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Encyclopedia > RMS Titanic
RMS Titanic
The RMS Titanic leaving Belfast for sea trials, 2 April 1912
Career
Class and type: Olympic-class ocean liner
Builder: Harland and Wolff shipyard, Belfast
Laid down: 31 March 1909
Launched: 31 May 1911
Christened: Not christened, as per White Star Line practice
Status: Sunk
 struck iceberg 14 April 1912 23:40
 sank
General Characteristics
Displacement: 52,310 L/T
Length: 882 feetinches (269 m)
Beam: 92 feet 6 inches (28 m)
Draught: 34 feet 7 inches (10.5 m)
Propulsion: 25 double-ended and 4 single-ended Scotch boilers at 215 psi.
Two four-cylinder triple-expansion reciprocating engines each producing 15,000 hp (12 MW) at a speed of 75 rpm for outer two propellers.
One low-pressure (about 7 psi absolute) steam turbine producing 16,000 hp (13.5 MW) for the centre propeller at 165 rpm.
Total 46,000 hp at 75 rpm; 59,000 hp at 83 rpm (37 MW).[1] Two bronze triple-blade side propellers.
One bronze quadruple-blade central propeller
Speed: – service speed: 21 knots (40.6 km/h) (24.5 mph)
– top speed: 23  knots (42.6 km/h) (26.5 mph)
Complement: 2,208 (maiden voyage)
 First-class: 324
 Second-class: 285
 Third-class: 708
 Crew: 891
 Survivors: 712 (estimate)

The RMS Titanic, a British Olympic-class ocean liner, became famous as the largest ocean liner built in her day, and also for sinking on her maiden voyage in 1912 with a huge loss of life.[2] The second of a trio of superliners,[3] the Titanic and her sisters were designed to provide a three-ship weekly express service and to dominate the transatlantic travel business for the White Star Line.[4] The Titanic, and her sister ship, the Olympic, were introduced to the world in a New York Times article on 23 April 1908, almost four years before the sinking.[5] Look up titanic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links RMS_Titanic_sea_trials_April_2,_1912. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Government_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Olympic-class ocean liners were a trio of ocean liners built by the Harland & Wolff shipyard for the White Star Line in the early 1900s. ... Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries began as a shipyard located in Belfast. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. ... The draft of a ships hull is the vertical distance from the bottom of the hull to the waterline. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... A Triple-expansion engine is a type of piston steam engine in which exhaust steam is sent through successively larger cylinders. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... rpm or RPM may mean: revolutions per minute RPM Package Manager (originally called Red Hat Package Manager) RPM (movie) RPM (band), a Brazilian rock band RPM (magazine), a former Canadian music industry magazine In firearms, Rounds Per Minute: how many shots an automatic weapon can fire in one minute On... A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Royal Mail Ship (sometimes Steam-ship, Steamer), usually seen in its abbreviated form RMS, is the ship prefix used for seagoing vessels that carry mail under contract to the British Royal Mail. ... RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Superliner is a term sometimes used for an ocean liner of over 10,000 gross tons. ... For other uses, see Transatlantic (disambiguation). ... Babylon 5 starships, see the article White Star. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland,[6] the Titanic was the largest passenger steamship in the world at the time of her sinking.[7] During the Titanic's maiden voyage (from Southampton, England[8] to Cherbourg, France,[9] then on to Queenstown (Cobh), Ireland[10] and finally New York City), she struck an iceberg at 23:40 (ship's time) on Sunday 14 April 1912, sinking two hours and forty minutes later at 02:20 on Monday 15 April,[11] having broken into two pieces at the aft expansion joint.[12] Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries began as a shipyard located in Belfast. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... The maiden voyage of a ship or aircraft is the first cruise or flight in revenue service, typically following a series of shakedown cruises or test-flights. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Cherbourg-Octeville is a town and commune in Normandy, north-west France. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference W793666 Statistics Province: Munster County: Elevation: 47 m (154 ft} Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   6,517  6,370 Website: www. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The White Star line designed Titanic to compete with rival company Cunard Line's Lusitania and Mauretania, luxurious ships and the fastest liners on the Atlantic.[13] Titanic and her Olympic class sisters, Olympic and the then upcoming Gigantic,[12][14] were intended to be the largest, most luxurious ships ever to operate (the planned name Gigantic was changed to Britannic after the disaster). Titanic was designed by Harland and Wolff chairman William Pirrie, head of Harland and Wolff's design department Thomas Andrews, and general manager Alexander Carlisle, with the plans regularly sent to the White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay for suggestions and approval. Construction of the Titanic, funded by the American J.P. Morgan and his International Mercantile Marine Co., began on 31 March 1909. Titanic No. 401 was launched two years and two months later on 31 May 1911. Titanic's outfitting was completed on 31 March the following year. The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... RMS Mauretania (also known as Maury), sister ship of the Lusitania, was an ocean liner built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, and was launched on September 20, 1906. ... RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... HMHS Britannic (1914), the third Olympic-class ocean liner of the White Star Line, sister ship of RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic, sank in 1916 after hitting a mine with the loss of 30 lives. ... William James Pirrie, Viscount Pirrie, KP (May 31, 1847) - (June 6, 1924) was a leading Irish shipbuilder and businessman. ... Thomas Andrews, Jr. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... The International Mercantile Marine Co. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ...


Titanic was 882 feet 9 inches (269 m) long and 92 feet 6 inches (28 m) at the beam.[15] She had a Gross Register Tonnage of 46,328 tons, and a height from the water line to the boat deck of 60 feet (18 m).[16] Her three propellers were driven by two four-cylinder, triple-expansion, inverted reciprocating steam engines and one low-pressure Parsons turbine.[17] Steam was provided by 25 double-ended and 4 single-ended Scotch-type boilers fired by 159 coal burning furnaces that made possible a top speed of 23 knots (43 km/h).[18] Only three of the four 63 foot (19 m) tall funnels were functional; the fourth, which served only as a vent, was added to make the ship look more impressive.[19] Titanic could carry a total of 3,547 passengers and crew and, because she carried mail, her name was given the prefix RMS (Royal Mail Steamer) as well as SS (Steam Ship). Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... A funnel is the smokestack on a ship used to expel boiler smoke or engine exhaust ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ... A ship prefix is a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name of a civilian or naval ship. ... Royal Mail Ship (sometimes Steam-ship, Steamer), usually seen in its abbreviated form RMS, is the ship prefix used for seagoing vessels that carry mail under contract to the British Royal Mail. ...


