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Encyclopedia > Rabies
Rabies virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Rhabdoviridae
Genus: Lyssavirus
Type species
Rabies virus
Rabies
Classification and external resources
EM of rabies virus.
ICD-10 A82.-
ICD-9 071
DiseasesDB 11148
MedlinePlus 001334
eMedicine med/1374  emerg/493 ped/1974
MeSH D011818

Rabies (Latin: rabies, "madness, rage, fury" also "hydrophobia") is a viral zoonotic neuroinvasive disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in mammals. In non-vaccinated humans, rabies is almost invariably fatal after neurological symptoms have developed, but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies, and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset.[1] Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Families Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae Filoviridae Bornaviridae The Mononegavirales are an order of viruses comprising species that have a non-segmented, negative sense RNA genome. ... Genera Vesiculovirus Lyssavirus Ephemerovirus Cytorhabdovirus Nucleorhabdovirus Novirhabdovirus Rhabdoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Lyssavirus (from a Greek word meaning frenzy) is a genus of virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ...

Contents

Structure

The virus is a Lyssavirus. This genus of RNA viruses also includes the Aravan virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, Duvenhage virus, European bat lyssavirus 1, European bat lyssavirus 2, Irkut virus, Khujand virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus and West Caucasian bat virus. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, so their infectious particles are approximately cylindrical in shape. This is typical of plant-infecting viruses; human-infecting viruses more commonly have cubic symmetry and take shapes approximating regular polyhedra. Negri bodies in the infected neurons are pathognomonic. Lyssavirus (from a Greek word meaning frenzy) is a genus of virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... Lagos bat virus is a lyssavirus that causes a rabies-like illness in mammals in southern and central Africa. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... This article is about the shape. ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ... Negri bodies are eosinophilic, sharply outlined, pathognomonic inclusion bodys (2-10um in diameter) found in the cytoplasm of certain nerve cells containing the virus of rabies, especially in Ammons horn of the hippocampus. ... Pathognomonic (often misspelled as pathognomic) is an adjective of Greek origin (παθογνωμονικό [σύμπτωμα]), often used in medicine, which means diagnostic for a particular disease. ...


The virus has a bullet-like shape with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm. One end is rounded or conical and the other end is planar or concave. The lipoprotein envelope carries knob-like spikes composed of Glycoprotein G. Spikes do not cover the planar end of the virion (virus particle). Beneath the envelope is the membrane or matrix (M) protein layer which may be invaginated at the planar end. The core of the virion consists of helically arranged ribonucleoprotein. The genome is unsegmented linear antisense RNA. Also present in the nucleocapsid are RNA dependent RNA transcriptase and some structural proteins. To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10-7 and 10-6 m (100 nm and 1 µm). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 nm and 100 nm (10-8 and 10-7 m). ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Invagination means to fold inward or to sheath. ... Ribonucleoprotein(RNP) is a compound that combined ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein together. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Antisense molecules interact with complementary strands of nucleic acids, modifying expression of genes. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... A Nucleocapsid is the genome (DNA or RNA) of a virus and the protein coat surrounding it (the capsid). ...

 
Longitudinal and cross-sectional schematic view of rabies virus

Differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis, particularly infection with viruses such as herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and arboviruses (e.g., West Nile virus). The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1, varicella-zoster virus, and (less commonly) enteroviruses, including coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, polioviruses, and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. A specific diagnosis may be made by a variety of diagnostic techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid, viral culture, and serology. In addition, consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups, including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, the California encephalitis virus serogroup, and La Crosse virus. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... Species Bovine enterovirus Human enterovirus A Human enterovirus B Human enterovirus C Human enterovirus D Human enterovirus E Poliovirus Porcine enterovirus A Porcine enterovirus B The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Arbovirus is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, or arthropod-borne viruses [1]. Some Arboviruses are able to cause emergent diseases. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2) This article is about the virus. ... The varicella-zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), is one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). ... Coxsackie A virus is a cytolytic virus of the Picornaviridae family, a enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses). ... An echovirus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the Enterovirus and the Picornaviridae virus family. ... This article is about the virus. ... Species Human: Poliovirus Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (coxackie A viruses and enterovirus 71 (EV71)) Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) (coxsackie B viruses, echoviruses, coxsackie A9 virus, enterovirus 69 (EV69) and enterovirus 73 (EV73)) Human enterovirus C (HEV-C) (coxsackie A viruses) Human enterovirus D (HEV-D) (enterovirus 68 (EV68... “PCR” redirects here. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the process by which either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells are grown under controlled conditions. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Equine encephalitis may be caused by several viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezualan equine encephalitis virus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... St. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Causes encephelitis in human biengs. ... La Crosse Encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector (Aedes triseriatus). ...


New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible, as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate, 40%) caused by Nipah virus, a newly recognized paramyxovirus.[2] Similarly, well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations, as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States.[3] Epidemiologic factors (e.g., season, geographic location, and the patient’s age, travel history, and possible exposure to animal bites, rodents, and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup. Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus, EBV) and Nipah virus. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ...


Cheaper rabies diagnosis will be possible for low-income settings according to research reported on the Science and Development Network website in 2008. Accurate rabies diagnosis can be done ten times cheaper, according to researchers from the Farcha Veterinary and Livestock Research Laboratory and the Support International Health Centre in N'Djamena, Chad. The scientists evaluated a method using light microscopy, cheaper than the standard tests, and say this could provide better rabies control across Africa. [4]


Transmission and symptoms

Micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small dark-grey rod-like particles) and Negri bodies, larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection
Micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small dark-grey rod-like particles) and Negri bodies, larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection

Any mammal may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms, including humans. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. Infected bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, skunks, cattle, wolves, dogs or cats provide the greatest risk to humans. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals, groundhogs, weasels and other wild carnivores. Rodents (mice, squirrels etc) are seldom infected. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1150x1500, 483 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rabies ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1150x1500, 483 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rabies ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ...


The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal.[4][5] The route of infection is usually, but not necessarily, by a bite. In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive, may attack without provocation, and exhibits otherwise uncharacteristic behaviour[5]. Transmission may also occur via an aerosol through mucous membranes; transmission in this form may have happened in people exploring caves populated by rabid bats. The single case of aerosol transmission to people exploring a bat cave has essentially been disproven.[citation needed] As most bats have such small teeth that their bites can barely be felt (may feel like a small prick or bug bite); it is more likely that these people were bitten by a bat unbeknownst to them and contracted rabies in that manner[citation needed]. For the band, see Saliva (band). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ...


