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A hairpin loop from a pre-mRNA. Notice its nitrogen-rich (blue) bases and oxygen-rich (red) backbone.
A hairpin loop from a pre-mRNA. Notice its nitrogen-rich (blue) bases and oxygen-rich (red) backbone.

Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid made from a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell RNA is usually single stranded, while DNA is usually double stranded. RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom), and in RNA the nucleotide uracil substitutes for thymine, which is present in DNA. RNA may refer to: Religion Newswriters Association, an Anglican group for responsible religious reporting Ribonucleic acid, a nucleotide polymer that plays a vital role in living organisms Romantic Novelists Association Royal National Agricultural and Industrial Association of Queensland, organiser of the Ekka RNA Showgrounds (or Brisbane Exhibition Ground), where Ekka... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ...


RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. Some of these RNA-processing enzymes contain RNA as part of their structures. RNA is also central to the translation of some RNAs into proteins. In this process, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. It has also been known since the 1990s that several types of RNA regulate which genes are active. A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Gene regulation is the general term for cellular control of protein synthesis at the DNA-RNA transcription step. ...

Contents

Structure

Watson-Crick base pairs in a siRNA (hydrogen atoms are not shown)
Watson-Crick base pairs in a siRNA (hydrogen atoms are not shown)

Each nucleotide in RNA contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'. A base is attached to the 1' position, generally adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) or uracil (U). Adenine and guanine are purines, cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. A phosphate group is attached to the 3' position of one ribose and the 5' position of the next. The phosphate groups have a negative charge each at physiological pH, making RNA a charged molecule (polyanion). The bases may form hydrogen bonds between cytosine and guanine, between adenine and uracil and between guanine and uracil.[1] However other interactions are possible, such as a group of adenine bases binding to each other in a bulge,[2] or the GNRA tetraloop that has a guanine–adenine base-pair.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,010 × 730 pixels, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/png) Structure showing the basepairing of 5-GUC-3 to 3-CAG-5. Hydrogen atoms are omitted. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,010 × 730 pixels, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/png) Structure showing the basepairing of 5-GUC-3 to 3-CAG-5. Hydrogen atoms are omitted. ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA) are a class of 20-25 nucleotide-long RNA molecules that interfere with the expression of genes. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring [1]. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ...

Chemical structure of RNA

An important structural feature of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar. The presence of this functional group causes the helix to adopt the A-form geometry rather than the B-form most commonly observed in DNA.[3] This results in a very deep and narrow major groove and a shallow and wide minor groove.[4] A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule (that is, not involved in formation of a double helix), it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone.[5] // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... The A-DNA structure. ...


RNA is transcribed with only four bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil),[6] but there are numerous modified bases and sugars in mature RNAs. Pseudouridine (Ψ), in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C–N bond to a C–C bond, and ribothymidine (T), are found in various places (most notably in the TΨC loop of tRNA).[7] Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside is called inosine. Inosine plays a key role in the wobble hypothesis of the genetic code.[8] There are nearly 100 other naturally occurring modified nucleosides,[9] of which pseudouridine and nucleosides with 2'-O-methylribose are the most common.[10] The specific roles of many of these modifications in RNA are not fully understood. However, it is notable that in ribosomal RNA, many of the post-transcriptional modifications occur in highly functional regions, such as the peptidyl transferase center and the subunit interface, implying that they are important for normal function.[11] Pseudouridine (abbreviated Ψ) is the C-glycoside isomer of the nucleoside uridine, and it is the most prevalent of the over one hundred different modified nucleosides found in RNA [1]. Ψ is found in all species and in all classes of RNA except mRNA [1]. Ψ is formed by enzymes called Ψ synthases, which... Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase (often reffered to simply as bases) to a ribose ring. ... Inosine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Wobble base pairs for inosine Wobble base pairs for Uracil A wobble base pair is a G-U and I-U / I-A / I-C pair fundamental in RNA secondary structure. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ...

Secondary structure of a telomerase RNA
Secondary structure of a telomerase RNA

The functional form of single stranded RNA molecules, just like proteins, frequently requires a specific tertiary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements which are hydrogen bonds within the molecule. This leads to several recognizable "domains" of secondary structure like hairpin loops, bulges and internal loops.[12] There has been a significant amount of research directed at the RNA structure prediction problem. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hairpin structure of RNA A hairpin loop in RNA is a sequence of nucleotides where a long segment of RNA can base-pair with each other, but a segment within that sequence can not base pair, causing a hairpin loop. ... The functional form of single stranded RNA molecules (like proteins) frequently requires a specific tertiary structure. ...


