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Encyclopedia > RNA polymerase
RNAP from T. aquaticus pictured during elongation. Portions of the enzyme were made transparent so as to make the path of RNA and DNA more clear. The magnesium ion (yellow) is located at the enzyme active site.

RNA polymerase (RNAP or RNApol) is an enzyme that makes a RNA copy of a DNA or RNA template. In cells, RNAP is needed for constructing RNA chains from DNA genes, a process called transcription. RNA polymerase enzymes are essential to life and are found in all organisms and many viruses. In chemical terms, RNAP is a nucleotidyl transferase that polymerizes ribonucleotides at the 3' end of an RNA transcript. Image File history File linksMetadata RNAP_TEC_small. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RNAP_TEC_small. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... In biochemistry, a transferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a functional group (e. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... A ribonucleotide is a nucleotide in which a purine or pyrimidine base is linked to a ribose molecule. ... A diagram of a furanose (sugar-ring) molecule with carbons labelled numerically Directionality, in molecular biology, refers to the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid. ...

Contents

History

RNAP was discovered independently by Sam Weiss and Jerard Hurwitz in 1960.[1] By this time the 1959 Nobel Prize in Medicine had been awarded to Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg for the discovery of what was believed to be RNAP[2], but instead turned out to be a ribonuclease. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (September 24, 1905 – November 1, 1993) was a Spanish-American biochemist, and the recipient of the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. ... Arthur Kornberg Arthur Kornberg (born March 3, 3018) is an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) together with Dr. Severo Ochoa of New York University. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ...


The 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Roger Kornberg for creating detailed molecular images of RNA polymerase during various stages of the transcription process.[3] Roger D. Kornberg Roger David Kornberg (born April 24, 1947) is an American scientist and professor of structural biology at Stanford University School of Medicine. ...


Control of transcription

An electron-micrograph of DNA strands decorated by hundreds of RNAP molecules too small to be resolved. Each RNAP is transcribing an RNA strand which can be seen branching off of the DNA. "Begin" indicates the 3' end of the DNA, where RNAP initiates transcription; "End" indicates the 5' end, where the longer RNA molecules are almost completely transcribed.
An electron-micrograph of DNA strands decorated by hundreds of RNAP molecules too small to be resolved. Each RNAP is transcribing an RNA strand which can be seen branching off of the DNA. "Begin" indicates the 3' end of the DNA, where RNAP initiates transcription; "End" indicates the 5' end, where the longer RNA molecules are almost completely transcribed.

Control of the process of gene transcription affects patterns of gene expression and thereby allows a cell to adapt to a changing environment, perform specialized roles within an organism, and maintain basic metabolic processes necessary for survival. Therefore, it is hardly surprising that the activity of RNAP is both complex and highly regulated. In Escherichia coli bacteria, more than 100 factors have been identified which modify the activity of RNAP.[4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1039x1250, 533 KB) Micrograph of gene transcription in progress, original author identified as Dr. Hans-Heinrich Trepte. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1039x1250, 533 KB) Micrograph of gene transcription in progress, original author identified as Dr. Hans-Heinrich Trepte. ... An electron micrograph is a micrograph made with an electron microscope. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... In molecular biology, the 5 end and the 3 end (pronounced 5-prime and 3-prime) are respectively the leading and tail ends of a strand of nucleic acid. ... In molecular biology, the 5 end and the 3 end (pronounced 5-prime and 3-prime) are respectively the leading and tail ends of a strand of nucleic acid. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into functional proteins. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... E. coli redirects here. ...


RNAP can initiate transcription at specific DNA sequences known as promoters. It then produces an RNA chain which is complementary to the template DNA strand. The process of adding nucleotides to the RNA strand is known as elongation; In eukaryotes, RNAP can build chains as long as 2.4 million nucleosides (the full length of the dystrophin gene). RNAP will preferentially release its RNA transcript at specific DNA sequences encoded at the end of genes known as terminators. A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... A promoter is a DNA sequence that contains the information, in the form of DNA sequences, that permits the proper activation or repression of the gene which it controls, i. ... On the left: nucleotides that forms the DNA and their complementary. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase to a ribose ring. ... Dystrophin is a protein found in membranes surrounding individual muscle fibers, and its deficiency is one of the root causes of muscular dystrophy. ... In genetics, a terminator marks the end of a gene on the DNA for transcription. ...


