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Encyclopedia > Rachel Carson
Rachel Carson

Carson's government photo (1940s)
Born May 27, 1907(1907-05-27)
Springdale, Pennsylvania
Died April 14, 1964 (aged 56)
Silver Spring, Maryland
Occupation marine biologist, writer
Nationality American
Writing period 1937–1964
Genres nature writing
Subjects marine biology, ecology, pesticides

Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are often credited with launching the global environmental movement. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1117x1414, 108 KB) Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Springdale is a borough located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Not to be confused with Silver Springs. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about work. ... Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Nature writing is traditionally defined as nonfiction prose writing about the natural environment. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Nature writing is traditionally defined as nonfiction prose writing about the natural environment. ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ...


Carson started her career as a biologist in the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, and transitioned to a full-time nature writer in the 1950s. Her widely praised 1951 bestseller The Sea Around Us won her financial security and recognition as a gifted writer. Her next book, The Edge of the Sea, and the republished version of her first book, Under the Sea-Wind, were also bestsellers. Together, her sea trilogy explores the gamut of ocean life, from the shores to the surface to the deep sea. The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... The Sea Around Us is a prize-winning 1951 bestseller by Rachel Carson about life in the ocean and the life of the ocean. ... The Edge of the Sea was Rachel Carsons third book in her sea trilogy, published in 1955. ... Under the Sea-Wind (1941) is the first book by Rachel Carson. ...


In the late 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation and the environmental problems caused by synthetic pesticides. The result was Silent Spring (1962), which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented portion of the American public. Silent Spring spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy—leading to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides—and the grassroots environmental movement it inspired led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. Carson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... EPA redirects here. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an...

Contents

Life and work

Carson's childhood home is now preserved as the Rachel Carson Homestead.
Carson's childhood home is now preserved as the Rachel Carson Homestead.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 669 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 669 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Rachel Carson Homestead is a National Register of Historic Places building in Springdale, Pennsylvania, 18 miles northeast of Pittsburgh along the Allegheny River. ...

Early life and education

Rachel Carson was born in 1907 on a small family farm near Springdale, Pennsylvania, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh. As a child, she spent many hours learning about ponds, fields, and forests from her mother, who taught Rachel and her older brother and sister the lessons of nature-study. Carson was an avid reader, and, from a remarkably young age, a talented writer. She also spent a lot of time exploring around her 65-acre farm. She began writing stories (often involving animals) at age eight, and had her first published story at age ten. She especially enjoyed the St. Nicholas Magazine (which carried her first published stories), the work of Beatrix Potter, and the novels of Gene Stratton Porter, and in her teen years, Herman Melville, Joseph Conrad and Robert Louis Stevenson. The natural world, particularly the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade, then completed high school in nearby Parnassus, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-four students.[1] Springdale is a borough located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Allegheny River watershed Much of the area through which the Allegheny River flows consists of hilly woodlands. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... The nature study movement was a popular education movement in America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The St. ... Helen Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author and illustrator, botanist, and conservationist, best known for her childrens books, which featured animal characters such as Peter Rabbit. ... Gene Stratton Porter (August 17, 1863 - December 6, 1924) was an American author, screenwriter and naturalist who wrote fanciful, romantic, well-plotted stories set in the American Midwest. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... New Kensington is a city in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, 18 miles (29 km) northeast of Pittsburgh, on the Allegheny river. ...


At the Pennsylvania College for Women (today known as Chatham University), as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner. She originally studied English, but switched her major to biology in Jan. 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at Johns Hopkins University in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties; she graduated magna cum laude in 1929. After a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929.[2] Chatham University is an American liberal arts womens college with coeducational graduate programs located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvanias Squirrel Hill neighborhood. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is a famous scientific institution located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in Raymond Pearl's laboratory, where she worked with rats and Drosophila, to earn money for tuition. After false starts with pit vipers and squirrels, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the pronephros in fish. She earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family. In 1935, her father died suddenly, leaving Carson to care for her aging mother and making the financial situation even more critical. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled "Romance Under the Waters". The series of fifty-two seven-minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau—a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson also began submitting articles on marine life in the Chesapeake Bay, based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines.[3] Raymond Pearl (3 June 1879 - 17 November 1940) was an American biologist, who spent most of his career at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... Genera Many, see text *May be treated as a separate family, Crotalidae Pit Vipers (sometimes called crotalines) are mostly New World vipers found in North, Central and South America; a few species are recorded from isolated areas of Southeast Asia, the Caspian region of Europe, China and Japan. ... This article is about the animal. ... Pronephros the most primitive of the three excretory organs that develop in vertebrate, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ...


Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau; he also worked to secure her the first full-time position that became available. Sitting for the civil service exam, she outscored all other applicants and in 1936 became only the second woman to be hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time, professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.[4] The United States Pendleton Act established the United States Civil Service Commission now called the Office of Personnel Management and placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the spoils system. ...


Early career and publications

At the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, and to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she also wrote a steady stream of articles for The Baltimore Sun and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces.[5] The Sun is the newspaper of record for Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of 247,193 copies and a Sunday run of 418,670 copies (9/30/05 Audit Bureau of Circulations report). ...


In July 1937, the Atlantic Monthly accepted a revised version of an essay, "The World of Waters", that she had originally written for her first fisheries bureau brochure; her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as "Undersea", was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor. It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house Simon & Schuster, impressed by "Undersea", contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into book form. Several years of writing resulted in Under the Sea-Wind (1941), which received excellent reviews but sold poorly. In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appeared in Sun Magazine, Nature, and in 1944, an article in Collier's on the similarity between bat echolocation and the new wartime technology of radar.[6] The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... Under the Sea-Wind (1941) is the first book by Rachel Carson. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Colliers Weekly was a United States magazine that was published between 1888 and 1957. ... Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


Carson attempted to leave the Bureau (by then transformed into the Fish and Wildlife Service) in 1945, but few jobs for naturalists were available as most money for science was focused on technical fields in the wake of the Manhattan Project. In mid-1945, Carson first encountered the subject of DDT, a revolutionary new pesticide (lauded as the "insect bomb" after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) that was only beginning to undergo tests for safety and ecological effects. DDT was but one of Carson's many writing interests at the time, and editors found the subject unappealing; she published nothing on DDT until 1962.[7] The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