Contemporaries considered the Titanic the pinnacle of naval architecture and technological achievement,[citation needed] and was thought by The Shipbuilder magazine to be "practically unsinkable."[20] Titanic had a double-bottom hull, containing 44 tanks for boiler water and ballast to keep the ship safely balanced at sea[21] (later ships also had a double-walled hull). Titanic exceeded the lifeboat standard, with 20 lifeboats (though not enough for all passengers). Titanic was divided into 15 compartments. Dividing doors were held up in the open position by electro-magnetic latches which could be closed by a switch on the ship's bridge and by a float system installed on the door itself.[22] Steamer New York in c. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, which exerts a force on those particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of such particles. ...

Contents

Fixtures and fittings

The Grand Staircase of the Olympic: identical to the Titanic's first class section.

In her time, Titanic surpassed all rivals in luxury and opulence. She offered an onboard swimming pool, a gymnasium, a Turkish bath, libraries for each passenger class, and a squash court.[23] First-class common rooms were adorned with elaborate wood panelling, expensive furniture and other decorations.[24] In addition, the Café Parisien offered superb cuisine for the first-class passengers, with a sunlit veranda fitted with trellis decorations.[25] Grand Canyon (A), Chocolate Cliffs (B), Vermilion Cliffs (C), White Cliffs (D), Zion Canyon (E), Gray Cliffs (F), Pink Cliffs (G), Bryce Canyon (H) NPS image [1] edited with the GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Grand Canyon (A), Chocolate Cliffs (B), Vermilion Cliffs (C), White Cliffs (D), Zion Canyon (E), Gray Cliffs (F), Pink Cliffs (G), Bryce Canyon (H) NPS image [1] edited with the GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... A hammam in Chefchaouen, Morocco The Turkish hammam (also Turkish bath or hamam) is the Middle Eastern variant of a steam bath, which can be categorized as a wet relative of the sauna. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... Executive class cabin in Indian (airline), the higher of the two classes offered First Class travel is a particularly high quality travel class offered by passenger airlines, railways and shipping companies. ...


The ship incorporated technologically advanced features for the period. She had an extensive electrical subsystem with steam-powered generators and ship-wide electrical wiring feeding electric lights. She also boasted two wireless Marconi sets, including a powerful 1,500-watt radio manned by operators who worked in shifts, allowing constant contact and the transmission of many passenger messages.[26] A typical spark transmitter circuit. ...


Comparisons with the Olympic

The Titanic closely resembled her older sister Olympic but there were a few differences. Two of the most noticeable were that half of the Titanic's forward promenade A-Deck (below the lifeboat deck) was enclosed against outside weather, and her B-Deck configuration was completely different from the Olympic's. The Titanic had a specialty restaurant called Café Parisien, a feature that the Olympic did not have until 1913. Some of the flaws found on the Olympic, such as the creaking of the aft expansion joint, were corrected on the Titanic. The skid lights that provided natural illumination on A-deck were round, while on Olympic they were oval. The Titanic's wheelhouse was made narrower and longer than the Olympic's.[27] These, and other modifications, made the Titanic 1,004 gross tons larger than the Olympic. RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ...


Passengers and Crew

Main articles: List of passengers onboard RMS Titanic and List of crew members onboard RMS Titanic

The first-class passengers for Titanic's maiden voyage included some of the richest and most prominent people in the world. They included millionaire John Jacob Astor IV and his pregnant wife Madeleine;[28] industrialist Benjamin Guggenheim;[29] Macy's department store owner Isidor Straus[30] and his wife Ida;[31] Denver millionaire Margaret "Molly" Brown;[32] Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon and his wife, couturiere Lady Duff-Gordon;[33] streetcar magnate George Dunton Widener, his wife Eleanor and their 27-year-old son, Harry Elkins Widener;[34] Pennsylvania Railroad executive John Borland Thayer, his wife Marion and their 17-year-old son, Jack;[35] journalist William Thomas Stead;[36] Charles Hays, president of Canada's Grand Trunk Railway, with his wife, daughter, her husband, and two employees;[37] the Countess of Rothes;[38] United States presidential aide Major Archibald Butt;[39] author and socialite Helen Churchill Candee;[40] author Jacques Futrelle, and their friends, Broadway producers Henry and Rene Harris; writer and painter Francis Davis Millet;[41] pioneer aviation entrepreneur Pierre Maréchal Sr.;[42] American silent film actress Dorothy Gibson,[43] White Star Line's Managing Director J. Bruce Ismay[44] (who survived the sinking) and, from the ship's builders, Thomas Andrews,[45] who was on board to observe any problems and assess the general performance of the new ship. A work-in-progress list of passengers aboard the RMS Titanic. ... A work-in-progress list of crew aboard the RMS Titanic. ... John Jacob Astor IV (July 13, 1864 – April 15, 1912) was an American millionaire businessman, inventor, writer, a member of the prominent Astor family, and a lieutenant colonel in the Spanish-American War. ... John Jacob Astor and Madeleine Astor Madeleine Talmage Astor Dick Fiermonte (June 19, 1893 – March 27, 1940) was born in Brooklyn, New York City and became famous in 1911 when she married millionaire John Jacob Astor IV. While traveling abroad to avoid the gossip generated by her marriage, Madeleine Astor... Benjamin Guggenheim (October 26, 1865 – April 15, 1912) was an American businessman. ... This article is about the R.H. Macy & Co. ... Isidor Straus (February 6, 1845 – April 15, 1912)—also known as Isadore Strauss—, a German Jewish American, was co-owner of the Macys department store and served as a Member of Congress in the United States. ... Isidor and Ida Straus Ida Straus, née Rosalie Ida Blun (February 6, 1849 - April 15, 1912) was an American homemaker and wife of the co-owner of the Macys department store. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State Colorado City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... For the New York criminal, see Margaret Brown. ... Sir Cosmo Edmund Duff Gordon, 5th Baronet (July 22, 1862 - April 20, 1931), the son of the Hon. ... Lady Duff Gordon (Lucile) with a model in her New York salon, 1916 (photo: Arnold Genthe) Lucy Christiana, Lady Duff Gordon (June 13, 1863 – April 20, 1935) was a leading fashion designer in the late C19th and first decades of the C20th. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... George D. Widener George Dunton Widener (June 10, 1861 - April 15, 1912) was an American businessman who died in the sinking of the Titanic. ... Harry Elkins Widener (January 3, 1885 – April 15, 1912) was a book collector from the United States. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... John Borland Thayer was a first-class cricketer who died shortly before his 50th birthday in the sinking of the RMS Titanic on 15 April 1912. ... John Borland Jack Thayer III (December 24, 1894 - September 18, 1945) was a 17-year-old first class passenger on the RMS Titanic who boarded with his parents, Marian and John Borland Thayer, an American first class cricketer and vice-president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. ... William Thomas Stead (July 5, 1849 - April 15, 1912), English journalist, was born at Embleton, Northumberland, the son of a Congregational minister. ... Charles Melville Hays, sometimes spelled Hayes, (May 16, 1856 – April 15, 1912) was a railway official most famous for his role as president of the Grand Trunk Railway System. ... 1885 map The Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) was a historic railway system which operated in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, as well as the American states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. ... The Right Honourable Lucy Noël Martha Dyer-Edwardes, Countess of Rothes (December 25, 1884 – September 12, 1956) was the only child of Thomas and Clementina Dyer-Edwardes. ... Lieutenant Archibald Butt in 1909. ... Helen Churchill Candee (October 5, 1858-August 23, 1949) was an American author, interior decorator, and socialite. ... Jacques Heath Futrelle (April 9, 1875 - April 15, 1912), born in Pike County, Georgia, was an American writer. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Francis Davis Millet Francis Davis Millet (name sometimes given as Francis David Millet; November 3, 1846 - April 15, 1912) was an American painter and writer and one of those who died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Dorothy Gibson in a 1911 publicity photo Dorothy Gibson (nee Dorothy Winifred Brown, May 17, 1889 – February 17, 1946) was a pioneering actress in silent film and a popular artists model, active in the early 20th century. ... J. Bruce Ismay Joseph Bruce Ismay (December 12, 1862 - October 15, 1937) was a British businessman who served as Managing Director of the White Star Line of steamships. ... Thomas Andrews, Jr. ...