Transmission between humans is extremely rare, although it can happen through transplant surgery (see below for recent cases), or, even more rarely, through bites, kisses or sexual relations. Transplant redirects here. ...


After a typical human infection by bite, the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. It then travels along the nerves towards the central nervous system. During this phase, the virus cannot be easily detected within the host, and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. Once the virus reaches the brain, it rapidly causes encephalitis. This is called the "prodromal" phase. At this time, treatment is useless. Then symptoms appear. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord producing myelitis. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Myelitis is a human disease involving swelling of the spinal cord, which disrupts central nervous system functions linking brain and limbs. ...


The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium.[citation needed] The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in "hydrophobia", where the victim has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. The disease itself was also once commonly known as hydrophobia, from this characteristic symptom. The patient "foams at the mouth" because they cannot swallow their own saliva for days and it gathers in the mouth until it overflows. Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Paralysed redirects here. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ...


Death almost invariably results two to ten days after the first symptoms; the few humans who are known to have survived the disease were all left with severe brain damage, with the recent exception of Jeanna Giese (see below). It is neurotropic in nature. Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... Jeanna Giese is the first person known to have survived symptomatic rabies without receiving the rabies vaccine. ...


Example of symptoms

In Rabies: The Facts[6], Kaplan et. al. describe several typical cases, including one of a 23 year-old Englishwoman:

"On June 17, 1981 she was bitten on the ankle by a dog in New Delhi. On August 18, about two months later, she experienced the first prodromal symptoms. She became anxious and depressed, and it became impossible for her to drink more than small sips of liquid. While sleeping, she frequently sat up in bed suddenly, terrified. On August 19, she became confused, hallucinated, and was incontinent of urine. On August 20, she was unable to eat or drink and was taken to the hospital where she hallucinated and screamed in terror. Misdiagnosed as a psychiatric case, she was injected with a tranquilizer and sent home, however she repeatedly woke up screaming in fear and became so wild and agitated that her husband felt he could not deal with her by himself and took her to her mother's house. She remained terrified, hallucinating and screaming in horror throughout the night. She had no water for almost three days. She fell into a coma the next morning, and died on August 23."

Prevention

Rabies can be prevented by vaccination, both in humans and other animals. Virtually every infection with rabies resulted in death, until Louis Pasteur and Emile Roux developed the first rabies vaccination in 1885. This vaccine was first used on a human on July 6, 1885 – nine-year old boy Joseph Meister (1876–1940) had been mauled by a rabid dog.[6] [7] Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Emile Roux Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Meister (February 21, 1876 - June 16, 1940) was the first person to be inoculated against rabies by Louis Pasteur, and the first person to be successfully treated for the disease. ...


Their vaccine consisted of a sample of the virus harvested from infected (and necessarily dead) rabbits, which was weakened by allowing it to dry for 5 to 10 days. Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are still used now in some countries, and while they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines, they are not as effective and carry a certain risk of neurological complications.


The human diploid cell rabies vaccine (H.D.C.V.) was started in 1967. Human diploid cell rabies vaccines are made using the attenuated Pitman-Moore L503 strain of the virus. Human diploid cell rabies vaccines have been given to more than 1.5 million humans as of 2006. Newer and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine, and purified Vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. The purified Vero cell rabies vaccine uses the attenuated Wistar strain of the rabies virus, and uses the Vero cell line as its host. Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vero cells are used in cell cultures. ...


Some recent works have shown that during lethal rabies infection the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain, the primary site of rabies virus replication.[7] This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance.[8] Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treat the disease. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ...


Post-exposure prophylaxis

Treatment after exposure, known as post-exposure prophylaxis or "P.E.P.", is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly, within six days after infection. Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective at reducing the number of viral particles. "If available, a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine, iodine tincture, aqueous iodine solution or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing."[9] Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes, nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. In the United States, patients receive one dose of immunoglobulin and five doses of rabies vaccine over a twenty-eight day period. One-half the dose of immunoglobulin is injected in the region of the bite, if possible, with the remainder injected intramuscularly away from the bite. This is much less painful compared with administering immunoglobulin through the abdominal wall with a large needle, as was done in the past. The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure, with additional doses on days three, seven, fourteen, and twenty-eight after the first. Patients that have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin, only the post-exposure vaccinations. Since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments, the number of recorded deaths in the U.S. from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early twentieth century, to 1–2 per year, mostly caused by bat bites, which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is any prophylactic treatment started immediately after exposure to a disease (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the disease from breaking out. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ...


P.E.P. is effective in treating rabies because the virus must travel from the site of infection through the peripheral nervous system (nerves in the body) before infecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and glands to cause lethal damage. This travel along the nerves is usually slow enough that vaccine and immunoglobulin can be administered to protect the brain and glands from infection. The amount of time this travel requires is dependent on how far the infected area is from the brain: if the victim is bitten in the face, for example, the time between initial infection and infection of the brain is very short and P.E.P. may not be successful.


Pre-exposure prophylaxis

Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used on domesticated and normal non-human populations. In many jurisdictions, domestic dogs, cats, and ferrets are required to be vaccinated. A pre-exposure vaccination is also available for humans, most commonly given to veterinarians and those traveling to regions where the disease is common, such as India. Most tourists do not need such a vaccination, just those doing substantial non-urban activities. However, should a vaccinated human be bitten by a carrier, failure to receive subsequent post-exposure treatment could be fatal, although post-exposure treatment for a vaccinated human is far less extensive than that which would normally be required by one with no pre-exposure vaccination. A child being immunized against polio. ...


In 1984 researchers at the Wistar Institute developed a recombinant vaccine called V-RG by inserting the glycoprotein gene from rabies into a vaccinia virus.[10] The V-RG vaccine has since been commercialised by Merial under the trademark Raboral. It is harmless to humans and has been shown to be safe for various species of animals that might accidentally encounter it in the wild, including birds (gulls, hawks, and owls).[11] The Wistar Institute is a scientific institute located on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States specializing in the fields of immunology and cell biology. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Merial is a world-leading animal health company. ...


