File history File links Dégradation dAlfred Dreyfus Licence : Source : http://cti. ... Image File history File links Dégradation dAlfred Dreyfus Licence : Source : http://cti. ... Alfred Dreyfus in an army uniform, and wearing a mustache Alfred Dreyfus (9 October 1859 – 12 July 1935) was a French military officer best known for being the focus of the Dreyfus affair. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... Alfred Dreyfus in an army uniform, and wearing a mustache Alfred Dreyfus (9 October 1859 – 12 July 1935) was a French military officer best known for being the focus of the Dreyfus affair. ... Émile Zola Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... French statesman Félix Faure François Félix Faure (30 January 1841–16 February 1899) was President of France from 1895 to his death in 1899. ...


The Dreyfus Affair split France between the Dreyfusards (those supporting Alfred Dreyfus) and the Antidreyfusards (those against him). The quarrel was especially violent since it involved many issues then highly controversial in a heated political climate. A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ...


Dreyfus was pardoned in 1899, readmitted into the army, and made a knight in the Legion of Honour. An Austrian Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl was assigned to report on the trial and its aftermath. The injustice of the trial and the anti-Semitic passions it aroused in France and elsewhere turned him into a determined and leading Zionist; ultimately turning the movement into an international one. Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), the small caption (bottom) reads First Palestinian film with sound Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where...


Pogroms

The victims, mostly Jewish children, of a 1905 pogrom in Dnipropetrovsk.
The victims, mostly Jewish children, of a 1905 pogrom in Dnipropetrovsk.

Pogroms were a form of race riots, most commonly Russia and Eastern Europe, aimed specifically at Jews and often government sponsored. Pogroms became endemic during a large-scale wave of anti-Jewish riots that swept southern Russia in 1881, after Jews were wrongly blamed for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II. In the 1881 outbreak, thousands of Jewish homes were destroyed, many families reduced to extremes of poverty; women sexually assaulted, and large numbers of men, women, and children killed or injured in 166 Russian towns. The new tzar, Alexander III, blamed the Jews for the riots and issued a series of harsh restrictions on Jews. Large numbers of pogroms continued until 1884, with at least tacit inactivity by the authorities. An even bloodier wave of pogroms broke out in 1903-1906, leaving an estimated 2,000 Jews dead, and many more wounded. A wave of 887 pogroms in Russia and Ukraine occurred during the Russian Civil War, in which between 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews were killed by riots led by various sides. About 40% by the forces led by Simon Petlyura fighting for the Ukrainian People's Republic; 25% by the Green Army and various nationalist and anarchist gangs; 17% by the White Army, especially forces of Anton Denikin; 8.5% by the Red Army.[2] Image File history File links Jewish victims of one of the pogroms in Ekaterinoslav in 1905. ... Image File history File links Jewish victims of one of the pogroms in Ekaterinoslav in 1905. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is Ukraines third largest city with 1. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... Alexander III (March 10, 1845 – November 1, 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from March 14, 1881 until his death in 1894. ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) German Empire? White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel The Russian Civil War was fought from 1917 to 1922. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelt Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Flag of Ukrainian Peoples Republic Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The Green Army, which functioned during the Russian Civil War, had its roots in nonpolitical, anarchist or nationalist movements, and formed a third force in contradistinction both to the Reds and to the Whites. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


During the early to mid-1900s, pogroms also occurred in Poland, Argentina, and throughout the Arab world. Extremely deadly pogroms also occurred during World War II, including the Romanian Iaşi pogrom in which 14,000 Jews were killed, and the Jedwabne massacre in Poland which killed between 380 and 1,600 Jews. The last mass pogrom in Europe was the post-war Kielce pogrom of 1946. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The IaÅŸi pogrom of June 27, 1941 was one of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history, launched by governmental forces in the Romanian city of IaÅŸi against its Jewish population, resulting in the brutal mass-murder of 13,266 Jews. ... After the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, special Einsatzgruppen were organized to kill as many Jews as it was possible on the Polish areas annexed by Soviet Union. ... Kielce pogrom refers to the events on July 4, 1946, in the Polish town of Kielce, when forty Polish Jews were massacred and eighty wounded out of about two hundred Holocaust survivors who returned home after World War II. Among victims were also two Gentile Poles. ...