Second-class passengers included Lawrence Beesley,[46] a journalist who wrote one of the first-hand accounts of the voyage and the sinking. Father Thomas R.D. Byles, a Catholic priest, was on his way to America to officiate at his younger brother's wedding.[47] Michel Navratil, a Frenchman, was kidnapping his two sons, Michel Jr. and Edmond, and taking them to America. Sylvia Mae Caldwell, who later married the founder of State Farm Insurance George J. Mecherle,[48] was travelling with her first husband, Albert, and their young son, Alden, to Roseville, Illinois. Lawrence Beesley (born Wirksworth, Derbyshire, 31 December 1877, died 14 February 1967), was an English teacher, journalist and author who was a survivor of the RMS Titanic. ... Father Thomas Byles (Thomas Roussel Davids Byles, 26 February 1870 - 15 April 1912) was a Catholic priest who famously remained on board the RMS Titanic as she was sinking after colliding with an iceberg, hearing confessions and giving absolution. ... Michel Navratil (1880-15 April 1912) was a passenger on the RMS Titanic who perished in the disaster. ... Michel Marcel Navratil (12 June 1908–18 April 2001) was a passenger on the RMS Titanic. ... State Farm Insurance Companies are a group of large US insurance and financial services companies started in 1922 by former farmer George J. Mecherle (pronounced Ma-herl). ... George Jacob Mecherle (pronounced Ma-herl) (born June 7, 1877) was the founder of State Farm Insurance Companies, headquartered in Bloomington, Illinois. ... Roseville is a village located in Warren County, Illinois. ...


Both J. P. Morgan and Milton S. Hershey[49] had plans to travel on the Titanic but cancelled their reservations before the voyage. This article is about the financier. ... Milton Snavely Hershey (September 13, 1857 – October 13, 1945) was an American businessman and philanthropist. ...


In 2007 scientists using DNA identified the body of an unknown child recovered shortly after the incident as Sidney Leslie Goodwin, a nineteen-month-old boy from England. Goodwin, along with his parents and five siblings boarded in Southampton, England, as third-class passengers. [50] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Sidney Leslie Goodwin (September 9, 1910 – April 15, 1912) was a 19-month-old English boy who died during the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... This page discusses the English city of Southampton. ...


Disaster

Photograph of an iceberg in the vicinity of the RMS Titanic’s sinking taken on April 15, 1912 by the chief steward of the liner Prinz Adelbert.
Photograph of an iceberg in the vicinity of the RMS Titanic’s sinking taken on April 15, 1912 by the chief steward of the liner Prinz Adelbert.
New York Times front page report on the sinking of The Titanic.

On the night of April 14th, at 11:40 PM, The Titanic struck an iceberg. Titanic sank, with great loss of life, at 2:20 AM, on April 15th, 1912.[51] The United States Senate investigation reported that 1,517[52] people perished in the accident, while the British investigation has the number at 1,490.[53] Regardless, the disaster ranks as one of the worst peacetime maritime disasters in history, and is by far the best known. The media frenzy about the Titanic's famous victims, the legends about what happened on board the ship, the resulting changes to maritime law, Walter Lord's 1955 non-fiction account A Night to Remember, and the discovery of the wreck in 1985 by a team led by Robert Ballard and Jean-Louis Michel have sustained the Titanic's fame. The Titanics sinking as depicted by artist Willy Stöwer. ... Image File history File links Titanic_iceberg. ... Image File history File links Titanic_iceberg. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1163 × 1515 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1163 × 1515 pixel, file size: 1. ... Admiralty law (usually referred to as simply admiralty and also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... A Night to Remember is a 1955 non-fiction book by Walter Lord about the sinking of the ocean liner RMS Titanic in 1912. ... Dr. Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ... Jean Louis Jean-Louis Michel (1785 – 1865) was a mulatto fencing master, sometimes hailed as the foremost exponent of the art of fencing in the nineteenth century. ...


The break-up

For seventy years after the disaster, it was widely believed that the Titanic had sunk intact. Although there were several passengers who insisted that the ship had broken in two as it sank (including Jack Thayer, who even had another passenger draw a set of sketches depicting the sinking for him [54]), the inquiries believed the statements of the ship's officers and first-class passengers that it had sunk in one piece. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... John Borland Jack Thayer III (December 24, 1894 - September 18, 1945) was a 17-year-old first class passenger on the RMS Titanic who boarded with his parents, Marian and John Borland Thayer, an American first class cricketer and vice-president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. ...


In 1985, when the wreck was discovered by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER, Robert Ballard and his crew, they found that the ship did in fact break in two as it sank. It was theorised that as the Titanic sank, the stern rose out of the water. It supposedly rose so high that the unsupported weight caused the ship to break into two pieces, the split starting at the upper deck. This became the commonly accepted theory. Jean Louis Jean-Louis Michel (1785 – 1865) was a mulatto fencing master, sometimes hailed as the foremost exponent of the art of fencing in the nineteenth century. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Dr. Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ...