Comparison with DNA

RNA and DNA differ in three main ways. First, unlike DNA which is double-stranded, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in most of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. Second, while DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose, (there is no hydroxyl group attached to the pentose ring in the 2' position in DNA). These hydroxyl groups make RNA less stable than DNA because it is more prone to hydrolysis. Third, the complementary nucleotide to adenine is not thymine, as it is in DNA, but rather uracil, which is an unmethylated form of thymine.[13] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Molecular biologists use several shorthands when referring to nucleic acid molecules such as DNA and RNA, collectively referred to as nucleic acid nomenclature. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ... Methylation is a term used in the chemical sciences to denote the attachment or substitution of a methyl group on various substrates. ...

The 50S ribosomal subunit. RNA is in orange, protein in blue. The active site is in the middle (red).
The 50S ribosomal subunit. RNA is in orange, protein in blue. The active site is in the middle (red).

Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs including tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs and other, non-coding, RNAs are extensively base paired to form double stranded helices. Structural analysis of these RNAs have revealed that they are highly structured. Unlike DNA, this structure is not long double-stranded helices but rather collections of short helices packed together into structures akin to proteins. In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis, like enzymes.[14] For instance, determination of the structure of the ribosome—an enzyme that catalyzes peptide bond formation—revealed that its active site is composed entirely of RNA.[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1074x1012, 1322 KB) Summary Atomic structure of the 50S Large Subunit of the Ribosome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1074x1012, 1322 KB) Summary Atomic structure of the 50S Large Subunit of the Ribosome. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Sometimes the 50s is used as shorthand for the 1950s, the 1850s, or other such decades in various centuries Events... Catalyst redirects here. ...


Synthesis

Synthesis of RNA is usually catalyzed by an enzyme—RNA polymerase—using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription. Initiation of transcription begins with the binding of the enzyme to a promoter sequence in the DNA (usually found "upstream" of a gene). The DNA double helix is unwound by the helicase activity of the enzyme. The enzyme then progresses along the template strand in the 3’ to 5’ direction, synthesizing a complementary RNA molecule with elongation occurring in the 5’ to 3’ direction. The DNA sequence also dictates where termination of RNA synthesis will occur.[16] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... A promoter is a regulatory region of DNA located upstream (towards the 5 region) of a gene, providing a control point for regulated gene transcription. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


RNAs are often modified by enzymes after transcription. For example, a poly(A) tail and a 5' cap are added to eukaryotic pre-mRNA. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Polyadenylation is the covalent linkage of a polyadenylyl moiety to a messenger RNA molecule. ... The 5 cap is a specially altered dinucleotide end to the 5 end of preliminary messenger RNA as found in eukaryotes. ... Pre-mRNA (preliminary mRNA) is a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA), synthesized from the DNA in the nucleus of a cell by the process transcription. ...


There are also a number of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases as well that use RNA as their template for synthesis of a new strand of RNA. For instance, a number of RNA viruses (such as poliovirus) use this type of enzyme to replicate their genetic material.[17] Also, it is known that RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are required for the RNA interference pathway in many organisms.[18] RNA dependent RNA polymerase, or RDRP, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into...


Types of RNA

See also: List of RNAs

Overview

Structure of a hammerhead ribozyme, a ribozyme that cuts RNA
Structure of a hammerhead ribozyme, a ribozyme that cuts RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is the RNA that carries information from DNA to the ribosome, the sites of protein synthesis (translation) in the cell. The coding sequence of the mRNA determines the amino acid sequence in the protein that is produced.[19] Many RNAs do not code for protein however. These non-coding RNAs can be encoded by their own genes (RNA genes), but can also derive from mRNA introns.[20] The most prominent examples of non-coding RNAs are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), both of which are involved in the process of translation.[13] There are also non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation, RNA processing and other roles. Certain RNAs are able to catalyse chemical reactions such as cutting and ligating other RNA molecules,[21] and the catalysis of peptide bond formation in the ribosome;[15] these are known as ribozymes. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... Transfer RNA Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA), first hypothesized by Francis Crick, is a small RNA chain (73-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... The term RNA editing describes those molecular processes in which the information content is altered in a RNA molecule through a chemical change in the base makeup. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... In biochemistry, a ligase (from the Latin verb ligāre — to bind or to glue together) is an enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small chemical group pendant to one of the larger molecules. ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... This article is about the chemical. ...


