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Encyclopedia > RORO
 Skaugran Oslo
Skaugran Oslo
Loading a Ro Ro passenger car ferry
Loading a Ro Ro passenger car ferry
 The Cetus Leader
The Cetus Leader
A Canadian RORO Ferry
A Canadian RORO Ferry
A PCC ship's starboard side showing side ramp.
A PCC ship's starboard side showing side ramp.
The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries passenger car ferry on the Dover-Calais English Channel route which can carry 600 cars. [1]
The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries passenger car ferry on the Dover-Calais English Channel route which can carry 600 cars. [1]

RORO and ro-ro are acronyms for Roll On/Roll Off, describing a significant feature of a ship designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. RORO vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port. This is in contrast to lo-lo (lift on-lift off) vessels which use a crane to load and unload cargo. Various types of RORO vessels include ferries, cruiseferries, cargo ships, and barges. A true RoRo's ramps can serve all of the vessel’s decks; otherwise it is a hybrid type (see below). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 792 KB) Summary The Auto Carrier, SKAUGRAN OSLO Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 792 KB) Summary The Auto Carrier, SKAUGRAN OSLO Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Roro_faehre. ... Image File history File links Roro_faehre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 752 KB) Summary The Cetus Leader passing under the Astoria Bridge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 752 KB) Summary The Cetus Leader passing under the Astoria Bridge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2723 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): S class ferry RORO Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 2723 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): S class ferry RORO Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File links Rororamp. ... Image File history File links Rororamp. ... Pride of Burgundy (P&O Ferries), off Calais, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pride of Burgundy (P&O Ferries), off Calais, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Satellite view of the English Channel Map of the English Channel The English Channel (French: La Manche (IPA: ) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, usually with multiple decks. ... A tower crane with a pivoted main boom Cranes on the Sheksna River, Cherepovets, Russia A worker telecommanding a crane from the ground A crane is a tower or derrick equipped with cables and pulleys that is used to lift and lower materials. ... The Pride of Rotterdam, One of the P&O Ferriess Flagships operating the Hull-Rotterdam Route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, on scheduled services. ... Pride of Bilbao, a cruise ferry operated by P&O Ferries. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, usually with multiple decks. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ...


Unlike elsewhere in the shipping industry where cargo is normally measured by the Metric Ton, RoRo cargo will typically be measured in the more convenient unit of Lanes In Metres (LIMs). This is calculated by multiplying cargo length in metres by its width in lanes. (Lane width differs from vessel to vessel and there are a number of industry standards.)


While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances often have built-in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels. The River Thames in London River running into Harrietville Trout Farm A river is a large natural waterway. ...


New automobiles that are transported by ship around the world are often moved on a large type of RORO called a Pure Car Carriers (PCC) or Pure Car Truck Carriers (PCTC).


The largest RORO barges in the world operate between the United States and Puerto Rico carrying highway trailers, shipping containers on chassis, new and used cars, and oversized cargos on three decks. These barges are towed by ocean-going tugs and sail four times per week from Jacksonville, Florida to San Juan. TUG is a three-letter acronym which can stand for: Graz University of Technology in Graz, Austria the TeX Users Group The Ultimate Group, an entertainment production company, founded by Chris Stokes Tie Up Games (a form of bondage) For the word tug, see Tug (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Motto: Where Florida Begins Location Location in the state of Florida Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Florida Duval Mayor John Peyton (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 2,264. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents


History

At first, wheeled vehicles carried as cargo on oceangoing ships were treated like any other cargo. Automobiles had their gas tanks emptied and their batteries disconnected before being hoisted into the ship’s hold, where they were chocked and secured. This process was tedious and difficult, and could not be used for routine travel.


The first RoRo ships were ferries carrying steam trains across rivers. One of the earliest was Firth of Forth ferry in Scotland which started in 1851 and operated for nearly forty years, until the completion of the Forth Bridge. The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area The Firth of Forth (Abhainn Dhubh [Black River] in Scottish Gaelic) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... For the nearby road bridge, see Forth Road Bridge. ...