In 2005, new evidence suggested that in addition to the expected side damage, the ship also had sustained damage to the bottom of the hull (keel). This new evidence seemed to support a less popular theory that the crack which split the Titanic in two started at the keel plates. This proposition is supported by Jack Thayer's sketches. A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... For other uses, see Keel (disambiguation). ...


Long-term implications

The sinking of the RMS Titanic was a factor that influenced later maritime practices, ship design, and the seafaring culture. Changes included the establishment of the International Ice Patrol, a requirement for 24 hour radio watchkeeping on foreign-going passenger ships, and new regulations related to lifeboats.[citation needed] The International Ice Patrol monitors the presence of icebergs in the northern Atlantic Ocean and reports their movements for safety purposes. ...


International Ice Patrol

The Titanic disaster led to the convening of the first International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) in London, on 12 November 1913. On 30 January 1914, a treaty was signed by the conference that resulted in the formation and international funding of the International Ice Patrol, an agency of the United States Coast Guard that to the present day monitors and reports on the location of North Atlantic Ocean icebergs that could pose a threat to transatlantic sea lane traffic. It was also agreed in the new regulations that all passenger vessels would have sufficient lifeboats for everyone on board, that appropriate safety drills would be conducted, and that radio communications on passenger ships would be operated 24 hours a day along with a secondary power supply, so as not to miss distress calls. In addition, it was agreed that the firing of red rockets from a ship must be interpreted as a distress signal (red rockets launched from the Titanic prior to sinking were mistaken by nearby vessels as celebratory fireworks, delaying rescue). This treaty was scheduled to go into effect on 1 July 1915, but was upstaged by World War I. The International Ice Patrol monitors the presence of icebergs in the northern Atlantic Ocean and reports their movements for safety purposes. ... The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The International Ice Patrol monitors the presence of icebergs in the northern Atlantic Ocean and reports their movements for safety purposes. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Ship design changes

The sinking of the Titanic changed the way passenger ships were designed. Many existing ships, such as the Olympic, were refitted for increased safety. Besides increasing the number of lifeboats on board, improvements included reinforcing the hull and increasing the height of the watertight bulkheads. The bulkheads on Titanic extended 10 feet (3 m) above the waterline; after Titanic sank, the bulkheads on other ships were extended higher to make compartments fully watertight. While Titanic had a double bottom, she did not have a double hull; after her sinking, new ships were designed with double hulls; also, the double bottoms of other ships (including the Olympic) were extended up the sides of their hulls, above their waterlines, to give them double hulls. [citation needed] RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level at which ship or boat floats in the water. ... A double bottom is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship, perhaps a few... A double hull is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat further into the ship, perhaps...


Speed

The conclusion of the British Inquiry into the sinking was “that the loss of the said ship was due to collision with an iceberg, brought about by the excessive speed at which the ship was being navigated”.[55] At the time of the collision, it is thought that the Titanic was at her normal cruising speed of about 22 knots,[56] which was less than her top speed of around 24 knots. It was then common (but not universal) practice to maintain normal speed in areas where icebergs were expected.[57] It was assumed that any iceberg large enough to damage the ship would be seen in sufficient time to be avoided. After the sinking, the British Board of Trade introduced regulations instructing vessels to moderate their speed if they were expecting to encounter icebergs. It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay instructed or encouraged Captain Edward Smith to increase speed in order to make an early landfall, and is a common feature in popular representations of the disaster. As there is no evidence for this having happened, many disputed the claim.[58] J. Bruce Ismay Joseph Bruce Ismay (December 12, 1862 - October 15, 1937) was a British businessman who served as Managing Director of the White Star Line of steamships. ... Captain Edward John Smith, RD , RNR (January 27, 1850 – April 15, 1912) was the captain of the RMS Titanic when it sank in 1912. ...


Lifeboats

The Titanic did not carry sufficient lifeboats for all of her passengers and crew. The law at that time stipulated that a minimum of 16 lifeboats and enough place for 962 occupants were required for a ship that weighed more than 10,000 tons. This law was issued in 1894, when the largest emigrant steamer was the "Lucania," of 12,952 tons. It had not been updated for 18 years and ships had increased rapidly in size. Thus, the Titanic was only legally required to carry enough lifeboats for 962 occupants (the ship had room for 3,547 passengers). The White Star Line exceeded the regulations by including four collapsible lifeboats, bringing total lifeboat capacity to 1,178. [59]


In the busy North Atlantic sea lanes it was expected that in the event of a serious accident, help from other vessels would be quickly obtained, and that the lifeboats would be used to ferry passengers and crew from the stricken vessel to her rescuers. Full provision of lifeboats was not considered necessary for this. During the design of the ship, it was anticipated that the British Board of Trade might require an increase in the number of lifeboats at some future date. Therefore, lifeboat davits capable of handling up to four boats per pair of davits were designed by Alexander Carlisle and installed to give a total potential capacity of 64 boats.[60] The additional boats were never fitted. It is often alleged that J. Bruce Ismay, the President of White Star, vetoed the installation of these additional boats to maximize the passenger promenade area on the boat deck. Harold Sanderson, Vice President of International Mercantile Marine denied this allegation during the British Inquiry.[61] J. Bruce Ismay Joseph Bruce Ismay (December 12, 1862 - October 15, 1937) was a British businessman who served as Managing Director of the White Star Line of steamships. ...


The lack of lifeboats was not the only cause of the tragic loss of lives. After the collision with the iceberg, one hour was taken to evaluate the damage, recognise what was going to happen, inform first-class passengers, and lower the first lifeboat. Afterwards, the crew worked quite efficiently, taking a total of 80 minutes to lower all 16 lifeboats. The crew was divided into two teams, one on each side of the ship, and an average of 10 minutes of work was necessary for a team to fill a lifeboat with passengers and lower it.[citation needed]


Yet another factor in the high death toll that related to the lifeboats was the reluctance of the passengers to board them. They were, after all, on a ship deemed to be "unsinkable." Because of this, some lifeboats were launched with far less than capacity, the most notable being Lifeboat #1, with a capacity of 40, launched with only 12 people aboard. Included in the first launched were lifeboats 6, 7, and 8, each of which were equipped to hold 65 but evacuated the ship with only 28 on board each boat. [62]