V-RG has been successfully used in the field in Belgium, France, and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife. The virus is stable under relatively high temperatures and can be delivered orally, making mass vaccination of wildlife possible by putting it in tasty baits. The plan for immunization of normal populations involves dropping bait containing food wrapped around a small dose of the live virus. The bait would be dropped by helicopter concentrating on areas that have not been infected yet. Just such a strategy of oral immunization of foxes in Europe has already achieved substantial reductions in the incidence of human rabies. A strategy of vaccinating "neighborhood dogs" in Jaipur, India, (combined with a sterilization program) has also resulted in a large reduction in the number of human cases.[12] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the pink city, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ...


Induced coma treatment

Main article: Jeanna Giese

In 2005, the case of Jeanna Giese, a girl of 15 who survived acute, unvaccinated rabies was reported, indicating the successful treatment of rabies through induction of a coma.[13] This treatment approach was based on the theory that rabies' detrimental effects were caused by temporary dysfunctions of the brain, and that the induction of a coma, by producing a temporary partial stop in brain function, would protect the brain from damage while the body built up an immune response to the virus. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalisation, she was released from the hospital, having survived rabies. Jeanna Giese is the first person known to have survived symptomatic rabies without receiving the rabies vaccine. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Later attempts to use the same treatment have failed, but recently (10/04/08) in Cali, Colombia, it was reported (by local newspapers) that an 11-year-old may have recovered successfully after induction of coma [14]. This patient was infected on February 15 when several children were bitten by a cat in Santander de Quilichao, a small town near Cali. However, this claim has not been scientifically proven. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The primary care physician in this case published in the April 2007 issue of Scientific American.[15] He notes that subsequent failures of what he calls the Milwaukee protocol did not use the cocktail of drugs used during the treatment. A point he makes for future research is the relationship of the virus to depletion of biopterin in the brain. Biopterin is a coenzyme. ...


Prevalence

Rabies-free jurisdictions, as of January 2006:Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Fiji, Guam, Hawaii, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Japan and Taiwan/ROC.
Rabies-free jurisdictions, as of January 2006:
Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Fiji, Guam, Hawaii, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Japan and Taiwan/ROC.

There are an estimated 55,000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide, with about 31,000 in Asia, and 24,000 in Africa.[16] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom. China introduced in the city of Beijing the "One Dog policy" in November 2006 to control the problem.[17] India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world [8]. This article is about the geographical region. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The English Channel, dog licensing, killing of stray dogs, muzzling and other measures contributed to the elimination of rabies from the United Kingdom in the early 20th century. More recently, large-scale vaccination of cats, dogs and ferrets has been successful in combatting rabies in some developed countries. For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


The rabies virus survives in wide-spread, varied, rural fauna reservoirs. However, in Asia, parts of America and large parts of Africa, dogs remain the principal host. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. Especially in developing countries, pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits, and this has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of France, Ontario, Texas, Florida and elsewhere, like in the City of Montréal (Québec) where baits are successfully used among raccoons in the Mont-Royal park area. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive, and a cost-benefit analysis can lead those responsible to opt for policies of containment rather than elimination of the disease. This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Many territories, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Taiwan, Japan, Hawaii, Mauritius, Barbados and Guam, are free of rabies, although there may be a very low prevalence of rabies among bats in the UK; see below. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


New Zealand and Australia have never had rabies.[9] However, in Australia, the Australian Bat Lyssavirus occurs normally in both insectivorous and fruit eating bats (flying foxes) from most mainland states. Scientists believe it is present in bat populations throughout the range of flying foxes in Australia. Lyssavirus (from a Greek word meaning frenzy) is a genus of virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. ...


The UK is not completely free of rabies, as a new form of the lyssavirus has been found in some bats which could possibly affect humans. There has been one case of a bite from an infected bat, but the victim showed no symptoms of the virus and was vaccinated quickly as a precaution.


Rabies in the United States

Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states, but raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeast United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic since the 1970s, which is now moving westwards into Ohio.[18] The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Cases of animal rabies in the United States in 2001
Cases of animal rabies in the United States in 2001

The particular variant of the virus has been identified in the southeastern United States raccoon population since the 1950s, and is believed to have traveled to the northeast as the result of infected raccoons being among those caught and transported from the southeast to the northeast by human hunters attempting to replenish the declining northeast raccoon population.[19] As a result, urban residents of these areas have become more wary of the large but normally unseen urban raccoon population. It has become the common assumption that any raccoon seen diurnally is infected; certainly the reported behavior of most such animals appears to show some sort of illness, and necropsies can confirm rabies. Whether as a result of increased vigilance or only the common human avoidance reaction to any other animal not normally seen, such as a raccoon, there has only been one documented human rabies case as a result of this variant.[20][21] This does not include, however, the greatly increasing rate of prophylactic rabies treatments in cases of possible exposure, which numbered fewer than one hundred humans annually in the state of New York before 1990, for instance, but rose to approximately ten thousand annually between 1990 and 1995. At approximately $1,500 per course of treatment, this represents a considerable public health expenditure. Raccoons do constitute approximately 50% of the approximately eight thousand documented non-human rabies cases in the United States.[22] Domestic animals constitute only 8% of rabies cases, but are increasing at a rapid rate.[22] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 640 × 427 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 427 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/gif)Lance is cool File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 640 × 427 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 427 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/gif)Lance is cool File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A diurnal animal (dī-ŭrnəl) is an animal that is active during the daytime and sleeps during the night. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... This article is about the state. ...

A rabid dog, with saliva dripping out of the mouth
A rabid dog, with saliva dripping out of the mouth

In the midwestern United States, skunks are the primary carriers of rabies, composing 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996. The most widely distributed reservoir of rabies in the United States, however, and the source of most human cases in the U.S., are bats. Nineteen of the twenty-two human rabies cases documented in the United States between 1980 and 1997 have been identified genetically as bat rabies. In many cases, victims are not even aware of having been bitten by a bat, assuming that a small puncture wound found after the fact was the bite of an insect or spider; in some cases, no wound at all can be found, leading to the hypothesis that in some cases the virus can be contracted via inhaling airborne aerosols from the vicinity of bats. For instance, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned on May 9, 1997, that a woman who died in October, 1996 in Cumberland County, Kentucky and a man who died in December, 1996 in Missoula County, Montana were both infected with a rabies strain found in silver-haired bats; although bats were found living in the chimney of the woman's home and near the man's place of employment, neither victim could remember having had any contact with them.[23] Similar reports among spelunkers led to experimental demonstration in animals.[24] This inability to recognize a potential infection, in contrast to a bite from a dog or raccoon, leads to a lack of proper prophylactic treatment, and is the cause of the high mortality rate for bat bites. Rabid dog, with saliva dripping from the mouth. ... Rabid dog, with saliva dripping from the mouth. ... Polecat redirects here. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Cumberland County is a county located in the state of Kentucky in the United States. ... Missoula County is a county located in the state of Montana. ... Caving frequently involves a lot of mud. ...