Carson rose within the Fish and Wildlife Service, supervising a small writing staff by 1945 and becoming chief editor of publications in 1949. Though her position provided increasing opportunities for fieldwork and freedom in choosing her writing projects, it also entailed increasingly tedious administrative responsibilities. By 1948, Carson was working on material for a second book and had made the conscious decision to begin a transition to writing full-time. That year, she took on a literary agent, Marie Rodell; they formed a close professional relationship that would last the rest of Carson's career.[8] Marie Freid Rodell (January 31, 1912 – November 1975) was a literary agent and author who managed the publications of much of environmentalist Rachel Carsons writings, as well as the first book by civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Oxford University Press expressed interest in Carson's book proposal for a life history of the ocean, spurring her to complete the manuscript of what would become The Sea Around Us by early 1950.[9] Chapters appeared in Science Digest and the Yale Review—the latter chapter, "The Birth of an Island", winning the American Association for the Advancement of Science's George Westinghouse Science Writing Prize—and nine chapters were serialized in The New Yorker. The Sea Around Us remained on the New York Times bestseller list for 86 weeks, was abridged by Reader's Digest, won the 1952 National Book Award and the Burroughs Medal, and resulted in Carson being awarded two honorary doctorates. She also licensed a documentary film to be based on The Sea Around Us. The book's success led to the republication of Under the Sea-Wind, which also became a best-seller. With success came financial security, and Carson was able to give up her job in 1952 to concentrate on writing full time.[10] Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Sea Around Us is a prize-winning 1951 bestseller by Rachel Carson about life in the ocean and the life of the ocean. ... Science Digest was a monthly American magazine published by the Hearst Corporation from 1937 through 1986. ... The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ... The John Burroughs Medal, named for nature writer John Burroughs (1837-1921), is awarded each year in April by the John Burroughs Association to the author of a book that the association has judged to be distinguished in the field of natural history. ...


Carson was inundated with speaking engagements, fan mail and other correspondence regarding The Sea Around Us, along with work on the documentary script that she had secured the right to review.[11] She was extremely unhappy with the final version of the script by writer, director and producer Irwin Allen; she found it untrue to the atmosphere of the book and scientifically embarrassing, describing it as "a cross between a believe-it-or-not and a breezy travelogue."[12] She discovered, however, that her right to review the script did not extend to any control over its content. Allen proceeded in spite of Carson's objections to produce a very successful documentary. It won the 1953 Oscar for Best Documentary, but Carson was so embittered by the experience that she never again sold film rights to her work.[13] Fan mail is mail sent to a public figure, especially a celebrity, by their admirers or fans. // Fan mail may be in the form of letters, cards, artworks, gifts, and so on; depending on the recipient, it may also be possible to send fan mail via E-mail. ... Irwin Allen (June 12, 1916 – November 2, 1991) was a television and film producer nicknamed The Master of Disaster for his work in the disaster film genre. ... The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is the most prestigious awards for documentary films. ...


Relationship with Dorothy Freeman

Carson moved with her mother to Southport Island, Maine in 1953, and in July of that year met Dorothy Freeman (1898–1978)—the beginning of an extremely close relationship that would last the rest of Carson's life. The nature of the relationship between Carson and Freeman has been the subject of much interest and speculation. It is probably best described as a romantic friendship. Carson met Freeman, a summer resident of the island along with her husband, after Freeman had written to Carson to welcome her. Freeman had read The Sea Around Us, a gift from her son, and was excited to have the prominent author as a neighbor. Carson's biographer Linda Lear writes that "Carson sorely needed a devoted friend and kindred spirit who would listen to her without advising and accept her wholly, the writer as well as the woman."[14] She found this in Freeman. The two women had a number of common interests, nature chief among them, and began exchanging letters regularly while apart. They would continue to share every summer for the remainder of Carson's life, and meet whenever else their schedules would permit.[15] Southport is a town in Lincoln County, Maine, United States. ... Two women share a close Neoclassical moment in Tübingen. ...


Though Lear does not explicitly describe the relationship as romantic or lesbian, others (such as the encyclopedia glbtq[16]) have done so. Carson and Freeman knew that their letters could be interpreted as such, even though "the expression of their love was limited almost wholly to letters and very occasional farewell kisses or holding of hands."[17] Freeman shared parts of Carson's letters with her husband to help him understand the relationship, but much of their correspondence was carefully guarded.[18] Shortly before Carson's death, she and Freeman destroyed hundreds of letters. The surviving correspondence was published in 1995 as Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964: An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship, edited by Freeman's granddaughter. According to one reviewer, the pair "fit Carolyn Heilbrun's characterization of a strong female friendship, where what matters is 'not whether friends are homosexual or heterosexual, lovers or not, but whether they share the wonderful energy of work in the public sphere'".[19] This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... glbtq. ...


The Edge of the Sea and transition to conservation work

In early 1953 Carson began library and field research on the ecology and organisms of the Atlantic shore.[20] In 1955, she completed the third volume of her sea trilogy, The Edge of the Sea, which focuses on life in coastal ecosystems (particularly along the Eastern Seaboard). It appeared in The New Yorker in two condensed installments shortly before the October 26 book release. By this time, Carson's reputation for clear and poetical prose was well-established; The Edge of the Sea received highly favorable reviews, if not quite as enthusiastic as for The Sea Around Us.[21] The Edge of the Sea was Rachel Carsons third book in her sea trilogy, published in 1955. ... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... Categories: US geography stubs ...


Through 1955 and 1956, Carson worked on a number of projects—including the script for an Omnibus episode, "Something About the Sky"—and wrote articles for popular magazines. Her plan for the next book was to address evolution, but the publication of Julian Huxley's Evolution in Action—and her own difficulty in finding a clear and compelling approach to the topic—led her to abandon the project. Instead, her interests were turning to conservation. She considered an environment-themed book project tentatively entitled Remembrance of the Earth and became involved with The Nature Conservancy and other conservation groups. She also made plans to buy and preserve from development an area in Maine she and Freeman called the "Lost Woods".[22] Omnibus was a commercially-sponsored educational TV series broadcast in the United States, primarily on Sunday afternoons, from November 9, 1952 to 1961. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... This article is about the US organization called The Nature Conservancy. ...