The excessive number of casualties has also been blamed[citation needed] on the "women and children first" policy for places on the lifeboats. Although the lifeboats had a total capacity of 1,178 - enough for 53% of the 2,224 persons on board - the boats launched only had a capacity of 1,084, and, altogether only 712 people were actually saved - 32% of those originally on board. This is a result when the 1,084-person capacity of the lifeboats actually launched had sufficient room to include all of the 534 women and children on board, plus an additional 550 men (of which there were 1,690 on board). It has been suggested[citation needed] based on these figures that allowing one man on board for each woman or child from the start would not only have increased the number of women and children saved, but also had the added benefit of saving more lives in total. As it was, the many desperate men had to be held off at gunpoint from boarding the lifeboats, adding to the chaos of the scene and there were many more casualties - of women, children and men - than otherwise.[63]


Use of SOS

The sinking of the Titanic was not the first time the internationally recognized Morse code distress signal "SOS" was used. The SOS signal was first proposed at the International Conference on Wireless Communication at Sea in Berlin in 1906. It was ratified by the international community in 1908 and had been in widespread use since then. The SOS signal was, however, rarely used by British wireless operators, who preferred the older CQD code. First Wireless Operator Jack Phillips began transmitting CQD until Second Wireless Operator Harold Bride suggested, half-jokingly, "Send SOS; it's the new call, and this may be your last chance to send it." Phillips, who was to perish in the disaster, then began to intersperse SOS with the traditional CQD call. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... For other uses, see SOS (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John George Phillips John George Jack Phillips (April 11, 1887 - April 15, 1912) was the Senior Wireless officer on board the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic which sank on April 15, 1912. ... Harold Sydney Bride (January 11, 1890 – April 29, 1956) was born in London, England and later became the Junior Wireless officer on board the maiden voyage of the ocean liner RMS Titanic. ...


Titanic's turning ability

The memorial to the Titanic's engineers in Southampton
The memorial to the Titanic's engineers in Southampton

The Titanic had triple-screw engine configuration, with reciprocating steam engines driving the wing propellers, and a steam turbine driving her centre propeller. The reciprocating engines were reversible, while the turbine was not. When Murdoch gave the order to reverse engines to avoid the iceberg, he inadvertently handicapped the turning ability of the ship. Since the centre turbine could not reverse during the "full speed astern" manoeuvre, it simply stopped turning. Furthermore, the centre propeller was positioned forward of the ship's rudder, diminishing the turning effectiveness of the rudder. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 826 KB)Memorial to the engineers who died on board the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage, in Andrews Park, Southampton, UK. The inscription reads: 15th April 1912 Photo taken by me 2005-06-07. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 826 KB)Memorial to the engineers who died on board the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage, in Andrews Park, Southampton, UK. The inscription reads: 15th April 1912 Photo taken by me 2005-06-07. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...


Had Murdoch reversed the port engine, and reduced speed while maintaining the forward motion of the other two propellers (as recommended in the training procedures for this type of ship), experts theorise that the Titanic might have been able to navigate around the berg without a collision.[64] However, given the closing distance between the ship and the berg at the time the bridge was notified, this might not have been possible without some sort of impact. Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ...


Additionally, Titanic experts have hypothesised that if Titanic had not altered its course at all, but reversed its engines, and had run head-on into the iceberg, the damage would only have affected the first or, at most, the first two compartments. The liner SS Arizona had such a head-on collision with an iceberg in 1879, and although badly damaged, managed to make it to St John's, Newfoundland for repairs. Some dispute that Titanic would have survived such a collision, however, since Titanic's speed was higher than "Arizona's", her hull much larger, and mass much greater, and the violence of the collision could have compromised her structural integrity. [citation needed] The SS Arizona was a merchant ship launched by the Guion line (officially the Liverpool & Great Western Steamship Company Limited -- see Guion_Steamship_Company) on 31st May 1879. ... St. ...


Faults in construction

Though the topic is seldom discussed, there is some speculation as to whether Titanic was constructed by methods considered sufficiently robust by the standards of the day. In the documentary series Seconds from Disaster, this was investigated further. Rumoured faults in the construction included problems with the safety doors and missing or detached bolts in the ship's hull plating. This may have been a major contributing factor to the sinking and that the iceberg, in part with the missing bolts and screws, eventually led to the demise of Titanic. Possibly, if the watertight bulkheads had completely sealed the ship's compartments (they only went 3 m above the waterline), the ship would have stayed afloat. [citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Womens Titanic Memorial The Womens Titanic Memorial is a granite statue in southwest Washington, D.C., that honors the men who died on the RMS Titanic. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Seconds From Disaster is a documentary television series that investigates the worst man-made disasters and several natural disasters in modern history, and analyses the causes and events that led up to each disaster. ...


However, Titanic's hull was held together by rivets, which are intended to be a permanent way of attaching metal items together, whereas bolts can be removed and would require periodic tightening unless the nut and bolt are welded after being screwed together. Welding technology in 1912 was in its infancy, so this was not done. While issues with Titanic's rivets have been identified from samples salvaged from the wreck site, many ships of the era would have been constructed with similar methods and did not sink after becoming involved in collisions. There was a claim that the rivets of the Titanic had not been properly tempered, leaving them brittle and sensitive to fracture in the infamous collision. [65] A rivetted buffer beam on a steam locomotive A rivet is a mechanical fastener consisting of a smooth cylindrical shaft with heads on either end. ... Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys. ...


Although sealing off the watertight bulkheads with watertight decks would have increased the survivability of a vessel such as Titanic, it would have by no means ensured the survival of a ship with as much underwater damage as Titanic sustained in her collision with the iceberg; it was a big iceberg. Even if the compartments themselves had remained completely watertight, the weight of the water would still have pulled the bow of the ship down to the point where decks above the watertight deck would have been below the waterline. The ship would then have flooded via the portholes and sunk anyway. It should also be noted that watertight decks would have hampered access to the lower sections of the ship and would have required watertight hatches, all of which would have had to be properly sealed to maintain the barrier between the incoming water and the rest of the ship. As the increased survivability that such watertight decks would have offered is questionable, they are generally considered to this day to be impractical in merchant vessels (though some military vessels, which are exposed to much greater risk of flooding by virtue of being targets for enemy mines and torpedoes, do feature such decks). Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Olympic, built to almost identical specifications by the same builders as Titanic, was involved in several collisions during the course of her operational lifetime, one of which occurred before Titanic sank; and Olympic's hull was modified to protect her from flooding in a fashion similar to her ill-fated sister's. None of these collisions threatened to sink the ship, suggesting that the Olympic-class liners were built to be sufficiently tough and did not suffer from slipshod construction. RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ...