In translation

Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information about a protein sequence to the ribosomes, the protein synthesis factories in the cell. It is coded so that every three nucleotides (a codon) correspond to one amino acid. In eukaryotic cells, once precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) has been transcribed from DNA, it is processed to mature mRNA. This removes its introns—non-coding sections of the pre-mRNA. The mRNA is then exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is bound to ribosomes and translated into its corresponding protein form with the help of tRNA. In prokaryotic cells, which do not have nucleus and cytoplasm compartments, mRNA can bind to ribosomes while it is being transcribed from DNA. After a certain amount of time the message degrades into its component nucleotides with the assistance of ribonucleases.[19] The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... Translation is the second stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ... Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ...


Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain of about 80 nucleotides that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. It has sites for amino acid attachment and an anticodon region for codon recognition that binds to a specific sequence on the messenger RNA chain through hydrogen bonding.[20] Transfer RNA Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA), first hypothesized by Francis Crick, is a small RNA chain (73-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... An anticodon is a unit made up of nucleotides that plays an important role in various DNA cycles, including DNA transcription. ... RNA codons. ...


Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the catalytic component of the ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes contain four different rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S rRNA. Three of the rRNA molecules are synthesized in the nucleolus, and one is synthesized elsewhere. In the cytoplasm, ribosomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome. The ribosome binds mRNA and carries out protein synthesis. Several ribosomes may be attached to a single mRNA at any time.[19] rRNA is extremely abundant and makes up 80% of the 10 mg/ml RNA found in a typical eukaryotic cytoplasm.[22] Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... The nucleolus is contained within the cell nucleus. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ...


Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is found in many bacteria and plastids. It tags proteins encoded by mRNAs that lack stop codons for degradation and prevents the ribosome from stalling.[23] A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ...


In gene regulation

Several types of RNA can downregulate gene expression by being complementary to a part of an mRNA or gene. MicroRNAs (miRNA; 21-22 nt) are found in eukaryotes and act through RNA interference (RNAi), where an effector complex of miRNA and enzymes can break down mRNA which the miRNA is complementary to, block the mRNA from being translated, or cause a promoter to be methylated which generally downregulates its gene.[24] Some miRNAs upregulate genes instead (RNA activation).[25] While small interfering RNAs (siRNA; 20-25 nt) are often produced by breakdown of viral RNA, there are also endogenous sources of siRNAs in plants.[26] siRNAs act through RNA interference in a fashion similar to miRNAs, including RNA activation.[27] Animals have Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA; 29-30 nt) which are active in germline cells and are thought to be a defense against transposons and play a role in gametogenesis.[28][29] Antisense RNAs are widespread among bacteria; most downregulate a gene, but a few are activators of transcription.[30] Antisense RNA acts by binding to an mRNA, forming double-stranded RNA that is degraded by enzymes.[31] There are many mRNA-like large non-coding RNAs that regulate genes in eukaryotes,[32] one such RNA is Xist which coats one X chromosome in female mammals and inactivates it.[33] The stem-loop secondary structure of a pre-microRNA from Brassica oleracea. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into... A promoter is a regulatory region of DNA located upstream (towards the 5 region) of a gene, providing a control point for regulated gene transcription. ... Small double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been found to silence gene expression by an evolutionally conserved mechanism known as RNA interference or RNAi. ... Mediating RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. ... Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is a class of small RNA molecules that is expressed uniquely in mammalian testes and forms RNA-protein complexes with Piwi proteins. ... Germline is a word used in biology and genetics. ... A DNA composite transposon. ... Gametogenesis is the creation of gametes by meiotic division of gametocytes into various gametes. ... Antisense mRNA is an mRNA transcript that is complementary to endogenous mRNA. It is the noncoding strand complementary to the coding sequence of mRNA. Introducing a transgene coding for antisense mRNA is a strategy used to block expression of a gene of interest. ... Xist is an RNA gene on the X chromosome of the placental mammals that acts as major effector of the X inactivation process. ... In those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X or Z, a Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female cell, or the inactive Z in a male. ...