Early in 1957, family tragedy struck a third time when one of the nieces she had cared for in the 1940s died at the age of thirty-one, leaving a five-year-old orphan son, Roger Christie. Carson took on that responsibility, adopting the boy, alongside continuing to care for her aging mother; this took a considerable toll on Carson. She moved to Silver Spring, Maryland to care for Roger, and much of 1957 was spent putting their new living situation in order and focusing on specific environmental threats.[23] Silver Spring is the name of several places in the United States of America: Silver Spring, Maryland Silver Spring, Pennsylvania These are distinguished from places named Silver Springs. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


By fall 1957, Carson was closely following federal proposals for widespread pesticide spraying; the USDA planned to eradicate fire ants, and other spraying programs involving chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates were on the rise.[24] For the rest of her life, Carson's main professional focus would be the dangers of pesticide overuse. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... It has been suggested that Fire ant be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Chlorocarbon be merged into this article or section. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ...


Silent Spring

Main article: Silent Spring
See also: Timeline of environmental events and DDT

Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ... For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ...

Research and writing

Starting in the mid-1940s, Carson had become concerned about the use of synthetic pesticides, many of which had been developed through the military funding of science since World War II. It was the USDA's 1957 fire ant eradication program, however, that prompted Carson to devote her research, and her next book, to pesticides and environmental poisons. The fire ant program involved aerial spraying of DDT and other pesticides (mixed with fuel oil), including the spraying of private land. Landowners in Long Island filed a suit to have the spraying stopped, and many in affected regions followed the case closely. The Washington, D.C. chapter of the Audubon Society also actively opposed such spraying programs, and recruited Carson to help make public the government's exact spraying practices and the related research.[25] The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses: see DDT (disambiguation). ... An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... The National Audubon Society is an American non-profit environmental organization dedicated to nature conservancy. ...


Carson began the four-year project of what would become Silent Spring by gathering examples of environmental damage attributed to DDT. She also attempted to enlist others to join the cause: essayist E. B. White, and a number of journalists and scientists. By 1958, Carson had arranged a book deal, with plans to co-write with Newsweek science journalist Edwin Diamond. However, when The New Yorker commissioned a long and well-paid article on the topic from Carson, she began considering writing more than simply the introduction and conclusion as planned; soon it was a solo project. (Diamond would later write one of the harshest critiques of Silent Spring.)[26] Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... Elwyn Brooks White (July 11, 1899, Mount Vernon, New York – October 1, 1985, North Brooklin, Maine) was a leading American essayist, author, humorist, poet and literary stylist. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


As her research progressed, Carson found a sizable community of scientists who were documenting the physiological and environmental effects of pesticides. She also took advantage of her personal connections with many government scientists, who supplied her with confidential information. From reading the scientific literature and interviewing scientists, Carson found two scientific camps when it came to pesticides: those who dismissed the possible danger of pesticide spraying barring conclusive proof, and those who were open to the possibility of harm and willing to consider alternative methods such as biological pest control.[27] Predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests (including weeds and diseases) in agriculture that relies on natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanism, rather than introduced chemicals. ...


By 1959, the USDA's Agricultural Research Service responded to the criticism of Carson and others with a public service film, Fire Ants on Trial; Carson characterized it as "flagrant propaganda" that ignored the dangers that spraying pesticides (especially dieldrin and heptachlor) posed to humans and wildlife. That spring, Carson wrote a letter, published in The Washington Post, that attributed the recent decline in bird populations—in her words, the "silencing of birds"—to pesticide overuse.[28] That was also the year of the "Great Cranberry Scandal": the 1957, 1958, and 1959 crops of U.S. cranberries were found to contain high levels of the herbicide aminotriazole (which caused cancer in laboratory rats) and the sale of all cranberry products was halted. Carson attended the ensuing FDA hearings on revising pesticide regulations; she came away discouraged by the aggressive tactics of the chemical industry representatives, which included expert testimony that was firmly contradicted by the bulk of the scientific literature she had been studying. She also wondered about the possible "financial inducements behind certain pesticide programs".[29] The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon originally produced by Bayer AG as an insecticide. ... Heptachlor is an insecticide that usually comes in the form of a white or tan powder, the tan powder being of lower purity. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... “Cranberries” redirects here. ... Aminotriazole is an herbicide, C2H4N4, used on nonfood croplands to control annual grasses and broadleaf and aquatic weeds. ...


Research at the Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health brought Carson into contact with medical researchers investigating the gamut of cancer-causing chemicals. Of particular significance was the work of National Cancer Institute researcher Wilhelm Hueper, who classified many pesticides as carcinogens. Carson and her research assistant Jeanne Davis, with the help of NIH librarian Dorothy Algire, found evidence to support the pesticide-cancer connection; to Carson the evidence for the toxicity of a wide array of synthetic pesticides was clear-cut, though such conclusions were very controversial beyond the small community of scientists studying pesticide carcinogenesis.[30] The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ...


By 1960, Carson had more than enough research material, and the writing was progressing rapidly. In addition to the thorough literature search, she had investigated hundreds of individual incidents of pesticide exposure and the human sickness and ecological damage that resulted. However, in January, a duodenal ulcer followed by several infections kept her bedridden for weeks, greatly delaying the completion of Silent Spring. As she was nearing full recovery in March (just as she was completing drafts of the two cancer chapters of her book), she discovered cysts in her left breast, one of which necessitated a mastectomy. Though her doctor described the procedure as precautionary and recommended no further treatment, by December Carson discovered that the tumor was in fact malignant and the cancer had metastasized.[31] Her research was also delayed by revision work for a new edition of The Sea Around Us, and by a collaborative photo essay with Erich Hartmann.[32] Most of the research and writing was done by the fall of 1960, except for the discussion of recent research on biological controls and investigations of a handful of new pesticides. However, further health troubles slowed the final revisions in 1961 and early 1962.[33] In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests (including weeds and diseases) in agriculture that relies on natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanism, rather than introduced chemicals. ...


It was difficult finding a title for the book; "Silent Spring" was initially suggested as a title for the chapter on birds. By August 1961, Carson finally agreed to the suggestion of her literary agent Marie Rodell: Silent Spring would be a metaphorical title for the entire book—suggesting a bleak future for the whole natural world—rather than a literal chapter title about the absence of birdsong.[34] With Carson's approval, editor Paul Brooks at Houghton Mifflin arranged for illustrations by Louis and Lois Darling, who also designed the cover. The final writing was the first chapter, "A Fable for Tomorrow", which was intended to provide a gentler introduction to what might otherwise be a forbiddingly serious topic. By mid-1962, Brooks and Carson had largely finished the editing, and were laying the groundwork for promoting the book by sending the manuscript out to select individuals for final suggestions.[35] Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ...