Products of RNAP include:

RNAP accomplishes de novo synthesis. It is able to do this because specific interactions with the initiating nucleotide hold RNAP rigidly in place, facilitating chemical attack on the incoming nucleotide. Such specific interactions explain why RNAP prefers to start transcripts with ATP (followed by GTP, UTP, and then CTP). In contrast to DNA polymerase, RNAP includes helicase activity, therefore no separate enzyme is needed to unwind DNA. The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ... It has been suggested that Queuine be merged into this article or section. ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... It has been suggested that Queuine be merged into this article or section. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... // A ribozyme (from ribonucleic acid enzyme, also called RNA enzyme or catalytic RNA) is an RNA molecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In general usage, de novo is a Latin expression meaning afresh, anew, beginning again. In USA Banking, a de novo bank is defined as a state member bank that has been in operation for five years or less. ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


RNA polymerase action

Binding and initiation

RNA Polymerase binding involves the α subunit recognizing the upstream element (-40 to -70) in DNA, as well as the σ factor recognizing the -10 to -35 region. There are numerous σ factors that regulate gene expression. For example, σ70 is expressed under normal conditions and allows RNAP binding to house-keeping genes, while σ32 elicits RNAP binding to heat-shock genes.


After binding to the DNA, the RNA polymerase switches from a closed complex to an open complex. This change involves the separation of the DNA strands to form a unwound section of DNA of approximately 13bp. Ribonucleotides are base-paired to the template DNA strand, according to Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions. Supercoiling plays an important part in polymerase activity because of the unwinding and rewinding of DNA. Because regions of DNA in front of RNAP are unwound, there is compensatory positive supercoils. Regions behind RNAP are rewound and negative supercoils are present. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Superhelix. ...


Elongation

Transcription elongation involves the further addition of ribonucleotides and the change of the open complex to the transcriptional complex. As the RNA transcript is assembled, DNA in front of RNAP is further unwound and the 13bp open complex shifts to a 17bp transcriptional complex. At this point, the -10 to -35 promoter region is disrupted, and the σ factor falls off RNAP. This allows the rest of the RNAP complex to move forward, as the σ factor held the RNAP complex in place.


The 17bp transcriptional complex has an 8bp DNA-RNA hybrid, that is, 8 base-pairs involve the RNA transcript bound to the DNA template strand. As transcription progresses, ribonucleotides are added to the 3' end of the RNA transcript and the RNAP complex moves along the DNA. Although RNAP does not seem to have the 3'exonuclease activity that characterizes the proofreading activity found in DNA polymerase, there is evidence of that RNAP will halt at mismatched base-pairs and correct it.


The addition of ribonucleotides to the RNA transcript has a very similar mechanism to DNA polymerization - it is believed that these polymerases are evolutionarily related. Asp residues in the RNAP will hold onto Mg2+ ions, which will in turn coordinate the phosphates of the ribonucleotides. The first Mg2+ will hold onto the α-phosphate of the NTP to be added. This allows the nucleophilic attack of the 3'OH from the RNA transcript, adding an additional NTP to the chain. The second Mg2+ will hold onto the pyrophosphate of the NTP. The overall reaction equation is:


(NMP)n + NTP --> (NMP)n+1 + PPi


Termination

Termination of RNA transcription can be rho-independent or rho-dependent:


Rho-independent transcription termination is the termination of transcription without the aid of the rho protein. Transcription of a palindromic region of DNA causes the formation of a hairpin structure from the RNA transcription looping and binding upon itself. This hairpin structure is often rich in G-C base-pairs, making it more stable than the DNA-RNA hybrid itself. As a result, the 8bp DNA-RNA hybrid in the transcription complex shifts to a 4bp hybrid. Coincidentally, these last 4 base-pairs are weak A-U base-pairs, and the entire RNA transcript will fall off.[5] Rho-independent transcription termination is a mechanism in bacteria whereby mRNA transcription is stopped. ...


RNA polymerase in bacteria

In bacteria, the same enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of mRNA and ncRNA. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ...


RNAP is a relatively large molecule. The core enzyme has 5 subunits (~400 kDa): The unified atomic mass unit (u), or Dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ...

  • α2: the two α subunits assemble the enzyme and recognize regulatory factors. Each subunit has two domains: αCTD (C-Terminal domain) binds the UP element of the extended promoter, and αNTD (N-terminal domain) binds the rest of the polymerase.
  • β: this has the polymerase activity (catalyzes the synthesis of RNA) which includes chain initiation and elongation.
  • β': binds to DNA (nonspecifically).
  • ω: restores denatured RNA polymerase to its functional form in vitro. It has been observed to offer a protective/chaperone function to the β' subunit in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Now known to promote assembly.