On September 7, 2007, rabies expert Dr. Charles Rupprecht of Atlanta-based U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that canine rabies had disappeared from the United States. Rupprecht emphasized that the disappearance of the canine-specific strain of rabies virus in the US does not eliminate the need for dog rabies vaccination as dogs can still become infected from exposure to wildlife[25]. is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dē, IPA: ) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ...


Recently publicized cases

Transmission by bite

Several recently publicized cases have stemmed from bats, which are known to be a vector for rabies. See the Rabies and bats section below. In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...


In October 2004 a female brown bear killed one human and injured several others near the city of Braşov in Central Romania. The bear was killed by human hunters and diagnosed with rabies. More than one hundred humans were vaccinated afterwards. For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Location of BraÅŸov Coordinates: , Country County Status County capital Government  - Mayor George Scripcaru (Democratic Party) Area  - County capital 267. ...


Transmission through organ transplants

Rabies is known to have been transmitted between humans by transplant surgery. Transplant redirects here. ...

A patient with rabies, 1959
A patient with rabies, 1959

Infections by corneal transplant have been reported in Thailand (2 cases), India (2 cases), Iran (2 cases),[26] the United States (1 case), and France (1 case).[27] Details of two further cases of infection resulting from corneal transplants were described in 1996. A patient with rabies, in 1959. ... A patient with rabies, in 1959. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ...


In June 2004, three organ recipients died in the United States from rabies transmitted in the transplanted kidneys and liver of an infected donor from Texarkana.[28] There were bats near the donor's home, and the donor had told others that he had been bitten.[29] The donor is now reported to have died of a cerebral hemorrhage, the culmination of an unidentified neurological disorder, although recipients are said to have been told the cause of death had been a car crash. Marijuana and cocaine were found in the donor's urine at the time of his death, according to a report in The New England Journal of Medicine.[30] For other uses, see Texarkana (disambiguation). ...

"[The surgeons] thought he had suffered a fatal crack-cocaine overdose, which can produce symptoms similar to those of rabies. 'We had an explanation for his condition,' says Dr. Goran Klintmalm, a surgeon who oversees transplantation at Baylor University Medical Center, where the transplants occurred. 'He'd recently smoked crack cocaine. He'd hemorrhaged around the brain. He'd died. That was all we needed to know'. Because of doctor-patient confidentiality rules, doctors involved with this case would not talk about it on the record, but a few did say that if no cocaine was found in the donor's blood, the E.R. doctors might have investigated his symptoms more aggressively instead of assuming he had overdosed. . (Because no autopsy was done, doctors have not been able to establish whether the rabies or the drugs actually killed him.)"On[31]

In February 2005, three German patients in Mainz and Heidelberg were diagnosed with rabies after receiving various organs and cornea transplants from a female donor. Two of the infected people died. Three other patients who received organs from the woman have not yet shown rabies symptoms. The 26 year old donor had died of heart failure in December 2004 after consuming cocaine and ecstasy. In October 2004, she had visited India, one of the countries worst affected by rabies worldwide. Dozens of medical staff were vaccinated against rabies in the two hospitals as a precautionary measure. Associated Press reports that "Donated organs are never tested for rabies. The strain detected in the victims' bodies is one commonly found in bats, health officials said." According to CNN "Rabies tests are not routine donor screening tests, Virginia McBride, public health organ donation specialist with the Health Resources and Services Administration, said. The number of tests is limited because doctors have only about six hours from the time a patient is declared brain-dead until the transplantation must begin for the organs to maintain viability." This was the storyline for an episode of Scrubs ("My Lunch") in which Dr. Perry Cox was responsible for the death of three transplant patients. Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street names ecstasy or XTC (for more names see the full list), is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts... For other uses, see Scrub. ... List of Scrubs episodes My Lunch is the 113th episode of the American sitcom Scrubs. ... Dr. Percival Perry Cox, M.D.[3] (most commonly referred to as Dr. Cox) is a fictional character played by John C. McGinley in the American comedy-drama Scrubs. ...


Transport of pet animals between countries

Main article: Pet passport
Sign at a UK port showing rabies prevention measures aimed at merchant seamen
Sign at a UK port showing rabies prevention measures aimed at merchant seamen

Rabies is endemic to many parts of the world, and one of the reasons given for quarantine periods in international animal transport has been to try to keep the disease out of uninfected regions. However, most developed countries, pioneered by Sweden, now allow unencumbered travel between their territories for pet animals that have demonstrated an adequate immune response to rabies vaccination. On October 1, 2001, EU and other countries introduced the option for domestic animal owners to apply for Pet passports, PETS for short, but also known as Pets Travel Scheme for pets returning from abroad to the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 321 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rabies Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 321 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rabies Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ...


Such countries may limit movement to animals from countries where rabies is considered to be under control in pet animals. There are various lists of such countries. The United Kingdom has developed a list, and France has a rather different list, said to be based on a list of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). The European Union has a harmonised list. No list of rabies-free countries is readily available from OIE. There are various lists of countries where rabies in pet animals is under control governing and limiting the international transport of pet animals susceptible to the disease. ...


However, the recent spread of rabies in the northeastern United States and further may cause a restrengthening of precautions against movement of possibly rabid animals between countries.


Rabies and dogs

Main article: Dog health#Rabies
Close-up of a dog's face during late-stage "dumb" paralytic rabies. Animals with "dumb" rabies appear depressed, lethargic, and uncoordinated. Gradually they become completely paralyzed. When their throat and jaw muscles are paralyzed, the animals will drool and have difficulty swallowing.
Close-up of a dog's face during late-stage "dumb" paralytic rabies. Animals with "dumb" rabies appear depressed, lethargic, and uncoordinated. Gradually they become completely paralyzed. When their throat and jaw muscles are paralyzed, the animals will drool and have difficulty swallowing.