Argument

As biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle writes, Carson "quite self-consciously decided to write a book calling into question the paradigm of scientific progress that defined postwar American culture." The overriding theme of Silent Spring is the powerful—and often negative—effect humans have on the natural world.[36] For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Scientific progress is the idea that scientific knowledge accumulates and refines through either the application of a scientific method, or some more haphazard heuristic. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary The term post-war is generally used for the period after the end of World War II, i. ...


Carson's main argument is that pesticides have detrimental effects on the environment; they are more properly termed "biocides", she argues, because their effects are rarely limited to the target pests. DDT is a prime example, but other synthetic pesticides come under scrutiny as well—many of which are subject to bioaccumulation. Carson also accuses the chemical industry of intentionally spreading disinformation and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. Most of the book is devoted to pesticides' effects on natural ecosystems, but four chapters also detail cases of human pesticide poisoning, cancer, and other illnesses attributed to pesticides.[37] About DDT and cancer, the subject of so much subsequent debate, Carson says only a little: A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... A biocide is a chemical substance capable of killing different forms of living organisms used in fields such as medicine, agriculture, forestry, and mosquito control. ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ...

In laboratory tests on animal subjects, DDT has produced suspicious liver tumors. Scientists of the Food and Drug Administration who reported the discovery of these tumors were uncertain how to classify them, but felt there was some "justification for considering them low grade hepatic cell carcinomas." Dr. Hueper [author of Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."[38]

Carson predicts increased consequences in the future, especially as targeted pests develop resistance to pesticides while weakened ecosystems fall prey to unanticipated invasive species. The book closes with a call for a biotic approach to pest control as an alternative to chemical pesticides.[39] Pesticide resistance is the evolution of pest species targeted by a pesticide resulting in decreased susceptibility to that chemical. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Look up biotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Promotion and reception

Carson and the others involved with publication of Silent Spring expected fierce criticism. They were particularly concerned about the possibility of being sued for libel. Carson was also undergoing radiation therapy to combat her spreading cancer, and expected to have little energy to devote to defending her work and responding to critics. In preparation for the anticipated attacks, Carson and her agent attempted to amass as many prominent supporters as possible before the book's release.[40] In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


Most of the book's scientific chapters were reviewed by scientists with relevant expertise, among whom Carson found strong support. Carson attended the White House Conference on Conservation in May, 1962; Houghton Mifflin distributed proof copies of Silent Spring to many of the delegates, and promoted the upcoming New Yorker serialization. Among many others, Carson also sent a proof copy to Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, a long-time environmental advocate who had argued against the court's rejection of the Long Island pesticide spraying case (and who had provided Carson with some of the material included in her chapter on herbicides).[41] William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ...


Though Silent Spring had generated a fairly high level of interest based on pre-publication promotion, this became much more intense with the serialization in The New Yorker, which began in the June 16, 1962 issue. This brought the book to the attention of the chemical industry and its lobbyists, as well as a wide swath of the American populace. Around that time Carson also learned that Silent Spring had been selected as the Book-of-the-Month for October; as she put it, this would "carry it to farms and hamlets all over that country that don't know what a bookstore looks like—much less The New Yorker."[42] Other publicity included a positive editorial in The New York Times and excerpts of the serialized version in Audubon Magazine, with another round of publicity in July and August as chemical companies responded. The story of the birth defect-causing drug thalidomide broke just before the book's publication as well, inviting comparisons between Carson and Frances Oldham Kelsey, the Food and Drug Administration reviewer who had blocked the drug's sale in United Sates.[43] is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Book of the Month Club (founded 1923) is a United States mail-order business where consumers are offered a new book each month. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article is about the drug. ... Frances Oldham Kelsey (24 June 1914-) is a naturalized American pharmacologist most famous as a reviewer for the US Food and Drug Administration who refused to authorize thalidomide for market when she had serious concerns about the drugs safety. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...

The Book-of-the-Month Club edition of Silent Spring, with included endorsement by William O. Douglas, had a first print run of 150,000 copies, two-and-a-half times the combined size of the two conventional printings for the initial release.
The Book-of-the-Month Club edition of Silent Spring, with included endorsement by William O. Douglas, had a first print run of 150,000 copies, two-and-a-half times the combined size of the two conventional printings for the initial release.[44]

In the weeks leading up to the September 27 publication there was strong opposition to Silent Spring. DuPont (a main manufacturer of DDT and 2,4-D) and Velsicol Chemical Company (exclusive manufacturer of chlordane and heptachlor) were among the first to respond. DuPont compiled an extensive report on the book's press coverage and estimated impact on public opinion. Velsicol threatened legal action against Houghton Mifflin as well as The New Yorker and Audubon Magazine unless the planned Silent Spring features were canceled. Chemical industry representatives and lobbyists also lodged a range of non-specific complaints, some anonymously. Chemical companies and associated organizations produced a number of their own brochures and articles promoting and defending pesticide use. However, Carson's and the publishers' lawyers were confident in the vetting process Silent Spring had undergone. The magazine and book publications proceeded as planned, as did the large Book-of-the-Month printing (which included a pamphlet endorsing the book by William O. Douglas).[45] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Book of the Month Club (founded 1923) is a mail-order business where consumers are offered a new book each month. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... 2,4-D (or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. ... Velsicol Chemical Corporation is a chemical company founded in 1931 that specializes in plasticizers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heptachlor is an insecticide that usually comes in the form of a white or tan powder, the tan powder being of lower purity. ...