An mRNA may contain regulatory elements itself, such as riboswitches, in the 5' UTR or 3' UTR; these cis-regulatory elements regulate the activity of that mRNA.[34] In eukaryotic genetics, the five prime untranslated region (5 UTR) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). ... In genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3 UTR) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). ... A cis-regulatory element or cis-element is a region of DNA or RNA that regulates the expression of genes located on that same strand. ...


In RNA processing

Uridine to pseudouridine is a common RNA modification.

Many RNAs are involved in modifying other RNAs. Introns are spliced out of pre-mRNA by spliceosomes, which contain several small nuclear RNAs (snRNA),[13] or the introns can be ribozymes that are spliced by themselves.[35] RNA can also be altered by having its nucleotides modified to other nucleotides than A, C, G and U. In eukaryotes, modifications of RNA nucleotides are generally directed by small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA; 60-300 nt),[20] found in the nucleolus and cajal bodies. snoRNAs associate with enzymes and guide them to a spot on an RNA by basepairing to that RNA. These enzymes then perform the nucleotide modification. rRNAs and tRNAs are extensively modified, but snRNAs and mRNAs can also be the target of base modification.[36][37] Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... In genetics, splicing is a modification of genetic information after transcription, in which introns of precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) are removed and exons of it are joined. ... Pre-mRNA (preliminary mRNA) is a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA), synthesized from the DNA in the nucleus of a cell by the process transcription. ... A spliceosome is a complex of RNA and many protein subunits called snRNPs, that removes the non-coding introns from unprocessed mRNA. Spliceosomes are unique to eukaryotic mRNA as the mRNA of prokaryotes lack introns. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Cytidine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of Guanosine Guanosine is a nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Uridine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when uracil is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... The nucleolus is contained within the cell nucleus. ... Cajal bodies are spherical structures found in the nucleus of proliferative cells like tumor cells, or metabolically active cells like neurons. ...


RNA genomes

Like DNA, RNA can be an information carrier. RNA viruses have genomes composed of RNA, plus a variety of proteins encoded by that genome. The viral genome is replicated by some of those proteins, while other proteins protect the genome as the virus particle moves to a new host cell. Viroids are another group of pathogens, but they consist only of RNA, do not encode any protein and are replicated by a host plant cell's polymerase.[38] An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Families Pospiviroidae Avsunviroidae Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA without the protein coat that is typical for viruses. ...


In DNA replication

Reverse transcribing viruses replicate their genomes by reverse transcribing DNA copies from their RNA; these DNA copies are then transcribed to new RNA. Retrotransposons also spread by copying DNA and RNA from one another,[39] and telomerase contains an RNA that is used as template for building the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.[40] A reverse transcribing virus is any virus which replicates using reverse transcription, the formation of DNA from an RNA template. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... Retrotransposons are genetic elements than can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ...


Double-stranded RNA

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is RNA with two complementary strands, similar to the DNA found in all cells. dsRNA forms the genetic material of some viruses (double-stranded RNA viruses). Double-stranded RNA such as viral RNA or siRNA can trigger RNA interference in eukaryotes, as well as interferon response in vertebrates.[41][42][43] This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Double-stranded RNA viruses The double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses represent a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria), genome segment number (one to twelve), and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers, or turrets). ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA) are a class of 20-25 nucleotide-long RNA molecules that interfere with the expression of genes. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Discovery