Anti-Jewish legislation

The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 used a pseudo-scientific basis for racial discrimination against Jews. People with four German grandparents (white circles) were of "German blood," while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or more Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). One or two Jewish grandparents made someone "mixed blood." Since the racial differences between Jews and Germans are small, the Nazis used the religious observance of a person's grandparents to determine their "race." (1935 Chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws)
The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 used a pseudo-scientific basis for racial discrimination against Jews. People with four German grandparents (white circles) were of "German blood," while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or more Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). One or two Jewish grandparents made someone "mixed blood." Since the racial differences between Jews and Germans are small, the Nazis used the religious observance of a person's grandparents to determine their "race." (1935 Chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws)

Anti-semitism was officially adopted by the German Conservative Party at the Tivoli Congress in 1892, on the instigation of Dr. Klasing but in the teeth of opposition led by the moderate Werner von Blumenthal. Image File history File links Chart to describe Nuremberg Laws, 1935 he Nuremberg Laws established a pseudo-scientific basis for racial discrimination. ... Image File history File links Chart to describe Nuremberg Laws, 1935 he Nuremberg Laws established a pseudo-scientific basis for racial discrimination. ... It has been suggested that Reich Citizenship Law be merged into this article or section. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... It has been suggested that Reich Citizenship Law be merged into this article or section. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Von Blumenthal is a noble family from Brandenburg, Prussia. ...


Official anti-Semitic legislation was enacted in various countries, especially in Imperial Russia in the 19th century and in Nazi Germany and its Central European allies in the 1930s. These laws were passed against Jews as a group, regardless of their religious affiliation - in some cases, such as Nazi Germany, having a Jewish grandparent was enough to qualify someone as Jewish. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Germany, for example, the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 prevented marriage between any Jew and non-Jew, and made it that all Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, were no longer citizens of their own country (their official title became "subject of the state"). This meant that they had no basic citizens' rights, e.g., to vote. In 1936, Jews were banned from all professional jobs, effectively preventing them having any influence in education, politics, higher education and industry. On 15 November of 1938, Jewish children were banned from going to normal schools. By April 1939, nearly all Jewish companies had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been persuaded to sell out to the Nazi government. This further reduced their rights as human beings; they were in many ways officially separated from the German populace. Similar laws existed in Hungary, Romania, and Austria. It has been suggested that Reich Citizenship Law be merged into this article or section. ... Subject of the state (German, Staatsangehörige) was the official term used in Nazi Germany to designate those who did not qualify for full German citizenship under the Nuremberg laws of 1935 (those who did qualify were designated Reichsburger). ...


Even when anti-Semitism was not an official state policy, governments in the early to middle parts of the 20th century often adopted more subtle measures aimed at Jews. For example, the Evian Conference of 1938 delegates from thirty-two countries neither condemned Hitler's treatment of the Jews nor allowed more Jewish refugees to flee to the West. The Evian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ...


The Holocaust and Holocaust denial

Main article: Holocaust

Racial anti-Semitism reached its most horrific manifestation in the Holocaust during World War II, in which about 6 million European Jews, 1.5 million of them children, were systematically murdered. Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


Holocaust deniers often claim that "the Jews" or "Zionist conspiracy" are responsible for the exaggeration or wholesale fabrication of the events of the Holocaust. Critics of such revisionism point to an overwhelming amount of physical and historical evidence that supports the mainstream historical view of the Holocaust. Almost all academics agree that there is no evidence for any such conspiracy. Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event (usually a political, social, or historical event) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful people or organizations rather than as an overt activity or as natural occurrence. ...


Anti-Semitic conspiracy theories

2005 Syrian edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion includes a "historical and contemporary investigative study" that repeats the blood libel and other anti-Semitic accusations, and argues that the Torah and Talmud encourage Jews "to commit treason and to conspire, dominate, be arrogant and exploit other countries".
Enlarge
2005 Syrian edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion includes a "historical and contemporary investigative study" that repeats the blood libel and other anti-Semitic accusations, and argues that the Torah and Talmud encourage Jews "to commit treason and to conspire, dominate, be arrogant and exploit other countries".

The rise of views of the Jews as a malevolent "race" generated anti-Semitic conspiracy theories that the Jews, as a group, were plotting to control or otherwise influence the world. From the early infamous Russian literary hoax, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, published by the Tsar's secret police, a key element of anti-Semitic thought has been that Jews influence or control the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (463x668, 27 KB)Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2005 Syria This image is a book cover. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (463x668, 27 KB)Protocols of the Elders of Zion 2005 Syria This image is a book cover. ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ... Blood libels were the false accusations that Jews used human blood, especially the blood of Christian children, in religious rituals. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... 1992 Russian edition of the Protocols, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet. ...