American Cyanamid biochemist Robert White-Stevens and former Cyanamid chemist Thomas Jukes were among the most aggressive critics, especially of Carson's analysis of DDT.[46] According to White-Stevens, "If man were to follow the teachings of Miss Carson, we would return to the Dark Ages, and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth."[47] Others went further, attacking Carson's scientific credentials (because her training was in marine biology rather than biochemistry) and her personal character. White-Stevens labeled her "a fanatic defender of the cult of the balance of nature",[48] while former Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson—in a letter to Dwight D. Eisenhower—reportedly concluded that because she was unmarried despite being physically attractive, she was "probably a Communist".[49] American Cyanamid was a large, diversified, American chemical manufacturer. ... Thomas Hughes Jukes (August 26, 1906 – November 1, 1999) was a British-American biologist known for his work in nutrition, molecular evolution, and for his public engagement with controversial scientific issues, including DDT, vitamin C and creationism. ... Ezra Taft Benson (August 4, 1899 – May 30, 1994) was President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1985 until his death. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Many critics repeatedly asserted that she was calling for the elimination of all pesticides.[citation needed] Yet Carson had made it clear she was not advocating the banning or complete withdrawal of helpful pesticides, but was instead encouraging responsible and carefully managed use with an awareness of the chemicals' impact on the entire ecosystem.[50] In fact, she concludes her section on DDT in Silent Spring not by urging a total ban, but with advice for spraying as little as possible to limit the development of resistance.[51]


The academic community—including prominent defenders such as H. J. Muller, Loren Eisley, Clarence Cottam, and Frank Egler—by and large backed the book's scientific claims; public opinion soon turned Carson's way as well. The chemical industry campaign backfired, as the controversy greatly increased public awareness of potential pesticide dangers, as well as Silent Spring book sales. Pesticide use became a major public issue, especially after the CBS Reports TV special "The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson" that aired April 3, 1963. The program included segments of Carson reading from Silent Spring and interviews with a number of other experts, mostly critics (including White-Stevens); according to biographer Linda Lear, "in juxtaposition to the wild-eyed, loud-voiced Dr. Robert White-Stevens in white lab coat, Carson appeared anything but the hysterical alarmist that her critics contended."[52] Reactions from the estimated audience of ten to fifteen million were overwhelmingly positive, and the program spurred a congressional review of pesticide dangers and the public release of a pesticide report by the President's Science Advisory Committee.[53] Within a year or so of publication, the attacks on the book and on Carson had largely lost momentum.[54] Hermann Joseph Muller (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist and educator. ... Loren Corey Eiseley, September 3rd, 1907- July, 9th, 1977, was a highly respected anthropologist, science writer, ecologist, and poet who published books of essays, biography, and general science, in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. ... Frank Edwin Egler (26 April 1911 – 26 December 1996) was an American plant ecologist and pioneer in the study of vegetation science. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... // In 1951 President Harry S. Truman established the Science Advisory Committee as part of the Office of Defence Mobilization (ODM). ...


In one of her last public appearances, Carson had testified before President Kennedy's Science Advisory Committee. The committee issued its report on May 15 1963, largely backing Carson's scientific claims.[55] Following the report's release, she also testified before a Senate subcommittee to make policy recommendations. Though Carson received hundreds of other speaking invitations, she was unable to accept the great majority of them. Her health was steadily declining as her cancer outpaced the radiation therapy, with only brief periods of remission. She spoke as much as she was physically able, however, including a notable appearance on The Today Show and speeches at several dinners held in her honor. In late 1963, she received a flurry of awards and honors: the Paul Bartsch Award (from the Audubon Naturalist Society), the Audubon Medal (from the American Geographical Society), and induction into the American Academy of Arts and Letters.[56] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Today, commonly referred to as The Today Show to avoid ambiguity, is an American morning news and talk show airing weekday mornings on the NBC television network. ... The American Geographical Society (AGS) was founded in 1851 in New York City, New York as a non-profit organization with the goal of increasing worldwide knowledge of geography. ... American Academy of Arts and Letters is an organization whose goal is to foster, assist, and sustain an interest in American literature, music, and art. ...


Weakened from cancer and her treatment regimen, Carson became ill with a respiratory virus in January 1964. Her condition worsened from there: in February, doctors found that she had severe anemia from her radiation treatments, and in March they discovered that the cancer had reached her liver. She died of a coronary heart attack on April 14, 1964, at the age of fifty-six.[57] is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Legacy

Collected papers and posthumous publications

Carson bequested her manuscripts and papers to Yale University, to take advantage of the new state-of-the-art preservations facilities of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Her longtime agent and literary executor Marie Rodell spent nearly two years organizing and cataloging Carson's papers and correspondence, distributing all the letters to their senders so that only what each correspondent approved of would be submitted to the archive.[58] Yale redirects here. ... Yale Universitys Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library was a 1963 gift of the Beinecke family. ... Marie Freid Rodell (January 31, 1912 – November 1975) was a literary agent and author who managed the publications of much of environmentalist Rachel Carsons writings, as well as the first book by civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


In 1965, Rodell arranged for the publication of an essay Carson had intended to expand into a book: A Sense of Wonder. The essay, which was combined with photographs by Charles Pratt and others, exhorts parents to help their children experience the "lasting pleasures of contact with the natural world", which "are available to anyone who will place himself under the influence of earth, sea and sky and their amazing life."[59]


In addition to the letters in Always Rachel, in 1998 a volume of Carson's previously unpublished work was published as Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson, edited by Linda Lear. All of Carson's books remain in print.[59]


Grassroots environmentalism and the EPA

Carson's work had a powerful impact on the environmental movement. Silent Spring, in particular, was a rallying point for the fledging social movement in the 1960s. According to environmental engineer and Carson scholar H. Patricia Hynes, "Silent Spring altered the balance of power in the world. No one since would be able to sell pollution as the necessary underside of progress so easily or uncritically."[60] Carson's work, and the activism it inspired, are at least partly responsible for the deep ecology movement, and the overall strength of the grassroots environmental movement since the 1960s. It was also influential on the rise of ecofeminism and on many feminist scientists.[61] Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ...


Carson's most direct legacy in the environmental movement was the campaign to ban the use of DDT in the United States (and related efforts to ban or limit its use throughout the world). Though environmental concerns about DDT had been considered by government agencies as early as Carson's testimony before the President's Science Advisory Committee, the 1967 formation of the Environmental Defense Fund was the first major milestone in the campaign against DDT. The organization brought lawsuits against the government to "establish a citizen's right to a clean environment", and the arguments employed against DDT largely mirrored Carson's. By 1972, the Environmental Defense Fund and other activist groups had succeeded in securing a phase-out of DDT use in the United States (except in emergency cases).[62] Environmental Defense (formerly known as the Environmental Defense Fund or EDF), is a US-based nonprofit environmental advocacy group. ...