Nucleic acids were discovered in 1868 by Friedrich Miescher, who called the material 'nuclein' since it was found in the nucleus.[44] It was later discovered that prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus, also contain nucleic acids. The role of RNA in protein synthesis had been suspected since 1939.[45] The first eukaryotic messenger RNA, for rabbit hemoglobin, was isolated in 1967 and was found to induce the synthesis of hemoglobin after injection into oocytes.[46][47] Severo Ochoa won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Medicine after he discovered how RNA is synthesized.[48] The sequence of the 77 nucleotides of a yeast tRNA was found by Robert W. Holley in 1965,[49] winning Holley the 1968 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Carl Woese realised RNA can be catalytic in 1967 and proposed the earliest forms of life relied on RNA both to carry genetic information and to catalyze biochemical reactions—an RNA world.[50][51] In 1976, Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent determined the first complete nucleotide sequence of an RNA virus genome, that of bacteriophage MS2.[52] In the early 1990s it was found that introduced genes can silence homologous endogenous genes in plants.[53] At about the same time, 22 nt long RNAs, now known as microRNAs, were found to have a role in the development of C. elegans.[54] The discovery of gene regulatory RNAs has led to attempts to develop drugs made of RNA, particularly to silence oncogenes and viral genes.[55] There is no such drug on the market, but there is promising research on using siRNAs to downregulate genes through RNA interference.[56] Friedrich Miescher Johan Friedrich Miescher (13 August 1844, Basel - 26 August 1895, Davos) was a Swiss biologist. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte that divides twice by mitosis and meiosis into two other oocytes or into two ootids. ... Severo Ochoa Statue outside the School of Medicine of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Robert W. Holley, the structure of a tRNA is shown in the background Dr Robert W. Holley (January 28, 1922 - February 11, 1993) was an American biochemist, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 for describing the structure of alanine transfer RNA, linking DNA and... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... RNA with its nitrogenous bases to the left and DNA to the right. ... Walter Fiers was born in Ieper (Belgium) in 1931. ... Ghent University (in Dutch, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the two large Flemish universities. ... The bacteriophage MS2 or Bacillus phage M2 (Caudovirales, Podoviridae) infects Bacillus subtilis. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... An oncogene is a gene that can cause a cell to develop into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA) are a class of 20-25 nucleotide-long RNA molecules that interfere with the expression of genes. ... Cells use dicer to trim double stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA or microRNA. An exogenous dsRNA or endogenous pre-miRNA can be processed by dicer and incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets single-stranded messenger RNA molecules and triggers translational repression;[1] incorporation into...


See also

This article is about the general scientific term. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Nucleoside phosphoramidites are used to synthesise short nucleic acid chains. ... Quantification of nucleic acids is commonly used in molecular biology to determine the concentrations of DNA or RNA present in a mixture, as subsequent reactions or protocols using a nucleic acid sample often require particular amounts for optimum performance. ... The RNA Ontology Consortium is an international organization whose purpose is to create a standard vocabulary for studying ribonucleic acid. ... Sequence profiling Tools in bioinformatics refer to all those software tools (web-based/downloadable) that provide a brief overview on all related information about an input sequence. ...