In order to bind promoter-specific regions, the core enzyme requires another subunit, sigma (σ). The sigma factor greatly reduces the affinity of RNAP for nonspecific DNA while increasing specificity for certain promoter regions, depending on the sigma factor. That way, transcription is initiated at the right region. The complete holoenzyme therefore has 6 subunits: α2ββ'σω (~480 kDa). The structure of RNAP exhibits a groove with a length of 55 Å (5.5 nm) and a diameter of 25 Å (2.5 nm). This groove fits well the 20 Å (2 nm) double strand of DNA. The 55 Å (5.5 nm) length can accept 16 nucleotides. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Mycobacterium smegatis is a bacterium species in the genus Mycobacterium. ... Sigma factor (σ factor) is a prokaryotic initiation factor that binds to RNA polymerase and promotes attachment to promoter sites on DNA. There are seven different sigma factors for different kinds of promoters. ... In biochemistry, holoenzyme may refer either to the complete and operative form of an enzyme with multiple protein subunits or to the combination of an apoenzyme with its cofactor. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...


When not in use RNA polymerase binds to low affinity sites to allow rapid exchange for an active promoter site when one opens. RNA polymerase holoenzyme, therefore, does not freely float around in the cell when not in use.


Transcriptional cofactors

There are a number of proteins which can bind to RNAP and modify its behavior. For instance, greA and greB from E. coli can enhance the ability of RNAP to cleave the RNA template near the growing end of the chain. This cleavage can rescue a stalled polymerase molecule, and is likely involved in proofreading the occasional mistakes made by RNAP. A separate cofactor, Mfd, is involved in transcription-coupled repair, the process in which RNAP recognizes damaged bases in the DNA template and recruits enzymes to restore the DNA. Other cofactors are known to play regulatory roles, i.e. they help RNAP choose whether or not to express certain genes. Transcription-coupled repair is a DNA repair mechanism which operates in tandem with transcription. ...


RNA polymerase in eukaryotes

Essential Subunit Of Human RNA Polymerases I, II and III

Eukaryotes have several types of RNAP, characterized by the type of RNA they synthesize: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2400x1672, 912 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): RNA polymerase ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2400x1672, 912 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): RNA polymerase ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ...

There are other RNA polymerase types in mitochondria and chloroplasts. RNA polymerase I (also called Pol I) transcribes DNA to synthesize rRNA (Ribosomal RNA). ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... RNA polymerase II (also called RNAP II and Pol II) transcribes DNA to synthesize precursors of mRNA and most snRNA. A 550 kDa complex of 12 subunits, RNAP II is the most studied type of RNA polymerase. ... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... The stem-loop secondary structure of a pre-microRNA from Brassica oleracea. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... RNA polymerase III (also called Pol III) transcribes DNA to synthesize ribosomal 5S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. ... Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... The cytosol (cf. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ...


RNA polymerase in archaea

Archaea have a single RNAP that is closely related to the three main eukaryotic polymerases. Thus, it has been speculated that the archaeal polymerase resembles the ancestor of the specialized eukaryotic polymerases.[9] Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ...


RNA polymerase in viruses

T7 RNA polymerase producing a mRNA (green) from a DNA template. The protein is shown as a purple ribbon. Image derived from PDB 1MSW.

Many viruses also encode for RNAP. Perhaps the most widely studied viral RNAP is found in bacteriophage T7. This single-subunit RNAP is related to that found in mitochondria and chloroplasts, and shares considerable homology to DNA polymerase.[10] It is believed by many that most viral polymerases therefore evolved from DNA polymerase and are not directly related to the multi-subunit polymerases described above. Image File history File links RNA_pol. ... Image File history File links RNA_pol. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... 3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ...


The viral polymerases are diverse, and include some forms which can use RNA as a template instead of DNA. This occurs in negative strand RNA viruses and dsRNA viruses, both of which exist for a portion of their life cycle as double-stranded RNA. However, some positive strand RNA viruses, such as polio, also contain these RNA dependent RNA polymerases.[11] An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... RNA dependent RNA polymerase, or RDRP, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template. ...


Functional domains

C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase

Transcription Initiation

The carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II is that portion of the polymerase which is involved in the initiation of DNA transcription. The CTD typically consists of up to 52 repeats of the sequence Tyr-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser [12]. The transcription factor TFIIH is a kinase and will hyperphosphorylate the CTD of RNAP, and in doing so, causes the RNAP complex to move away from the initiation site. In genetics, transcription is the first of the two-step protein biosynthesis process. ...


5'Capping

The carboxy-terminal domain is also the binding site of the cap-synthesizing and cap-binding complex. In eukaryotes, after transcription of the 5' end of an RNA transcript, the cap-synthesizing complex on the CTD will remove the gamma-phosphate from the 5'phosphate and attach a GMP, forming a 5',5'-triphosphate linkage. The synthesizing complex falls off and the cap then binds to the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is bound to the CTD.


The 5'cap of eukaryotic RNA transcripts is important for binding of the RNA transcript to the ribosome during transcription, to the CTD of RNAP, and prevents RNA degradation.