Rabies has a long history of association with dogs. The first written record of rabies is in the Codex of Eshnunna (ca. 1930 BC), which dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventative measure against bites. If a person is bitten by a rabid dog and later died, the owner was fined heavily.[32] Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with bandaged foot. ... Eshnunna is the transliteration of the ancient name of a Sumerian city and city-state in lower Mesopotamia. ...


Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs. The first stage is a one to three day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. The second stage is the excitative stage, which lasts three to four days. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies due to the tendency of the affected dog to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. Incoordination is seen due to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest.[33] In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom indicating the development of a disease, or indicating that a disease attack is imminent. ... In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) which project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. ... Respiratory arrest is the cessation of the normal tidal flow of the lungs due to paralysis of the diaphragm, collapse of the lung or any number of respiratory failures. ...


On April 25, 2008 three people were bitten by a rabid puppy which was in quarantine after arriving into the UK on 18 April 2008 from Sri Lanka. The incident happened in the Chingford area of Essex at a licensed quarantine centre and the people involved received vaccinations. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rabies and opossums

Experimental studies of rabies infection in the Virginia opossum have shown the importance of the mode of transmission. Opossums became infected when exposed to air-borne virus but were found to be fairly resistant to intramuscular inoculations. [34][35][36]The aerosol transmission of rabies in opossum was investigated following the death from rabies of two men who had visited the Frio Caves, Texas, and did not remember any direct contact with bats.


The spatial and temporal distribution of opossum rabies

Rabies cases in the Virginia opossum are spillover cases from other wildlife species such as bats, skunks and the raccoon epizootic in the eastern United States. Cases have been reported across the United States from California to New York [37][38][39]. In New York state, the Wadsworth Center lists laboratory confirmed cases in opossums 5 years out of 10 from 1989 to 1998.


Rabies and domestic skunks in the United States

There is currently no USDA-approved vaccine for the strain of rabies that afflicts skunks. When cases are reported of pet skunks biting a human, the animals are frequently killed in order to be tested for rabies. USDA redirects here. ... A pet skunk is a skunk kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment. ... Rabies testing is a test generally done on animals (predominantly wild animals) when a person has been bitten. ...


Humans exposed to the rabies virus must begin post-exposure prophylaxis before the disease can progress to the central nervous system. For this reason, it is necessary to determine whether the animal, in fact, has rabies as quickly as possible. Without a definitive quarantine period in place for skunks, quarantining the animals is not advised as there is no way of knowing how long it may take the animal to show symptoms. Destruction of the skunk is recommended and the brain is then tested for presence of rabies virus.


Skunk owners have recently organized to campaign for USDA approval of both a vaccine and an officially recommended quarantine period for skunks in the United States.[citation needed]


Rabies and bats

The problem of bat-transmitted rabies is found over most of North and South America but was first closely studied in Trinidad in the West Indies which had a dreadful reputation for bat rabies, which took a significant toll of livestock and humans alike. In the 10 years from 1925 and 1935, 89 people and thousands of livestock had died from it - "the highest human mortality from rabies-infected bats thus far recorded anywhere.".[40] For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


In early 1931, Dr. H. Metivier, a Veterinary surgeon, established the connection between the bites of bats and paralytic rabies. In September 1931, Dr. J. L. Pawan, a Government Bacteriologist found Negri bodies in the brain of a bat with unusual habits. In 1934 the Trinidad and Tobago Government began a program of vampire bat control, shooting, netting, trapping and poisoning, while encouraging the screening off of livestock buildings and free vaccination programs for exposed livestock.


After the opening of the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory in 1953, basic research on bats and rabies progressed rapidly under the able direction of Arthur Greenhall, who demonstrated that at least 8 species of bats in Trinidad had been infected with rabies - particularly the Common Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus (which "will attack any warm blooded creature"), the rare White-winged Vampire Bat, Diaemus youngi, (which "appears to have a special preference for birds and goats"), as well as two abundant species of Fruit Bats: the Seba's Short-tailed Bat or Short-tailed Fruit Bat, Carollia perspicillata, which commonly roosts with Vampires, and the Jamaican Fruit Bat, Artibeus jamaicensis.[41] Virus Laboratory Field Assistant, Nariva Swamp, Trinidad. ... Binomial name Geoffroy, 1810 The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a species of vampire bat. ... Binomial name Diaemus youngi Jentink, 1893 The White-winged Vampire Bat (Diaemus youngi) is a species of Vampire bats. ... Binomial name Carollia perspicillata Linnaeus, 1758 The Sebas Short-tailed Bat, Carollia perspicillata, is a common and widespread bat species from South and Central America. ... Binomial name Artibeus jamaicensis Leach, 1821 The Jamaican or Mexican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) is a fruit bat native to Central and South America. ...


Non-bite transmission of rabies in people has been reported by the CDC[23], and experimentally demonstrated with a high efficiency in susceptible animals placed in bat-proof and insect-proof cages in a cave with bat colonies by Constantine in Frio Cave, Texas, as early as 1960.[24] In 1967, rabies virus was isolated from the air in the same cave,[42] presumably passed by the bats urinating, potentially forming a source for infection of other susceptible animals, and presenting a hazard to researchers and spelunkers. While the risks may be low, they are deserving of further study and monitoring.[43]


The United Kingdom, which has stringent regulations on the importation of animals, had also been believed to be entirely free from rabies until 1996 when a single Daubenton's bat was found to be infected with a rabies-like virus usually found only in bats – European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBL2). There were no more known cases in the British Isles until September 2002 when another Daubenton's bat tested positive for EBL2 in Lancashire. A bat conservationist who was bitten by the infected bat received post-exposure treatment and did not develop rabies. Binomial name (Kuhl, 1817) Daubentons Bat, Myotis daubentonii, is a Eurasian bat with quite short ears. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


Then in November 2002 David McRae (1947-2002), a Scottish bat conservationist from Guthrie, Angus was bitten on the ring finger of his left hand by a bat, thereby becoming the first human to contract rabies in the United Kingdom since 1902. He subsequently died in hospital [10] from EBL2 rabies on November 24, 2002[11]. This article is about the country. ... Guthrie is a village in Angus, Scotland. ... This article is about the council area in Scotland. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