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring [1]. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase (often reffered to simply as bases) to a ribose ring. ... Adenosine is a nucleoside composed of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside formed when adenine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of Guanosine Guanosine is a nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Guanosine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when guanine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... Uridine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when uracil is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... The chemical structure of deoxythymidine Thymidine (more precisely called deoxythymidine can also be labelled deoxyribosylthymine, and thymine deoxyriboside) is a chemical compound, more precisely a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside. ... Cytidine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... Cytidine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Adenosine monophosphate, also known as 5-adenylic acid and abbreviated AMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside adenosine. ... Guanosine monophosphate, also known as 5-guanidylic acid and abbreviated GMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside guanosine. ... Uridine monophosphate, also known as 5-uridylic acid and abbreviated UMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside uridine. ... Cytidine monophosphate, also known as 5-cytidylic acid and abbreviated CMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside cytidine. ... Adenosine diphosphate, abbreviated ADP, is a nucleotide. ... Uridine diphosphate, abbreviated UDP, is a nucleotide. ... Cytidine diphosphate, abbreviated CDP, is a nucleotide. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5-triphosphate. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Cytidine triphosphate is a pyrimidine nucleotide. ... Structure of cAMP cAMP represented in three ways, the left with sticks-representation, the middle with structure formula, and the right with space filled representation. ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger derived from GTP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). ... Cyclic ADP Ribose popularly known as cADPR is a cyclic adenine nucleotide (like cAMP) with two phosphate groups present on 5 OH of the adenosine (like ADP), further connected to another ribose at the 5 position which in turn closes the cycle by glycosidic bonding to the Nitrogen1 of the... A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Deoxyguanosine monophosphate is a derivative of the common nucleic acid GTP, or guanosine triphosphate, in which the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2 carbon on the nucleotides pentose has been reduced to just a hydrogen atom (hence the deoxy- part of the name). ... Thymidine monophosphate, also known as 5-thymidylic acid and abbreviated TMP, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside thymidine. ... Deoxycytidine monophosphate is a deoxynucleotide, and one of the four monomers that make up DNA. In a DNA double helix, it will base pair with deoxyguanosine monophosphate. ... Deoxyadenosine diphosphate is a derivative of the common nucleic acid ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, in which the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2 carbon on the nucleotides pentose has been removed (hence the deoxy- part of the name). ... Deoxyguanosine diphosphate is a derivative of the common nucleic acid GTP, or guanosine triphosphate, in which the -OH (hydroxyl) group on the 2 carbon on the nucleotides pentose has been removed (hence the deoxy- part of the name). ... Thymidine diphosphate, abbreviated TDP, is a nucleotide. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Deoxy adenosine triphosphate produces energy within the cells and is the basis for normal functioning of all body systems and organs. ... The chemical structure of dGTP Deoxyguanosine triphosphate, normally shortened to dGTP has a chemical structure of Na4 â€¢ 3 H2O and a molecular weight of 649. ... 3D-Model of thymidine triphosphate Thymidine triphosphate or TTP is one of the four nucleoside triphosphates that make up DNA. It can be used by DNA ligase to create overlapping sticky ends so that protruding ends of opened microbial plasmids maybe closed up. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Precursor mRNA, more commonly termed pre-mRNA, is an incompletely processed single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), synthesized from a DNA template in the nucleus of a cell by transcription. ... Transfer RNA Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA), first hypothesized by Francis Crick, is a small RNA chain (73-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a type of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus by RNA Pol I, is the central component of the ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. ... Antisense mRNA is an mRNA transcript that is complementary to endogenous mRNA. It is the noncoding strand complementary to the coding sequence of mRNA. Introducing a transgene coding for antisense mRNA is a strategy used to block expression of a gene of interest. ... Guide RNA (gRNA) is a type of RNA that is used in mRNA editing. ... The stem-loop secondary structure of a pre-microRNA from Brassica oleracea. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ... Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is a class of small RNA molecules that is expressed uniquely in mammalian testes and forms RNA-protein complexes with Piwi proteins. ... A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) is a sequence of RNA that makes a tight hairpin turn that can be used in gene expression silence. ... Mediating RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a mature mRNA template. ... gDNA is the abbreviation of the term Genomic Deoxyribonucleic acid. ... An example of an RNA stem-loop, similar to what is seen in the RNA region of msDNA Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA which consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule linked via a phosphodiester bond to a branched RNA molecule. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Nucleic acid analogues are compounds structurally similar to naturally occuring RNA and DNA, used as a research tool in molecular biology and/or as cure in medicine. ... Glycerol nucleic acid (GNA) is a chemical similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its backbone. GNA is not known to occur naturally in existing life on Earth. ... A locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a modified RNA nucleotide. ... PNA can also refer to the Palestinian National Authority or Pakistan National Alliance. ... TNA is threose nucleic acid, a chemical similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its backbone. ... Segment of a Morpholino-RNA heteroduplex, 8-mer shown In molecular biology, a Morpholino is a kind of molecule used to modify gene expression. ... The pGEX-3x plasmid is a popular cloning vector. ... A phagemid is a type of cloning genetics vector developed as a co-infection of the M13 helper phage and plasmids to produce a smaller version of the virus. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. ... A cosmid is a type of plasmid (often used as a cloning vector) constructed by the insertion of cos sequences, DNA-Sequences of the Phage Lambda Virus. ... P1 is a temperate bacteriophage (phage). ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. ... A yeast artificial chromosome (short YAC) is a vector used to clone large DNA fragments (larger than 100 kb and up to 3000 kb). ... A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Nucleotide sugars are biochemicals that act as donors of sugar residues in nucleotide sugars metabolism. ... Some common lipids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The RNASociety WebSite (318 words)
The RNA Society was formed in 1993 to facilitate sharing and dissemination of experimental results and emerging concepts in ribonucleic acid research.
The Society encompasses RNA research in the broadest sense: from the ribosome to the spliceosome, from RNA viruses to catalytic RNAs.
The RNA journal is a publication of the RNA Society.
RNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1259 words)
RNA serves as the template for translation of genes into proteins, transferring amino acids to the ribosome to form proteins, and also translating the transcript into proteins.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a component of the ribosomes, the protein synthetic factories in the cell.
RNA genes (sometimes referred to as non-coding RNA or small RNA) are genes that encode RNA that is not translated into a protein.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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GRACIELASIMS29
8th July 2010
According to my own analysis, billions of people all over the world get the business loans at different creditors. Thence, there is a good possibility to receive a secured loan in any country.

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