Alternative theories and curses

As with many famous events, many alternative theories about the sinking of Titanic have appeared over the years. Theories that it was not an iceberg that sank the ship or that a curse caused the disaster have been popular reading in newspapers and books. Most of these theories have been debunked by Titanic experts, claiming that the evidence on which these theories were based was inaccurate or incomplete. Another theory is that the Titanic was sacrificed because, once construction had been completed, she was expected to be a potential perpetual financial loss. Supporters of this theory cite the claim that everyone concerned, the company and the officers aboard, had received iceberg warnings and yet the Titanic maintained a northern course instead of sailing to the south of the warning limit. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There is a minor school of thought that it was not Titanic that sank but Olympic. Conspiracy theorists cited evidence in favour, including the Hawke incident, which seriously damaged Olympic. This supposedly motivated management to scuttle Olympic/Titanic and file an insurance claim. The two ships were dry-docked at the same yard at the same time (making a switch possible), and cosmetic changes were made, presumably to make the two ships more similar. Primary evidence against lies in the surveys made by the British government of Olympic from shortly after the sinking of Titanic to shortly before Olympic's scrapping which show artefacts of her 1911 collision damage. Titanic also possessed many design features Olympic did not, such as enlarged B-deck suites. Both vessels, additionally, were underinsured relative to their value and sinking either would cause a substantial loss, far greater than the operating costs of repairing Olympic, to say nothing of the lost revenue resulting from loss of confidence in the company after the loss at sea of their flagship.


A similar legend states that the Titanic was given hull number 390904 (which, when seen in a mirror or written using mirror writing, looks like "NO POPE"). This is a myth.[66] Titanic's yard number was 401; Olympic's was 400. Another myth states that Titanic was carrying a cursed Egyptian mummy, often named Princess of Amen-Ra. The mummy, nicknamed Shipwrecker after changing hands several times and causing many terrible things to happen to each of its owners, exacts its final revenge by sinking the famous ship. There was no mummy on board, only a coffin lid.[67] Another myth says that the bottle of champagne used in christening Titanic did not break on the first try, which in sea lore is said to be bad luck for a ship. In fact, Titanic was not christened on launching, as it was White Star Line's custom not to do so. [68] The notes on Leonardo da Vincis famous Vitruvian Man image are in mirror writing. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ...


Rediscovery

Titanic's bow as seen from the Russian MIR I submersible
Titanic's bow as seen from the Russian MIR I submersible

The idea of finding the wreck of Titanic and even raising the ship from the ocean floor had been perpetuated since shortly after the ship sank. No attempts even to locate the ship were successful until 1 September 1985, when a joint French-American expedition[69], led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Dr Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, sailing on the Research Vessel Knorr, discovered the wreck using the video camera sled Argo. It was found at a depth of 12,536 feet (3,821 m), south-east of Newfoundland at 41°43′32″N, 49°56′49″W[70], 13 nautical miles (24 km) from where Titanic was originally thought to rest. Download high resolution version (676x1014, 128 KB)A view of the bow of the Titanic from a camera mounted on the outside of the Mir I submersible. ... Download high resolution version (676x1014, 128 KB)A view of the bow of the Titanic from a camera mounted on the outside of the Mir I submersible. ... MIR submersible. ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Jean Louis Jean-Louis Michel (1785 – 1865) was a mulatto fencing master, sometimes hailed as the foremost exponent of the art of fencing in the nineteenth century. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Dr. Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... R/V Knorr is a research vessel operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. ... Argo is launched from the Knorr during the 1985 Titanic expedition. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


The most notable discovery the team made was that the ship had broken in two, the stern section lying 1,970 feet (600 m) from the bow section and both facing in opposite directions. There had been conflicting witness accounts of whether the ship broke apart on the surface or not, and both the American and British inquiries found that the ship sank intact. Up until the discovery of the wreck, it was generally assumed the ship did not break apart. In 2005, a theory was presented that a portion of Titanic's bottom broke off right before the ship broke in three.[71] The theory was conceived after an expedition sponsored by The History Channel examined the three hull pieces.[72] For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ...


The bow section had embedded itself more than 60 feet (18 m) into the silt on the ocean floor. Although parts of the hull had buckled, the bow was mostly intact, as the water inside had equalized with the increasing water pressure. The stern section was in much worse condition. As the stern section sank, water pushed out the air inside tearing apart the hull and decks. The speed at which the stern hit the ocean floor caused even more damage. Surrounding the wreck is a large debris field, with pieces of the ship (including a large amount of coal), furniture, dinnerware and personal items scattered over one square mile (2.6 km²). Softer materials, like wood and carpet, were devoured by undersea organisms, as were human remains.


Later exploration of the vessel's lower decks, as chronicled in the book Ghosts of the Titanic by Charles Pellegrino, showed that much of the wood from Titanic's staterooms was still intact. A new theory has been put forth that much of the wood from the upper decks was not devoured by undersea organisms but rather broke free of its fixings and floated away. This is supported by some eyewitness testimony from the survivors. Headline text Charles Pellegrino: Charles Pellegrino is a brilliant archeaologist. ...


Ownership and litigation

Titanic Memorial, grounds of Belfast City Hall, Northern Ireland
Titanic Memorial, grounds of Belfast City Hall, Northern Ireland

Ballard and his crew did not bring up any artefacts from the wreck, considering this to be tantamount to grave robbing. Upon discovery in 1985, a legal debate began over ownership of the wreck and the valuable artefacts inside. On 7 June 1994, RMS Titanic Inc. was awarded ownership and salvaging rights of the wreck[73] by the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. (See Admiralty law)[74] RMS Titanic Inc., a subsidiary of Premier Exhibitions Inc., and its predecessors have conducted seven expeditions to the wreck between 1987 and 2004 and salvaged over 5,500 objects. The biggest single recovered artefact was a 17-ton section of the hull, recovered in 1998.[75] Many of these artefacts are part of travelling museum exhibitions. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3456 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3456 pixel, file size: 3. ... Belfast City Hall Belfast City Hall is the civic building of the Belfast City Council. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia is one of two United States district courts serving the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ...


Beginning in 1987, a joint American-French expedition, which included the predecessor of RMS Titanic Inc., began salvage operations and, during 32 dives, recovered approximately 1,800 artefacts which were taken to France for conservation and restoration. In 1993, a French administrator in the Office of Maritime Affairs of the Ministry of Equipment, Transportation, and Tourism awarded RMS Titanic Inc's predecessor title to the artefacts recovered in 1987.