In November 2004, Jeanna Giese, a fifteen-year old girl from Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, became one of only six humans known to have survived rabies after the onset of symptoms, and the first known instance of a human surviving rabies without vaccine treatment. Giese's disease was already too far progressed for the vaccine to help, and she was considered too weak to tolerate it. Doctors at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Wauwatosa, a suburb of Milwaukee, achieved her survival with an experimental treatment that involved putting the girl into a drug-induced coma, and administering a cocktail of antiviral drugs. Giese had symptoms of full-blown rabies when she sought medical help, thirty-seven days after being bitten by a bat. Her family did not seek treatment at the time because the bat seemed healthy. Jeanna regained her weight, strength, and coordination while in the hospital. She was released from the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin on January 1, 2005. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Jeanna Giese is the first person known to have survived symptomatic rabies without receiving the rabies vaccine. ... Lakeside Park entrance Agnesian HealthCare Fond du Lac (locally pronounced Fonda-lack) is a city in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Village of Wauwatosa along the banks of the Menomonee River Wauwatosa is a city in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, United States. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 12, 2006 Harris County, Texas U.S.A. Health Department officials reported that a teenage boy, Zachary Jones of Humble, Texas, had died of rabies at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas. Zachary had contracted the disease after a bat flew in his bedroom and bit him in his sleep. He was unaware he had been bitten and was not hospitalized until he developed symptoms several weeks later. He died at Texas Children's Hospital after an attempt to cure the disease through a drug-induced coma, similar to that of Jeanna Giese. is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harris County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. ... Houston redirects here. ...


On November 2, 2006 a 10 year old girl in Bourbon, Indiana, U.S.A. died of rabies. The Indianapolis Star reports that she was bitten by a bat in June 2006. is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In August of 2006, a 73 year old rural resident located east of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada was bitten by a bat while he slept. He ignored the bite and became symptomatic in January 2007. Diagnosed with rabies in March of 2007, he was treated with the Milwaukee protocol, but died April 26, 2007. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On August 6, 2006, 950 Girl Scouts were urged to receive rabies shots by the Girl Scouts of America. The nine hundred and fifty girls had attended a camp in Virginia, U.S.A. in July, and had reported seeing bats in their cabins. Even though infections were relatively unlikely, the G.S.A. offered to pay for the shots, at a cost of nearly two million dollars. The Centers for Disease Control reports 27 cases of human rabies caused by the bat variant rabies virus in the United States from 1990 to 2002.[44] is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...


On December 8, 2007, a 34 year old Dutch medical doctor died from rabies. According to Dutch media, the woman, who worked at the Amsterdam Academic Medical Center (AMC), had been attacked by a small bat while on holiday in Kenya last October. The attack, which occurred at a camping site somewhere between Nairobi and Mombasa, resulted in some bleeding scratches on her nose. She was infected with Duvenhage-virus and succumbed to severe brain infection. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


See also

World Rabies Day is a global initiative to raise awareness about the continuing burden of Rabies and how the disease can be prevented. ... The Alliance for Rabies Control (ARC) is a UK registered charity. ...