The creation, in 1970, of the Environmental Protection Agency addressed another concern that Carson had brought to light. Until then, the same agency (the USDA) was responsible both for regulating pesticides and promoting the concerns of the agriculture industry; Carson saw this as a conflict of interest, since the agency was not responsible for effects on wildlife or other environmental concerns beyond farm policy. Fifteen years after its creation, one journalist described the EPA as "the extended shadow of Silent Spring". Much of the agency's early work, such as enforcement of the 1972 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, was directly related to Carson's work.[63] EPA redirects here. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust, such as a lawyer, a politician, or an executive or director of a corporation, has competing professional or personal interests. ... is only done after a period of data collection to determine the effectiveness for its intended use, appropriate dosage, and hazards of the particular material. ...


Reactions to environmentalism and DDT restrictions

Carson and the environmental movement were—and continue to be—criticized by some conservatives, who argue that restrictions placed on pesticides have caused needless deaths and hampered agriculture, and more generally that environmental regulation unnecessarily restricts economic freedom.[64][65] For example, the conservative magazine Human Events gave Silent Spring an honorable mention for the "Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries".[66] Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Human Events is a weekly conservative magazine founded in 1944. ...


Carson's attack on DDT has come under the most intense fire. In the 1980s, the Reagan administration sought to undo as much of the environmental legacy of the 1960s and 1970s as possible, and Carson and her work were obvious targets. Political scientist Charles Rubin was one of the most vociferous critics in the 1980s and 1990s, though he accused her merely of selective use of source and fanaticism (rather than the more severe criticism Carson received upon Silent Spring's release). In the 2000s, critics have claimed that Carson is responsible for millions of malaria deaths, because of the DDT bans her work prompted. Some have attributed as many as 100 million deaths to Carson's legacy, though biographer Mark Hamilton Lytle finds these estimates very unrealistic, even assuming that Carson can be "blamed" for worldwide DDT policies, and suggests that malaria is much less significant than a number of other widespread preventable public health problems in Africa.[67] Carson never actually called for an out-right ban on DDT.[68] President Reagan, with his Cabinet and staff, in the Oval Office (February 4, 1981) Headed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1989, the Reagan Administration was conservative, steadfastly anti-Communist and in favor of tax cuts and smaller government. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Some experts have argued that restrictions placed on the agricultural use of DDT (something Carson actually did advocate) have increased its effectiveness as a tool for battling malaria. According to pro-DDT advocate Amir Attaran the result of the 2004 Stockholm Convention banning DDT's use in agriculture "is arguably better than the status quo…For the first time, there is now an insecticide which is restricted to vector control only, meaning that the selection of resistant mosquitoes will be slower than before."[69] But though Carson's legacy has been closely tied to DDT, Roger Bate of the DDT advocacy organization Africa Fighting Malaria warns that "A lot of people have used Carson to push their own agendas. We just have to be a little careful when you're talking about someone who died in 1964."[70] Amir Attaran is a Canadian lawyer, immunologist, and law professor. ... Stockholm Convention is an international agreement on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). ... Roger Bate, is a prolific economist who has held a variety of positions in industry lobby groups. ... Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM) is an NGO based in South Africa which states it seeks to educate people about the scourge of Malaria and the political economy of malaria control. ...


Posthumous honors

A variety of groups ranging from government institutions to environmental and conservation organizations to scholarly societies have celebrated Carson's life and work since her death. Perhaps most significantly, on June 9, 1980 Carson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States, in recognition of her influence on President Kennedy and her foundational role in the environmental movement.[71] A U.S. postage stamp was issued in her honor the following year; several other countries have since issued Carson postage as well.[72] is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ...

The Rachel Carson Bridge in Pittsburgh
The Rachel Carson Bridge in Pittsburgh

Carson's birthplace and childhood home in Springdale, Pennsylvania—now known as the Rachel Carson Homestead—became a National Register of Historic Places site, and the non-profit Rachel Carson Homestead Association was created in 1975 to manage it.[73] Near Pittsburgh, a 35.7 miles (57 km) hiking trail, maintained by the Rachel Carson Trails Conservancy, was dedicated to Carson in 1975.[74] A Pittsburgh bridge was also renamed in Carson's honor as the Rachel Carson Bridge.[75] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x736, 80 KB) Summary Pittsburgh Ninth Street Bridge. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x736, 80 KB) Summary Pittsburgh Ninth Street Bridge. ... Springdale is a borough located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Rachel Carson Homestead is a National Register of Historic Places building in Springdale, Pennsylvania, 18 miles northeast of Pittsburgh along the Allegheny River. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Rachel Carson Bridge is the official name of the Ninth Street Bridge over the Allegheny River in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ...


A number of conservation areas have been named for Carson as well. Between 1964 and 1990, 650 acres (3 km²) near Brookeville in Montgomery County, Maryland were acquired and set aside as the Rachel Carson Conservation Park, administered by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission.[76] In 1969, the Coastal Maine National Wildlife Refuge became the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge; expansions will bring the size of the refuge to about 9,125 acres (37 km²).[77] In 1985, North Carolina renamed one of its estuarine reserves in honor of Carson, in Beaufort.[78] A conservation area is a tract of land that has been awarded protected status in order to ensure that natural features or biota are safeguarded. ... Brookeville is a town located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Montgomery County of the U.S. state of Maryland is situated just north of Washington, D.C. and Southwest of Baltimore. ... The Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission (M-NCPPC) is bi-county agency that administers parks and planning in Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties in Maryland. ... The Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge is a 9,125 acre National Wildlife Refuge located along 50 miles of Maine coastline. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Estuaries and coastal waters are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing numerous ecological, economic, cultural, and aesthetic benefits and services. ... Beaufort (pronounced BO-furt / IPA: ) is a town that everybody loves in Carteret County, North Carolina, United States. ...


Carson is also a frequent namesake for prizes awarded by philanthropic, educational and scholarly institutions. The Rachel Carson Prize, founded in Stavanger, Norway in 1991, is awarded to women who have made a contribution in the field of environmental protection.[79] The American Society for Environmental History has been awarding the Rachel Carson Prize for Best Dissertation since 1993.[80] Since 1998, the Society for Social Studies of Science has awarded an annual Rachel Carson Book Prize for "a book length work of social or political relevance in the area of science and technology studies."[81] The Rachel Carson Prize is an international Environmental award, established in Stavanger, Norway in 1991 to commemorate the achievements of environmentalist Rachel Carson and to award efforts in her spirit. ... County District Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (1995-) Leif Johan Sevland (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ... The American Society for Environmental History (ASEH) is a professional society for the field of environmental history. ... The Society for Social Studies of Science (often abbreviated as 4S) is, as its website claims, the oldest and largest scholarly association devoted to understanding science and technology. ...