In a motion filed on 12 February 2004 RMS Titanic Inc. requested that the District Court enter an order awarding it "title to all the artefacts (including portions of the hull) which are the subject of this action pursuant to the Law of Finds" or, in the alternative, a salvage award in the amount of $225 million. RMS Titanic Inc. excluded from its motion any claim for an award of title to the 1987 artefacts, but it did request that the district court declare that, based on the French administrative action, "the artefacts raised during the 1987 expedition are independently owned by RMST." Following a hearing, the district court entered an order dated 2 July 2004, in which it refused to grant comity and recognize the 1993 decision of the French administrator, and rejected RMS Titanic Inc's claim that it should be awarded title to the artefacts recovered since 1993 under the Maritime Law of Finds. is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


RMS Titanic Inc. appealed to the United States Court of Appeals. In its decision of 31 January 2006[76] the court recognized "explicitly the appropriateness of applying maritime salvage law to historic wrecks such as that of Titanic" and denied the application of the Maritime Law of Finds. The court also ruled that the district court lacked jurisdiction over the "1987 artefacts", and therefore vacated that part of the court's 2 July 2004 order. In other words, according to this decision, RMS Titanic Inc. has ownership title to the artefacts awarded in the French decision (valued $16.5 million earlier) and continues to be salvor-in-possession of Titanic wreck. The Court of Appeals remanded the case to the District Court to determine the salvage award ($225 million requested by RMS Titanic Inc.).[77] The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Condition of the wreck

Many scientists, including Robert Ballard, are concerned that visits by tourists in submersibles and the recovery of artefacts are hastening the decay of the wreck. Underwater microbes have been eating away at Titanic's iron since the ship sank, but because of the extra damage visitors have caused, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimates that "the hull and structure of the ship may collapse to the ocean floor within the next 50 years." Several scientists and conservationists have also complained about the removal of the crow's nest on the mast by a French expedition. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A rusticle is a little similar to an icicle or stalactite in appearance, but occurs under water when wrought iron rusts. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...


Ballard's book, Return to Titanic, published by the National Geographic Society, includes photographs showing the deterioration of the promenade deck and damage caused by submersibles landing on the ship; however, Ballard was the first person to crash a camera sled into the wreck, and also the first person to repeatedly land on its deck in a submersible. The mast has almost completely deteriorated, and repeated accusations were made in print by Ballard that it had been stripped of its bell and brass light by salvagers, despite his own original discovery images clearly showing that the bell was never actually on the mast - it was recovered from the sea floor. Ballard also alleges that the French submersible Nautile was responsible for crashing into the crow's nest and causing it to fall from the mast, however, the crow's nest had already deteriorated and was doomed to fall by itself eventually. Even the memorial plaque left by Ballard on his second trip to the wreck was alleged to have been removed; Ballard replaced the plaque in 2004. Recent expeditions, notably by James Cameron, have been diving on the wreck to learn more about the site and explore previously unexplored parts of the ship before Titanic decays completely. The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations. ... The promenade deck is a deck found on several types of passenger ships and riverboats. ... mizzen mast, mainmast and foremast Grand Turk The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... The Nautile. ... James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is a three-time Academy Award winning director, producer and screenwriter. ...


Popular culture

The sinking of Titanic has been the basis for many novels describing fictionalised events on board the ship. Many reference books about the disaster have also been written since Titanic sank, the first of these appearing within months of the sinking. Several films and TV movies were produced, the first being In Nacht und Eis as early as 1912. The 1997 film Titanic, starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet was a critical and commercial hit, winning eleven Academy Awards and holding the record for the highest box office returns of all time. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Nacht und Eis was a German film made in 1912 about the story of the sinking of Titanic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... In Nacht und Eis was a German film made in 1912 about the story of the sinking of Titanic. ... Titanic is a 1997 American romantic drama film directed, written, and co-produced by James Cameron about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974[1]) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor well known for his roles in blockbuster movies such as William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet (1996), Titanic (1997), The Beach (2000), Catch Me If You Can (2002), Gangs... Kate Elizabeth Winslet (born October 5, 1975) is a five time Academy Award-nominated Emmy Award-nominated BAFTA, Grammy and Screen Actors Guild Award winning English actress. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...


Living survivors

There are two survivors of the Titanic still living although neither has actual memories of the sinking. They are:

Barbara Joyce West Dainton (born May 24, 1911) was born in Bournemouth, Dorset, England and was 10 months and 22 days old when the Titanic sank. ... Truro (pronounced ; Cornish: Truru) is a city in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth Gladys Millvina Dean (born February 2, 1912) is one of only two living survivors of the sinking of the Titanic, and was the youngest passenger on board. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...

Recent survivors' deaths

Lillian Gertrud Asplund (October 21, 1906, Worcester, Massachusetts – May 6, 2006, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts) was the last American (Swedish American) survivor of the Titanic disaster. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Winnifred Vera Quick van Tongerloo (January 23, 1904-July 6, 2002) was one of the last five remaining survivors of the RMS Titanic. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Michel Marcel Navratil (12 June 1908–18 April 2001) was a passenger on the RMS Titanic. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Eleonore Ileen Johnson (23 August 1910-7 March 1998) was one of the last remaining survivors of the RMS Titanic disaster of 1912. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Louise Laroche (2 July 1910-28 January 1998) was one of the last remaining survivors of the RMS Titanic disaster of 1912. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Edith Eileen Brown (27 October 1896 – 20 January 1997) was one of the last remaining survivors of the RMS Titanic disaster of 1912. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Eva Miriam Hart MBE (31 January 1905-14 February 1996) was one of the last remaining survivors of the RMS Titanic disaster of 1912. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Beatrice Irene Sandström (9 August 1910-3 September 1995) was one of the last remaining survivors of the RMS Titanic disaster of 1912. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Ruth Elizabeth Becker (28 October 1899- 6 July 1990) was a Kansas school teacher best known for surviving the sinking of the RMS Titanic when she was only twelve. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

