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Encyclopedia > Race (United States Census)

Race, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify.[1] The categories represent a social-political construct designed for the race or races they considered themselves to be and "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country".[2] The Office of Management and Budget defines the concept of race as outlined on the US Census to take into account both concepts of ancestry and culture.[3] Race and ethnicity were considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race, all respondents are also categorized by membership in one of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino. See Ethnicity (United States Census). Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... US Hispanic or Latino population The Office of Management and Budget is required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino or not Hispanic or Latino The O.M.B. defines Hispanic or Latino as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... An ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, either on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry[1], or recognition by others as a distinct group[2], or by common cultural, linguistic, religious, or territorial traits. ...  Countries where Spanish has official status. ... US Hispanic or Latino population The Office of Management and Budget is required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino or not Hispanic or Latino The O.M.B. defines Hispanic or Latino as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other...

Contents

Categories

The racial classifications used by the Census Bureau adhere to the 30 October 1997, Federal Register Notice entitled "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity" issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The following is a direct, full quote from that official document:[4] October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP) which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ...

  • "American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment."[5]
  • "Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, the Philippine Islands, India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Japan, Cambodia, China, Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam."[6]
  • "Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as 'Haitian' or 'Negro' can be used in addition to 'Black' or 'African American.'"[7]
  • "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands."[8]
  • "White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa."[9]
  • "Some other race."[10] To increase comparability, the 2010 US Census is planning on removing this category.[11]

In addition, in 2000 the Census Bureau allowed respondents to check more than racial entry, to satisfy the needs of "people who are not easily classified into a single race." Those who did so were recorded as having selected Two or more races. World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Census 2000

Race was asked differently in the Census 2000 in several ways than previously. Most significantly, respondents were given the option of selecting one or more race categories to indicate their racial identities. Data shows that nearly seven million Americans identified themselves as members of two or more races. Because of these changes, the Census 2000 data on race are not directly comparable with data from the 1990 census or earlier censuses. Caution must be used when interpreting changes in the racial composition of the U.S. population over time.

Snapshot: Race in the U.S. Census
The 7th federal census, in 1850, asked for Color[12] and gave the choices:
The 10th federal census, in 1880, asked for Color[13] and gave the choices:
  • white
  • black
  • mulatto
  • Chinese
  • Indian
The 22nd federal census, in 2000, had a "short form"[14] that asked two race/ancestry questions:

1. Is the person Spanish/Hispanic/Latino? The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mūlus. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...

  • No, not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino
  • Yes, Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano
  • Yes, Puerto Rican
  • Yes, Cuban
  • Yes, other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino (write in group)

2. What is the person's race? Chicano teenager in El Pasos second ward. ...  Countries where Spanish has official status. ...

  • White
  • Black or African American
  • American Indian or Alaska Native (write in tribe)
  • Asian Indian
  • Chinese
  • Filipino
  • Japanese
  • Korean
  • Vietnamese
  • Native Hawaiian
  • Guamanian or Chamorro
  • Samoan
  • Other Pacific Islander (write in race)
  • Other race (write in race)

This census acknowledged that "race categories include both racial and national-origin groups." The Chamorros are an indigenous people of Guam and the Mariana Islands. ...

The following definitions apply to the 2000 census only.[15]

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a derivative work from the free-use map available on Wikipedia Commonslink. ...

2000 US Census Definitions of Race
  • The term White refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa." It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Persian, British, Assyrian, Iraqi, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish.
See also: White (people) and White American
See also: Pacific Islander
  • Some other races includes all other responses not included in the "White", "Black or African American", "American Indian and Alaska Native", "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" race categories described above.
  • Two or more races refers to multiracial people. People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of check boxes and write-in responses.

An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The term White American officially refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... The term White American officially refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... Iranian-Americans (sometimes called Persian-Americans) are Americans of Iranian descent, including those who are expatriates in exile or permanent immigrants. ... Assyrians Americans constitute the third-largest population of Assyrians in the world, and the largest in the Assyrian diaspora. ... Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants from 22 Morocco in the west to Oman in the east. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term White American officially refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ... Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... It has been suggested that Indian American be merged into this article or section. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... For an article on American Indians see Native Americans. ... A Taiwanese American is an American of Taiwanese ancestry. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... In April of 1990, Daniel K. Akaka became the first native Hawaiian and Chinese American to serve in the United States Congress as a Senator from the State of Hawaii. ... Depiction of latte stone colonnades on the island of Tinian. ... Pacific Islander (or Pacific Person, pl: Pacific People, also called Oceanic[s]), is a geographic term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania[1][2]. In New Zealand, the term is... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ...

Comparability

The Census Bureau warns that data on race in Census 2000 are not directly comparable to those collected in previous censuses.[15] Regulations requiring the new language were published by the Office of Management and Budget in the Federal Register[16] in 1997. In 2001, the National Institute of Health adopted the new language to comply with Directive 15.[17] The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ...


In the absence of any racial choice which fits their understanding of themselves, 42.2 percent of Hispanics will check 'Other' for their race.[10] In response to this trend, the 2010 US Census is planning on removing the "some other race" category.[11]


See also

US Hispanic or Latino population The Office of Management and Budget is required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino or not Hispanic or Latino The O.M.B. defines Hispanic or Latino as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other... By county. ... Language Spoken at Home is a data set published by the United States Census Bureau on languages in the United States. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Most common ancestries in the United States (as of 2000) The United States is a diverse country racially. ...

References

  1. ^ The American FactFinder
  2. ^ Ikeda, Dave. IM Diversity. What's an Asian American Now Anyway? 2006. 26 October 2006.
  3. ^ American Anthropological Association. "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15." 1997. May 18, 2007.[1]
  4. ^ "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity"
  5. ^ Oguwale, Stella U. US Census Bureau. "The American Indian and Alaskan Native Population: 2000." 2002. May 14, 2007. [2]
  6. ^ Barnes, Jessica S. US Census Bureau. "The Asian Population: 2000." 2002. May 14, 2007. [3]
  7. ^ McKinnon, Jesse. US Census Bureau. "The Black Population: 2000." 2001. May 14, 2007. [4]
  8. ^ Grieco, Elizabeth M. US Census Bureau. "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population:2000." 2001. May 13, 2007. [5]
  9. ^ Grieco, Elizabeth M. US Census Bureau. "The White Population: 2000." 2001. May 14, 2007. [6]
  10. ^ a b Grieco, Elizabeth M., Racheal C. Cassidy. US Census Bureau. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000." 2001. May 13, 2007.[7]
  11. ^ a b US Census Press Releases. "Census Bureau to Test Changes in Questionnaire,New Response Technology" 2006. April 30, 2007. [8]
  12. ^ Ancestry.com, 1850 chart (pdf)
  13. ^ Ancestry.com, 1880 chart (pdf)
  14. ^ 2000 US Census form (pdf)
  15. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File. Race Retrieved 18 September 2006.
  16. ^ OMB Directive 15 Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997 Retrieved on 18 September 2006.
  17. ^ National Institute of Health Amendment: NIH Policy and Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research - October, 2001 Retrieved on 18 September 2006.

 
 

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