Centennial events

The celebration of Carson's 100th birthday in Springdale, Pennsylvania
The celebration of Carson's 100th birthday in Springdale, Pennsylvania

2007 is the centennial of Carson's birth. On Earth Day (April 22, 2007), Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson was released as "a centennial appreciation of Rachel Carson's brave life and transformative writing", thirteen essays by prominent environmental writers and scientists.[82] Democratic Senator Benjamin L. Cardin, Maryland, had intended to submit a resolution celebrating Carson for her "legacy of scientific rigor coupled with poetic sensibility" on the 100th anniversary of her birth. The resolution was blocked by Republican Senator Tom Coburn, Oklahoma,[83] who said that "The junk science and stigma surrounding DDT—the cheapest and most effective insecticide on the planet—have finally been jettisoned."[84] The Rachel Carson Homestead Association held a May 27 birthday party and sustainable feast at her birthplace and home in Springdale, Pennsylvania, and planned several other events throughout the year. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Ragesoss and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 593 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The content of this image was reviewed by Ragesoss and afterwards uploaded by FlickrLickr. ... Springdale is a borough located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... Earth Day Flag. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Benjamin Louis Cardin (born October 5, 1943) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the 3rd district of the State of Maryland since 1987. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Thomas Allen Tom Coburn, M.D. (born March 14, 1948) is a medical doctor and a Republican U.S. Senator from Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Rachel Carson Homestead is a National Register of Historic Places site in Springdale, Pennsylvania, United States, 18 miles northeast of Pittsburgh along the Allegheny River. ... Springdale is a borough located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ...


List of works

  • Under the Sea Wind, 1941, Simon & Schuster, Penguin Group, 1996, ISBN 0-14-025380-7
  • The Sea Around Us, 1951, Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506997-8
  • The Edge of the Sea, 1955, Mariner Books, 1998, ISBN 0-395-92496-0
  • Silent Spring, Houghton Mifflin, 1962, Mariner Books, 2002, ISBN 0-618-24906-0
  • The Sense of Wonder, 1965, HarperCollins, 1998: ISBN 0-06-757520-X published posthumously
  • Always, Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman 1952–1964 An Intimate Portrait of a Remarkable Friendship, Beacon Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8070-7010-6 edited by Martha Freeman (granddaughter of Dorothy Freeman)
  • Lost Woods: The Discovered Writing of Rachel Carson, Beacon Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8070-8547-2

is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Lear, 7–24
  2. ^ Lear, 27–62
  3. ^ Lear, 63–79
  4. ^ Lear, 79–82
  5. ^ Lear, 82–85
  6. ^ Lear, 85–113
  7. ^ Lear, 114–120
  8. ^ Lear, 121–160
  9. ^ Lear, 163–164. An apocryphal story holds that the book was rejected from over twenty publishers before Oxford University Press. In fact, it may have only been sent to one other publisher before being accepted, though Rodell and Carson worked extensively to place chapters and excerpts in periodicals.
  10. ^ Lear, 164–241
  11. ^ Lear, 206-234
  12. ^ Lear, 215-216; 238-239. Quotation from a letter to Carson' film agent Shirley Collier, November 9, 1952. Quoted in Lear, 239.
  13. ^ Lear, 239-240
  14. ^ Lear, Rachel Carson, 248
  15. ^ Lear, 243-288
  16. ^ Caryn E. Neumann, "Carson, Rachel (1907-1964)", glbtq: an encyclopedia of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, & queer culture. Accessed July 31, 2007
  17. ^ Janet Montefiore, "'The fact that possesses my imagination': Rachel Carson, Science and Writing", Women: A Cultural Review, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2001), p. 48
  18. ^ Lear, 255-256
  19. ^ Sarah F. Tjossem, Review of Always Rachel: The Letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952–1964, Isis, Vol. 86, No. 4 (1995), pp. 687-688, quoting from: Carolyn Heilbrun, Writing a Woman's Life [Ballantine, 1988], p. 108.
  20. ^ Lear, 223–244
  21. ^ Lear, 261-276
  22. ^ Lear, 276-300
  23. ^ Lear, 300-309
  24. ^ Lear, 305-313
  25. ^ Lear, 312-317
  26. ^ Lear, 317-327
  27. ^ Lear, 327-336
  28. ^ Lear, 342-346
  29. ^ Lear, 358-361
  30. ^ Lear, 355-358
  31. ^ Lear, 360-368
  32. ^ Lear, 372-373. The photo essay, "The Sea", was published in Johns Hopkins Magazine, May/June 1961; Carson provided the captions for Hartmann's photographs.
  33. ^ Lear, 376-377,
  34. ^ Lear, 375, 377-378, 386-387, 389
  35. ^ Lear, 390-397
  36. ^ Lytle, 166-167
  37. ^ Lytle, 166-172
  38. ^ Carson, Silent Spring, 225
  39. ^ Lytle, 169, 173
  40. ^ Lear, 397-400
  41. ^ Lear, 375, 377, 400-407. Douglas's dissenting opinion on the rejection of the case, Robert Cushman Murphy et al., v. Butler et al., from the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, is from March 28, 1960.
  42. ^ Lear, 407-408. Quotation (p. 408) from a June 13, 1962 letter from Carson to Dorothy Freeman.
  43. ^ Lear, 409-413
  44. ^ Lear, 416, 419
  45. ^ Lear, 412-420
  46. ^ Lear, 433-434
  47. ^ Fooling with nature: special reports: Silent Spring revisited:, accessed September 23, 2007
  48. ^ Quoted in Lear, 434
  49. ^ Lear, 429-430. Benson's supposed comments were widely repeated at the time, but have not been directly confirmed.
  50. ^ Murphy, 9
  51. ^ Carson, Silent Spring, 275
  52. ^ Lear, 437-449; quotation from 449.
  53. ^ Lear, 449-450
  54. ^ The Time 100: Scientists and Thinkers, accessed September 23, 2007; Lear, 461
  55. ^ 2003 National Women's History Month Honorees: Rachel Carlson, accessed September 23, 2007
  56. ^ Lear, 451-461, 469-473
  57. ^ Lear, 476-480
  58. ^ Lear, 467-468, 477, 482-483. See also the Beinecke finding aid for the Rachel Carson Papers.
  59. ^ a b Murphy, 25; quotations from A Sense of Wonder, 95. The essay was originally published in 1956 in Woman's Home Companion.
  60. ^ Hynes, 3
  61. ^ Hynes, 8-9
  62. ^ Hynes, 46-47
  63. ^ Hynes, 47-48, 148-163
  64. ^ Lytle, 217
  65. ^ Examples of recent criticism include:
    (a) Rich Karlgaard, "But Her Heart Was Good", Forbes.com, May 18, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.
    (b) Keith Lockitch, "Rachel Carson's Genocide", Capitalism Magazine, May 23, 2007. Accessed May 24, 2007
    (c) David Roberts, "My one and only post on the Rachel Carson nonsense" Grist.com, May 24, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007.
    (d) Paul Driessen, "Forty Years of Perverse 'Responsibility,'", The Washington Times, April 29, 2007. Accessed May 30, 2007.
    (e) Iain Murray, "Silent Alarmism: A Centennial We Could Do Without", National Review, May 31, 2007. Accessed May 31, 2007.
  66. ^ Ten Most Harmful Books of the 19th and 20th Centuries, accessed August 24, 2007
  67. ^ Lytle, 217-228
  68. ^ She instead argued in Silent Spring that:

