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Encyclopedia > RNA virus

An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. For example, Hepatitis B virus is classified as an RNA virus, even though its genome is double-stranded DNA, because the genome is transcribed into RNA during replication. The basis for this classification is error-prone RNA replication: All RNA viruses have very high mutation rates because they lack DNA polymerases which can find and edit out mistakes. DNA viruses have considerably lower mutation rates. See also retroviruses. A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... ... Originally known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ... DNA polymerase 3D structure. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two plus sense RNA molecules, which may or not be identical. ...


Although RNA usually mutates rapidly, recent work found that the SARS virus and related RNA viruses contain a gene that mutates very slowly. The gene in question has a complex three-dimensional structure which is hypothesized to provide a chemical function necessary for viral propagation. (See ribozyme.) If so, most mutations would render it unfit for that purpose and would not propagate. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is an atypical form of pneumonia. ... A ribozyme, or RNA enzyme, is an RNA molecule that can catalyze a chemical reaction. ...


Some RNA viruses:

Arenavirus is a genus of virus. ... Genera Hantavirus Nairovirus Orthobunyavirus Phlebovirus Tospovirus Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses. ... Genera Coronavirus Torovirus The Coronaviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Coronavirus; type species: Infectious bronchitis virus Genus Torovirus; type species: Equine torovirus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is an atypical form of pneumonia. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... In medicine (gastroenterology), hepatitis is any disease featuring inflammation of the liver. ... West Nile virus is a newly emergent virus of the family Flaviviridae, found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Negatively stained flu virions. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two identical plus sense RNA molecules. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Genera Vesiculovirus Lyssavirus Ephemerovirus Cytorhabdovirus Nucleorhabdovirus Novirhabdovirus Rhabdoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... Tobamoviruses are RNA viruses that infect plants. ... Rubella (also known as epidemic roseola, German measles or three-day measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... Genera Tymovirus Marafivirus Maculavirus The Tymoviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Tymovirus; type species: Turnip yellow mosaic virus Genus Marafivirus; type species: Maize rayado fino virus Genus Maculavirus; type species: Grapevine fleck virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Species Ivory Coast ebolavirus Reston ebolavirus Sudan ebolavirus Zaire virus Ebola hemorrhagic fever (alternatively Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever, EHF, or just Ebola) is a very rare, but severe, often fatal infectious disease occurring in humans and other primates, caused by the Ebola virus. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
RNA virus - definition of RNA virus in Encyclopedia (180 words)
An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication.
For example, Hepatitis B virus is classified as an RNA virus, even though its genome is double-stranded DNA, because the genome is transcribed into RNA during replication.
The basis for this classification is error-prone RNA replication: All RNA viruses have very high mutation rates because they lack DNA polymerases which can find and edit out mistakes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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