Ferries hauling rail cars were used after the US Civil war in New York harbour, the Great Lakes and the St. Clair River in Detroit. By the latter quarter of the century, car ferries were a common sight in San Francisco and Puget Sound. A car ferry worked the Columbia River for many years at Kalama for the Northern Pacific Railway. By the turn of the century, car ferries became important adjuncts to railway systems--particularily those which were discontiguous due to geography. Montreal, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and the Islands of Japan were all cut by water, and thus needed ferries. Russians used car ferries on Lake Baikal to move railcars while the line was finished.


During WWII, landing craft were the first ships enabling road vehicles to roll directly on and off. Post war, the idea was adopted for merchant ships and short ferry crossings. The first RoRo service crossing the English channel began from Dover in 1953. Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... Map sources for Dover at grid reference TR315415 Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port town. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ...


In 1957 the US military issued a contract to the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company in Chester, PA for the construction of a new type of motorized vehicle carrier. The ship, Comet, had a stern ramp as well as interior ramps which allowed cars to drive directly from the dock, onto the ship, and into place. Loading and unloading was speeded dramatically. Comet also had an adjustable chocking system for locking cars onto the decks, and a ventilation system to remove any exhaust gases that accumulated during vehicle loading. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Car Carriers

Since 1970 the market for exporting and importing cars has increased dramatically and the number and type of RO/ROs has increased also. In 1973, Japan’s K Line built the European Highway, the first Pure Car Carrier, which carried 4,200 automobiles. Today’s pure car carriers (and their close cousins, the Pure Car/Truck Carrier) are distinctive looking ships with a box-like superstructure running the entire length and breadth of the hull, fully enclosing and protecting the cargo. They typically have a stern ramp and a side ramp for dual loading of many thousands of vehicles, as well as extensive automatic fire control systems. The largest PCC currently in service is the MV Mignon, which can carry up to 7,200 cars. This article refers to a model railway company. ...


Risks

The seagoing RORO car ferry, with large external doors close to the waterline and open vehicle decks with few internal bulkheads, has a reputation for being a high risk design. An improperly-secured loading door can cause a ship to take on water and sink, as happened for example with the Herald of Free Enterprise in 1987. Also, water sloshing on the vehicle deck can set up a free surface effect making the ship unstable and causing it to capsize. A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship. ... M/S Herald of Free Enterprise was a roll-on roll-off (RORO) car and passenger ferry that sank on March 6, 1987, killing 193 passengers. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The metacentric height (GM) is a characteristic of a ship which helps determines its stability in the water. ... Capsizing refers to when a boat is inverted such that the bottom of the boat is on top. ...


Benefits

While the characteristics of seagoing RORO car ferries have inherent risks, there are benefits to its seaworthiness. For example the car carrier Cougar Ace listed 80 degrees to its port side in 2006 but did not sink, since its high enclosed sides prevented water from entering. The Cougar Ace listing on July 24th, 2006 The M/V Cougar Ace is a Singapore-flagged RO-RO (Roll On-Roll Off) car carrier vessel. ...


Variations of RORO

The acronym ROPAX describes a RORO vessel equipped with cabins to accommodate passengers. A cabin is an enclosed room in a ship. ...


The ConRo vessel is a hybrid between a RORO and a container ship. This type of vessel has a below-decks area used for vehicle storage while stacking containerized freight on the top decks. Container ship Rita being loaded at Copenhagen; note crew standing on deck, and stacks of containers on shore. ... Containerization is a system of intermodal cargo transport using standard ISO containers (also known as isotainers) that can be loaded sealed and intact onto container ships, railroad cars and trucks. ...


A RoLo vessel is another hybrid vessel type with ramps serving vehicle decks but with other cargo decks accessible only by crane.


See also

This is a list of RORO vessels which took on water and capsized or sank due to problems with the loading doors or vehicle decks. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roll On/Roll Off - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1079 words)
RORO or ro-ro are acronyms for Roll On/Roll Off, describing a significant feature of a ship designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages.
RORO vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port.
The largest RORO barges in the world operate between the United States and Puerto Rico carrying highway trailers, shipping containers on chassis, new and used cars, and oversized cargos on three decks.
Das aktuelle Türen- und Fensterprogramm von RORO (119 words)
RORO-Qualität Lesen Sie, was für RORO Türen und Fenster spricht
Händleradressen Wo gibt es RORO Türen und Fenster zu kaufen ?
RORO Türen und Fenster: Lupenrein in Preis und Leistung !
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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