    No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease should be ignored. The question that has now urgently presented itself is whether it is either wise or responsible to attack the problem by methods that are rapidly making it worse. The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has heard little of the other side of the story - the defeats, the short-lived triumphs that now strongly support the alarming view that the insect enemy has been made actually stronger by our efforts. Even worse, we may have destroyed our very means of fighting. (p. 266) David Roberts is a primary staff writer for Grist Magazine, an online environmental publication based in Seattle, Washington. ...

    She noted that "Malaria programmes are threatened by resistance among mosquitoes" (p. 267) and emphasized the advice given by the director of Holland's Plant Protection Service: "Practical advice should be 'Spray as little as you possibly can' rather than 'Spray to the limit of your capacity'…Pressure on the pest population should always be as slight as possible." (p. 275)
  69. ^ Malaria Foundation International, accessed March 15, 2006.
  70. ^ Rachel Carson and DDT, Bill Moyers Journal, September 21, 2007. Accessed September 29, 2007.
  71. ^ Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient Rachel Carson, accessed August 24, 2007
  72. ^ Rachel Carson Stamps and Covers, accessed September 26, 2007.
  73. ^ Rachel Carson Homestead, accessed September 7, 2007
  74. ^ Rachel Carson Trail, accessed September 26, 2007.
  75. ^ Jerome L. Sherman, "Environmentalist Rachel Carson's legacy remembered on Earth Day", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 23, 2006. Accessed September 23, 2007
  76. ^ MNCPPC: Rachel Carson Conservation Park, accessed August 26, 2007
  77. ^ Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge, accessed September 11, 2007
  78. ^ Rachel Carson Estuarine Research Reserve, accessed October 12, 2007
  79. ^ Rachel Carson Prisen, accessed September 11, 2007
  80. ^ Award Recipients - American Society for Environmental History, accessed September 11, 2007
  81. ^ Rachel Carson Book Prize, 4S, accessed September 11, 2007
  82. ^ Houghton Mifflin Trade and Reference Divsion, Courage for the Earth release information, accessed September 23, 2007
  83. ^ David A. Fahrenthold, "Bill to honor Rachel Carson Blocked", Washington Post, May 23, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007
  84. ^ Stephen Moore, "Doctor Tom's DDT Victory", The Wall Street Journal, September 19, 2006. Accessed September 23, 2007.

Bill Moyers Journal is the name of an American television news program that provided quality stories outside the New York City public area on a schedule of news topics and events, such as religion, history, sexuality, geography and more. ... ...

References

  • Hynes, H. Patricia. The Recurring Silent Spring. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989. ISBN 0-08-037117-5
  • Lear, Linda. Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-3428-5
  • Lytle, Mark Hamilton. The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007 ISBN 0-19-517246-9
  • Murphy, Priscilla Coit. What a Book Can Do: The Publication and Reception of Silent Spring. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2005. ISBN 978-1-55849-582-1

Further reading

  • Brooks, Paul. The House of Life: Rachel Carson at Work. Houghton Mifflin, 1972. ISBN 0395135176. This book is a personal memoir by Carson's Houghton Mifflin editor and close friend Paul Brooks.
  • Jezer, Marty. Rachel Carson: Biologist and Author. Chelsea House Publications, 1988. ISBN 155546646X
  • Matthiessen, Peter (ed.). Courage for the Earth: Writers, Scientists, and Activists Celebrate the Life and Writing of Rachel Carson. Mariner Books, 2007. ISBN 0618872760
  • Quaratiello, Arlene . Rachel Carson: A Biography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2004. ISBN 0-313-32388-7

Marty Jezer (Nov. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Rachel Carson

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Biographical resources

Carson-related organizations

Criticism

Persondata
NAME Carson, Rachel Louise
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American zoologist, marine biologist
DATE OF BIRTH May 27, 1907
PLACE OF BIRTH Springdale, Pennsylvania, United States
DATE OF DEATH April 14, 1964
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
NRDC: The Story of Silent Spring (1161 words)
Thirteen years later, in 1958, Carson's interest in writing about the dangers of DDT was rekindled when she received a letter from a friend in Massachusetts bemoaning the large bird kills which had occured on Cape Cod as the result of DDT sprayings.
By 1958 Carson was a best-selling author, and the fact that she could not obtain a magazine assignment to write about DDT is indicative of how heretical and controversial her views on the subject must have seemed.
Rachel Carson had made a radical proposal: that, at times, technological progress is so fundamentally at odds with natural processes that it must be curtailed.
Rachel Carson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1903 words)
Rachel Carson was born in 1907 on a small family farm in the Pittsburgh suburb of Springdale.
Carson took on that responsibility alongside the continuing one of caring for her mother, who was almost 90 by this time.
Carson explored the theme of environmental connectedness: although a pesticide is aimed at eliminating one organism, its effects are felt throughout the food chain, and what was intended to poison an insect ends up poisoning larger animals and humans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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