References

  1. ^ [1] Recovery of a Patient from Clinical Rabies --- Wisconsin, 2004
  2. ^ Straw, Barbara E. (2006). Diseases of Swine. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 081381703X. 
  3. ^ Minagar, Alireza; J. Steven Alexander (2005). Inflammatory Disorders Of The Nervous System: Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Clinical Management. Humana Press. ISBN 1588294242. 
  4. ^ The Merck Manual, Eleventh Edition (1983), p. 183
  5. ^ The Merck manual of Medical Information. Second Home Edition, (2003), p. 484.
  6. ^ Kaplan, Turner, and Warrell 1986. pp. 43-44 Rabies: The Facts, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-261441-X
  7. ^ Roy A, Phares TW, Koprowski H, Hooper DC (2007). "Failure to open the blood-brain barrier and deliver immune effectors to central nervous system tissues leads to the lethal outcome of silver-haired bat rabies virus infection". J. Virol. 81 (3): 1110-8. PMID 17108029. 
  8. ^ Roy A, Hooper DC (2007). "Lethal silver-haired bat rabies virus infection can be prevented by opening the blood-brain barrier". J. Virol. 81 (15): 7993-8. doi:10.1128/JVI.00710-07. PMID 17507463. 
  9. ^ Rabies & Australian bat lyssavirus information sheet http://www.health.vic.gov.au/ideas/bluebook/rabies_info
  10. ^ Wiktor TJ, Macfarlan RI, Reagan KJ, Dietzschold B, Curtis PJ, Wunner WH, Kieny MP, Lathe R, Lecocq JP, Mackett M (1984). "Protection from rabies by a vaccinia virus recombinant containing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81 (22): 7194–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.81.22.7194. PMID 6095272. 
  11. ^ Artois M, Charlton KM, Tolson ND, Casey GA, Knowles MK, Campbell JB (1990). "Vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and efficacy trials in Canadian wildlife". Can. J. Vet. Res. 54 (4): 504-7. PMID 2249183. 
  12. ^ Reece JF, Chawla SK. (2006). "Control of rabies in Jaipur, India, by the sterilisation and vaccination of neighbourhood dogs.". Vet Rec 159: 379–83. 
  13. ^ Willoughby RE, Tieves KS, Hoffman GM, Ghanayem NS, Amlie-Lefond CM, Schwabe MJ, Chusid MJ, Rupprecht CE (2005). "Survival after treatment of rabies with induction of coma". N. Engl. J. Med. 352 (24): 2508–14. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa050382. PMID 15958806. 
  14. ^ {{El Tiempo Nación Cali, "Nuevos síntomas dan aliento sobre recuperación de niño caucano contagiado por rabia", April 10th 2008([2])
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  16. ^ 'Rabies" (2006) World Health Organisation. [3]
  17. ^ The Toronto Star "China cracks down on rabid dog menace"
  18. ^ "Compendium of animal rabies prevention and control, 2006" (2006). MMWR Recomm Rep 55 (RR-5): 1–8. 
  19. ^ Nettles VF, Shaddock JH, Sikes RK, Reyes CR (1979). "Rabies in translocated raccoons". Am J Public Health 69 (6): 601-2. PMID 443502. 
  20. ^ Dietzschold, B, Proniak, M (2003). "First Human Death Associated with Raccoon Rabies --- Virginia, 2003". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 52 (45): 1102–1103. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved on 2006-06-30. 
  21. ^ Rabies and Wildlife. The Humane Society of the United States (2006). Retrieved on 2006-06-30.
  22. ^ a b Krebs JW, Strine TW, Smith JS, Noah DL, Rupprecht CE, Childs JE (1996). "Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1995". J Am Vet Med Assoc 209 (12): 2031–44. PMID 8960176. 
  23. ^ a b Human Rabies — Kentucky and Montana, 1996, May 9, 1997/Vol. 46/No. 18
  24. ^ a b Constantine, D. G. 1962. "Rabies transmission by nonbite route." Public Health Reports 77, pp. 287–289.
  25. ^ Reuters, U.S. free of canine rabies virus
  26. ^ Javadi MA, Fayaz A, Mirdehghan SA, Ainollahi B (1996). "Transmission of rabies by corneal graft". Cornea 15 (4): 431-3. doi:10.1097/00003226-199607000-00014. PubMed. 
  27. ^ CDC (1980). "Human-to-human transmission of rabies via a corneal transplant -- France". MMWR 29: 25–6. 
  28. ^ "Investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients--Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004" (2004). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep (26): 586-9. PubMed. 
  29. ^ "Update: investigation of rabies infections in organ donor and transplant recipients--Alabama, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 2004" (2004). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53 (27): 615-6. PubMed. 
  30. ^ Srinivasan A, Burt EC, Kuehnert MJ, Rupprecht C, Sutker WL, Ksiazek TG, Paddock CD, Guarner J, Shieh WJ, Goldsmith C, Hanlon CA, Zoretic J, Fischbach B, Niezgoda M, El-Feky WH, Orciari L, Sanchez EQ, Likos A, Klintmalm GB, Cardo D, LeDuc J, Chamberland ME, Jernigan DB, Zaki SR (2005). "Transmission of rabies virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients". N Engl J Med 352 (11): 1103–11. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043018. PMID 15784663. 
  31. ^ Reynolds G (2005). "Will Any Organ Do?". The New York Times Magazine (10 July): –. 
  32. ^ Dunlop, Robert H.; Williams, David J. (1996). Veterinary Medicine:An Illustrated History. Mosby. ISBN 0-8016-3209-9. 
  33. ^ Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 4th ed., W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-6795-3. 
  34. ^ Constantine DG, Woodall DF. Related Articles, Links Transmission experiments with bat rabies isolates: reactions of certain Carnivora, opossum, rodents, and bats to rabies virus of red bat origin when exposed by bat bite or by intrasmuscular inoculation. Am J Vet Res. 1966 Jan;27(116):24-32. No abstract available. PMID: 5913032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  35. ^ Constantine DG 1967 Rabies transmission by air in bat caves. US Pub Health Serv, Publ. 1617
  36. ^ 1: Am J Vet Res. 1960 May;21:507-10.Links Resistance of the opossum to rabies virus. BEAMER PD, MOHR CO, BARR TR. PMID: 13797881 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  37. ^ Krebs JW, Smith JS, Rupprecht CE, Childs JE.Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1996. J Am Vet Med Assoc. (1997) 211(12):1525-39. Review. Erratum in: J Am Vet Med Assoc. (1998) 212(8):1280. PMID: 9412679
  38. ^ Krebs JW, Smith JS, Rupprecht CE, Childs JE.(1999) Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1998. J Am Vet Med Assoc. (1999) 215(12):1786-98. Erratum in: J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000 216(8):1223
  39. ^ Krebs JW, Smith JS, Rupprecht CE, Childs JE.Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1996. J Am Vet Med Assoc. (1997) 211(12):1525-39. Review. Erratum in: J Am Vet Med Assoc. (1998) 212(8):1280. PMID: 9412679
  40. ^ Goodwin G. G., and A. M. Greenhall. 1961. "A review of the bats of Trinidad and Tobago." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 122, p. 196
  41. ^ Greenhall, Arthur M. 1961. Bats in Agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago.
  42. ^ Winkler, W. G. 1968. "Airborne Rabies Virus Isolation." Bull. Wildlife Disease Assoc. Vol. 4, April 1968, pp. 37-40. Available online at: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/4/2/37
  43. ^ Messenger, Sharon L., Jean S. Smith, and Charles E. Rupprecht. 2002. "Emerging Epidemiology of Bat-Associated Cryptic Cases of Rabies in Humans in the United States." Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2002; 35, pp. 738–747. Available on line at: journals.uchicago.edu
  44. ^ Rabies Surveillance. Centers for Disease Control (2003). Retrieved on 2006-11-10.

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Further reading

  • Waterman, James A. 1965. "The History of the Outbreak of Paralytic Rabies in Trinidad Transmitted by Bats to Human Beings and the Lower Animals from 1925." The Caribbean Medical Journal. 1954. Vol. XXVI, Nos. 1–4, pp. 164–169.
  • Fleming, Theodore H. 2003. A Bat Man in the Tropics: Chasing El Duende. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23606-8.
  • Kaplan, Turner, and Warrell 1986. Rabies: The Facts, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-261441-X