In a recent incarnation, extremist groups, such as Neo-Nazi parties and Islamist groups, claim that the aim of Zionism is global domination; they call this the Zionist conspiracy and use it to support anti-Semitism. This position is associated with fascism and Nazism, though it is becoming a tendency within parts of the left as well, and termed New anti-Semitism. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... It has been suggested that Islamic fundamentalism be merged into this article or section. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), the small caption (bottom) reads First Palestinian film with sound Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where... Global domination, global conquest, taking over the world, world conquest, or world domination is an ambitious goal in which one government, one ideology or belief system, or even one person, seeks to secure complete political control of the entire planet. ... A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event (usually a political, social, or historical event) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful people or organizations rather than as an overt activity or as natural occurrence. ... Fascism is a radical political ideology that combines elements of corporatism, authoritarianism, nationalism, militarism, anti-anarchism, anti-communism and anti-liberalism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... New anti-Semitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming simultaneously from three political directions: the radical left, Islamism, and the far-right. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Anti-Semitism

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith (Judaism) and culture. ... This is a partial chronology of hostilities towards or discrimination against the Jews as a religious or ethnic group. ... It has been suggested that Christian opposition to anti-Semitism be merged into this article or section. ... Christian opposition to anti-semitism is expressed in many of the writings of Christian leaders throughout history. ... Some writers have argued there is rising acceptance of anti-Semitism within the anti-globalization movement. ... Arabs are anti-semitic people. ... See anti-Semitism for etymology and semantics of the term. ... New anti-Semitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of anti-Semitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming simultaneously from three political directions: the radical left, Islamism, and the far-right. ... Persecution of Jews includes various persecutions that the Jewish people and Judaism have experienced throughout Jewish history. ... Allophilia, or positive intergroup attitudes, is derived from Greek words meaning liking or love of the other. ... Anti-Zionism is a term used to describe several different political and religious points of view. ... The term Judeophobia (also, Judaphobia) stands for fear or irrational hatred of Jews. ... Self-hating Jew (or self-loathing Jew) is an epithet used about (and mainly by) Jews, which suggests a hatred of ones Jewish identity and/or ancestry. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... Blood libels are allegations that a particular group kills people as a form of human sacrifice, and uses their blood in various rituals. ... Menahem Mendel Beilis (Russian: ; 1874-1934) was a Ukrainian Jew accused of blood libel and ritual murder in a notorious 1913 trial, known as the Beilis trial or Beilis affair. The process sparked international criticism of the anti-Semitic policies of the Russian Empire. ... Host desecration is a sacrilegious act committed against a consecrated host. ... Edgardo Mortara (August 27, 1851–March 11, 1940), a Jewish-born Italian Catholic priest, became the centre of an international controversy when, as a six-year-old boy, he was seized from his Jewish parents by the Papal authorities and taken to be raised as a Catholic. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot, a massive violent attack on a particular group; ethnic, religious or other, primarily characterized by destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Banners from March 1968. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ... Farhud (translation from Arabic: pogrom, violent dispossession) was a violent pogrom against the Jews of Iraq on June 1-2, 1941. ... General Order â„– 11 is the title of General Ulysses S. Grants infamous order of December 17, 1862, during the American Civil War, that all Jews in his district (areas of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky) be expelled. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and politician who was elected the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Selection procedure of Hungarian Jews at the Auschwitz camp on 26 May 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... The Racial Policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, and including measures aimed primarily against Jews. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Jew Watch is a website that claims to report accurate information regarding Jewish ownership and control over mass media and politics,[citation needed] and which describes its objective as Keeping a Close Watch on Jewish Communities & Organizations Worldwide. ... Radio Islam, was a Swedish radio channel, now a website, dedicated to the liberation struggle of the Palestinian people against Israel. The EUs racism monitoring organization has called it one of the most radical right wing anti-Semitic homepages on the net, and Radio Islam also espouses Holocaust denial... The Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded in 1978, is a leading Holocaust denial organization. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jewish Defense League (JDL) is a militant Jewish organization whose stated goal is protecting Jewish people and property from anti-Semitism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, Belknap Press, 1980, p. 590. ISBN 0674375122
  2. ^ Solzhenitsyn 200 Years Together. Note: in the source the numbers don't add up to full 100%

Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union for his book The Gulag Archipelago. ...

References

  • Bodansky, Yossef. Islamic Anti-Semitism as a Political Instrument, Freeman Center For Strategic Studies, 1999.
  • Carr, Steven Alan. Hollywood and anti-Semitism: A cultural history up to World War II, Cambridge University Press 2001.
  • Chanes, Jerome A. Antisemitism: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO, 2004.
  • Cohn, Norman. Warrant for Genocide, Eyre & Spottiswoode 1967; Serif, 1996.
  • Freudmann, Lillian C. Antisemitism in the New Testament, University Press of America, 1994.
  • Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. Holmes & Meier, 1985. 3 volumes.
  • Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, Penguin, 1994.
  • McKain, Mark. Anti-Semitism: At Issue, Greenhaven Press, 2005.
  • Prager, Dennis, Telushkin, Joseph. Why the Jews? The Reason for Antisemitism. Touchstone (reprint), 1985.
  • Selzer, Michael (ed). "Kike!" : A Documentary History of Anti-Semitism in America, New York 1972.

Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (born June 2, 1926) is one of the best-known and most distinguished of the Holocaust historians. ... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... Lipstadts book: Denying The Holocaust Deborah Lipstadt is an American historian and author of the book Denying the Holocaust. ...

Further reading


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m