Spliceosome

The carboxy-terminal domain is also the binding site for spliceosome factors that are part of RNA splicing. These allow for the splicing and removal of introns (in the form of a lariat structure) during RNA transcription. A spliceosome is a complex of RNA and many protein subunits called snRNPs, that removes the non-coding introns from unprocessed mRNA. Spliceosomes are unique to eukaryotic mRNA as the mRNA of prokaryotes lack introns. ... RNA splicing is the excision of introns from RNA during the formation of mRNA and the removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the reattachment or annealing of exons. ...


Mutation in the CTD

Major studies have been carried out in which knockout of particular amino acids was achieved in the CTD. The results indicate that RNA polymerase II CTD truncation mutations affect the ability to induce transcription of a subset of genes in vivo, and the lack of response to induction maps to the upstream activating sequences of these genes. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ...


RNA polymerase purification

RNA polymerase can be isolated in the following ways:

  • By a phosphocellulose column.[13]
  • By glycerol gradient centrifugation.[14]
  • By a DNA column.
  • By an Ion exchange column.[15]

And also combinations of the above techniques. Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ...


See also

3D structure of the DNA-binding helix-hairpin-helix motifs in human DNA polymerase beta A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that assists in DNA replication. ... T7 RNA Polymerase is an RNA polymerase that catalyzes the formation of RNA in the 5→ 3 direction. ... Alpha-amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic nonribosomal peptide of eight amino acids. ...

References

  1. ^ Jerard Hurwitz (Dec 2005). "The Discovery of RNA Polymerase". Journal of Biological Chemistry 280 (52): 42477-85. DOI:10.1074/jbc.X500006200. PMID 16230341. 
  2. ^ Nobel Prize 1959
  3. ^ Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
  4. ^ Akira Ishihama (2000). "Functional modulation of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase" 54: 499-518. PMID 11018136. 
  5. ^ Farnham PJ; Platt T. (Feb 1981). "Rho-independent termination: dyad symmetry in DNA causes RNA polymerase to pause during transcription in vitro". Nucleic Acids Res. 9 (3): 563-77. PMID 7012794. 
  6. ^ Grummt I. (1999). "Regulation of mammalian ribosomal gene transcription by RNA polymerase I.". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 62: 109-54. PMID 9932453. 
  7. ^ Lee Y; Kim M; Han J; Yeom KH; Lee S; Baek SH; Kim VN. (Oct 2004). "MicroRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II". EMBO J. 23 (20): 4051-60. PMID 15372072. 
  8. ^ Willis IM. (Feb 1993). "RNA polymerase III. Genes, factors and transcriptional specificity". Eur J Biochem. 212 (1): 1-11. PMID 8444147. 
  9. ^ D Langer, J Hain, P Thuriaux and W Zillig (1995) Transcription in Archaea: Similarity to that in Eucarya PNAS 92 5768-5772
  10. ^ Hedtke et al. (1997) Mitochondrial and chloroplast phage-type RNA polymerases in Arabidopsis. Science 227 809-811
  11. ^ Paul Ahlquist (2002) RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases, Viruses, and RNA Silencing. Science 296 1270-1273
  12. ^ Anton Meinhart1; Patrick Cramer (Jul 2004). "Recognition of RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain by 3'-RNA-processing factors". Nature 430 (6996): 223-226. DOI:10.1038/nature02679. PMID 15241417. 
  13. ^ Kelly JL; Lehman IR. (Aug 1986). "Yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase. Purification and properties of the catalytic subunit.". J Biol Chem. 261 (22): 10340-7. PMID 3525543. 
  14. ^ Honda A et al (Apr 1990). "Purification and molecular structure of RNA polymerase from influenza virus A/PR8.". J Biochem (Tokyo) 107 (4): 624-8. PMID 2358436. 
  15. ^ Hager et al. (1990) Use of Mono Q High-Resolution Ion-Exchange Chromatography To Obtain Highly Pure and Active Escherichia coli RNA Polymerase Biochemistry 29 7890-7894

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • DNAi - DNA Interactive, including information and Flash clips on RNA Polymerase.
  • MeSH RNA+Polymerase
  • EC 2.7.7.6

  Results from FactBites:
 
RNA polymerase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (964 words)
RNA polymerase enzymes are essential and are found in all organisms and many viruses.
The process of adding nucleotides to the RNA strand is known as elongation, and in eukaryotes RNAP can build chains as long as 2.4 million nucleosides (the full length of the dystrophin gene).
RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre-rRNA 45S, which matures into 28 S, 18S and 5,8S rRNAs which will for the major RNA sections of the ribosome.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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