External links

  • History of Rabies in Los Angeles

Sources

Other links

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Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... This article is about the organ. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... For other uses, see Chickenpox (disambiguation). ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... This page is for the disease. ... 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It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... HPV redirects here. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Felinology is the study of cats. ... An Ancient Egyptian figurine of a cat, from the Louvre museum. ... Cats (Felis catus) are among the most common pets in the world. ... Cat anatomy is a branch of comparative vertebrate anatomy. ... A dogs paw resting on a hard concrete surface. ... In the anatomy of the cat, there are only two prominent, or great, head muscles, and these are the Masseter and Temporalis. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article refers to the anatomy of the deltoid muscles in the cat. ... There are four pectoral muscles in the cat: pectoantibranchialis, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and xiphihumeralis. ... The Trapezius muscles are a set of muscles found in cats. ... // Longitudinal plane section of ovary of cat embryo of 9. ... This cats coat allows it to blend in well with its environment The genetics of cat coat coloration, pattern, length, and texture is a complex subject, and many different genes are involved. ... Cats, like all living organisms, occasionally have mutations that affect their body type. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Cat enjoying a mix of wet (canned) and dry cat food Cat food is food manufactured for consumption by cats from the age range of just a few months. ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is a respiratory disease of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1, of the family Herpesviridae. ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. ... Feline panleukopenia, more commonly known as feline distemper, is a viral infection affecting cats caused by feline parvovirus, a close relative of canine parvovirus. ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats. ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), commonly known as Helen AIDS is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide. ... FIP-infected kidney showing inflammatory response Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, incurable disease that affects cats. ... This article is about the fungal infection. ... Binomial name Ctenocephalides felis The Cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is one of the most abundant and widespread fleas in the world. ... For the album by Whipping Boy, see Heartworm (album). ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Feline asthma is a common allergic respiratory disease in cats, affecting at least one percent of all adult cats worldwide. ... Cat with noticeable jaundice from late-stage Feline Hepatic Lipidosis. ... Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a term that is used to cover many problems of the feline urinary tract, including stones and cystitis. ... Neutering, from the Latin neÅ­ter (of neither type), is the removal of an animals reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part of it. ... Close-up of a declawed paw. ... Cat behaviour is how cats interact with other cats, animals, and environment. ... Cat senses are adaptations that allow cats to be highly efficient predators. ... A cat kneading a soft blanket Kneading (also known as treading the grapes.) is an activity common to all domestic cats whereby, when in a state of contentment, they push the surface on which they are standing with their front paws. ... The cat righting reflex is cats innate ability to orient themselves as they fall so as to land on their feet, often uninjured. ... Happy Cat Relaxed Cat Playful Cat Aggressive Cat Cats communicate a variety of messages using cat body language. ... Two cats fighting A play cat fight between two house cats (This page deals with fights between cats. ... A yawning cat Cat communication consists of a range of methods with which cats communicate with humans, other cats, and other animals. ... Two cats with a text book. ... A purr is a sound made by some species of felines and is a part of cat communication. ... Species See text. ... Rescued feral kittens Most feral kittens have little chance of surviving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia[1][2]. Here, kittens from two feral litters are fostered by a domestic mother. ... For other uses, see Black cat (disambiguation). ... Typical cat show benching cage in the US. Cats wait here until called to the ring. ... Animal hoarding is a human behaviour that involves the keeping of higher than typical numbers of animals as pets without having the ability to properly house or care for them, while at the same time denying this inability [1]. Along with other compulsive hoarding behaviours, it is linked in the... Cat meat is meat derived from cats. ... A cat registry is an organisation that registers cats for exhibition and breeding purposes. ... The Cat Fanciers Association, Inc. ... The Fédération Internationale Féline (or FIFe) is a federation of cat registries. ... The Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) is the organization that registers pedigreed cats in the United Kingdom. ... The International Cat Association More commonly known as TICA is the worlds second-largest cat registry in North America. ... A cat breed is an infrasubspecific rank for the classification of domestic cats. ... The Abyssinian is a natural breed of domesticated cat believed to originate from one Egyptian female kitten called Zula that was taken from a port in Alexandria, Egypt, by a British soldier and brought to England. ... The American Curl is a breed of cat with unusual ears. ... The Balinese is a breed of oriental cat with long hair and Siamese-style markings, or points. ... The British Shorthair is a domesticated cat that is said to resemble a teddy bear. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Bombay cat is used to refer to two different breeds of cat. ... The Chartreux is an internationally recognized breed of domestic cat from France. ... A Cornish Rex is a breed of domestic cat. ... The Devon Rex is a breed of cat that emerged in England during the 1960s. ... Country of origin Russia Breed standards (external links) TICA The Don Sphynx is a Russian breed of hairless cat. ... Egyptian Maus are a medium-sized short-haired cat breed. ... Breeders crossed the American Shorthair with the Persian in the United States around 1960. ... Front view of a Himalayan cat Side view of a Himalayan cat The Himalayan, also called colourpoint persian, is a breed of cat with extremely long, fluffy fur, and the blue eyes and the points of a Siamese. ... A Calico (called Mi-ke) Japanese Bobtail cat The Japanese Bobtail is a breed of cat with an unusual bobbed tail more closely resembling the tail of a rabbit than that of an ordinary feline. ... The Javanese is a recognized breed of cat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Maine Coon is one of the largest breeds of domestic cat, known for its high intelligence and playfulness as well as its distinctive physical appearance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Common nickname Wegie Country of origin Norway Breed standards (external links) AACE, CFA, ACF, ACFA, CCA, TICA, FIFe The Norwegian Forest Cat is a breed of domestic cat native to Northern Europe, and adapted to a very cold climate. ... The Ocicat is a new and still-rare breed of cat which has spots resembling a wild cat and the temperament of a domestic animal, named for its resemblance to the ocelot. ... The Oriental Shorthair is a breed of cat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Peterbald is a breed of Russian hairless cats. ... The Ragdoll is a breed of medium longhaired cat. ... The Russian Blue is a type or breed of cat that has a silver-blue coat. ... The Savannah is a hybrid domestic cat breed. ... The Scottish Fold is a breed of cat with a natural mutation to its ears. ... The Siamese is one of the first distinctly recognised breeds of Oriental cat. ... The Siberian is a recognized breed of cat. ... The Singapura is a recognized breed of cat. ... See also Sphinx (disambiguation) See also Peterbald Sphynx The Sphynx (aka Canadian Hairless) is a rare breed of cat. ... Tonkinese are a medium-sized short-haired cat breed distinguished by points as with Siamese and Himalayans. ... The Turkish Angora (Turkish: Ankara Kedisi) is a breed of domestic cat. ... The Turkish Van is a rare, naturally occurring breed of cat from the Lake Van region of present-day Turkey. ...


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The decision to administer rabies antibody, rabies vaccine, or both depends on four factors: the nature of the biting animal; the existence of rabies in the area; the manner of attack (provoked or unprovoked) and the severity of the bite and contamination by saliva of the animal; and recommendations by local public health officials.
Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states, but raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeast United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic since the 1970s, which is now moving westwards into Ohio.
Rabies is endemic to many parts of the world, and one of the reasons given for quarantine periods in international animal transport has been to try to keep the disease out of uninfected regions.
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Rabies is a viral disease which is usually transmitted to human beings through a bite from a domesticated or wild animal.
The other two proteins encoded for by the rabies genome are the M (or matrix) protein, which has been shown to be crucial in the ability of a newly formed virus to bud from the host cell membrane, and the transmembrane G protein, which is involved in host cell attachment and invasion.
Despite the success of rabies vaccines in protection of both humans and domestic animals, one must always be aware that strains of the virus in the wild can diverge evolutionarily from the vaccine strain and render the vaccine somewhat less effective.
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