100th anniversary

On 15 April 2012, the 100th anniversary of the sinking of Titanic is planned to be commemorated around the world. By that date the Titanic Quarter in Belfast is planned to have been completed. The area will be regenerated and a signature memorial project unveiled to celebrate Titanic and her links with Belfast, the city that built the ship.[78] is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harland and Wolffs gantry cranes Samson and Goliath, in Titanic Quarter, Belfast Titanic Quarter in Belfast, is an area situated on reclaimed land in Belfast city harbour, formerly called Queens Island. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links En-titanic. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Historical museum located in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... This list of shipwrecks is of those sunken ships whose remains have been located. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS) is an internationally agreed-upon set of safety procedures, types of equipment, and communication protocols used to increase safety and make it easier to rescue distressed ships, boats and aircraft. ... A disaster is a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property, livelihood or industry, often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystems and environment. ... The SS Suevic was a steamship built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast for the White Star Line. ... Image:SSNormadic2000. ... The SS Mount Temple was a ship owned by Canadian Pacific Lines (Now CP Ships), built in 1901 in Walker-on-Tyne, England by Armstrong Whitworth & Company. ... RMS Carpathia The RMS Carpathia was a Cunard Line transatlantic passenger steamship built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson. ... Here is a list of famous ships: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... HMHS Britannic (1914), the third Olympic-class ocean liner of the White Star Line, sister ship of RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic, sank in 1916 after hitting a mine with the loss of 30 lives. ... RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... Violet Constance Jessop (1 October 1887 – 5 May 1971) worked on the Olympic-class ocean liner, the RMS Titanic, and its sister ship Gigantic (later Britannic) when each ship suffered a collision. ... Titanics forward Grand Staircase. ... A budding seaman, Frank Towers applied to White Star Lines as a coal stoker. ... Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg, Témpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mark Chirnside (2004). The 'Olympic' Class Ships: Olympic, Titanic and Britannic. Tempus Publishing.  Page 72. Book's Webpage
  2. ^ RMS Titanic, inc.
  3. ^ Titanic art prints.
  4. ^ Daniel Allen Butler (1998). Unsinkable: The Full Story of RMS Titanic. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1814-X.  Read this book on Google Print
  5. ^ Titanic 1908 See FirstMention.com for actual article
  6. ^ Harland and Wolff.
  7. ^ Titanic.
  8. ^ Departure:Southampton.
  9. ^ Titanic arrives at Cherbourg. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  10. ^ Titanic.
  11. ^ Titanic.
  12. ^ a b "Titanic" (history), Britannica Concise, 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., webpage: BCE-13853: accessed 2007-01-22.
  13. ^ Titanic and her sister ships.
  14. ^ Bonner, Kit & Bonner, Carolyn (2003). Great Ship Disasters, pp.60. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-1336-9. .Read this book on Google Print
  15. ^ titanic statistics and dimensions.
  16. ^ titanic statistics and dimensions.
  17. ^ Technical facts about the Titanic.
  18. ^ RMS Titanic Facts & Figures.
  19. ^ Titanic's funnels.
  20. ^ Titanic - unsinkable.
  21. ^ "TRMA Tech Feature of the Month: Titanic's Double Bottom" (analysis), Titanic Research & Modeling Association, June 2005, webpage: TMcom-Jun2005: accessed 2007-01-21].
  22. ^ Titanic's bulkheads & watertight compartments.
  23. ^ RMS Titanic facts.
  24. ^ Titanic:A voyage of discovery.
  25. ^ Titanic-construction.
  26. ^ Wireless and the Titanic.
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ Colonel John Jacob Astor. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  29. ^ Benjamin Guggenheim. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  30. ^ Isidor Straus. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  31. ^ Mrs Rosalie Ida Straus. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  32. ^ Mrs Margaret "Molly" Brown. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  33. ^ Sir Cosmo Edmund Duff Gordan. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  34. ^ George Dunton Widener. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  35. ^ Mr John Borland Thayer. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  36. ^ Mr William Thomas Stead. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  37. ^ Mr Charles Melville Hays
  38. ^ Lucy Nöel Martha, Countess of Rothes. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  39. ^ Major Archibald Willingham Butt. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  40. ^ Mrs Helen Churchill Candee. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  41. ^ Mr Francis David Millet. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  42. ^ Maréchal, a director of the Voisin Frères and Louis Paulhan aircraft companies, was travelling to America on Paulhan's behalf, to negotiate the French manufacturing rights to Glenn Curtiss’s float planes.Latitude 41 (publication of Association Française du Titanic) No. 23.
  43. ^ Miss Dorothy Winnifred Gibson. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  44. ^ Mr Joseph Bruce Ismay. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  45. ^ Mr Thomas Andrews. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  46. ^ Mr Lawrence Beesley. Encyclopedia Titanica.
  47. ^ Encyclopedia Titanica http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/biography/362/
  48. ^ Mrs Sylvia Mae Caldwell.
  49. ^ Hinkle, Marla, "Behind The Chocolate Curtain." The Morning News, February 8, 2004.
  50. ^ "Scientists Finally Solve Titanic Mystery", Associated Press, August 3, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Buried in a small plot in a Halifax cemetery, the baby was a poignant symbol of the children who perished on the vessel when it sank in 1912. In 2002, it seemed the mystery was solved - Canadian researchers said he was a 13-month-old Finnish boy. But on Tuesday, a lead researcher said his team was wrong, and that the child was actually a 19-month-old boy from England.” 
  51. ^ "Biggest Liner Plunges to the Bottom at 2:20 AM", New York Times, 16 April 1912. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. “The White Star liner Olympic reports by wireless this evening that the Cunarder Carpathia reached, at daybreak this morning, the position from which wireless calls for help were sent out last night by the Titanic after her collision with an iceberg.” 
  52. ^ "Titanic" Disaster. Report of the Committee on Commerce. United States Senate. Washington: Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2007-01-21. . See table Summary of Passengers and Survivors.
  53. ^ (30 July 1912) Report on the loss of the S.S. Titanic, 69-70. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.  The most widely reported loss of life was 1,523. The inquiry was presented with 26 questions by the Board of Trade. Question 21 asked how many were saved (rather than how many were killed). A table in the answer gives "total on board saved" as 711 out of 2,201, implying that 1490 were killed. The answer also explains that 712 were rescued from Titanic's boats by the crew of Carpathia, but that one person died before Carpathia arrived at New York, leaving 711 survivors.
  54. ^ Titanic: Demographics of the Passengers.
  55. ^ Final Report of the British Board of Trade Inquiry
  56. ^ British Inquiry - Testimony of JG Boxhall -Fourth Officer - ss "Titanic", Q15645
  57. ^ British Inquiry – Testimony of G Affeld, Marine Superintendent Red Star Line Q22583 & Q25615/16
  58. ^ Paul Louden-Brown "The White Star Line; An Illustrated History 1869-1934"
  59. ^ [2]
  60. ^ Testimony of Alexander Carlisle at British Inquiry
  61. ^ Testimony of Harold Sanderson at British Inquiry - Question #19398
  62. ^ Robin Gardener & Dan van der Vat, The Riddle of the Titanic (London: Orion 1995) p136
  63. ^ Women and children first.
  64. ^ non-synchronous transmissions
  65. ^ Seconds from Disaster, Sinking of the Titanic, documentary, aired on National Geographic Channel
  66. ^ [3]
  67. ^ [4]
  68. ^ [5]
  69. ^ Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Discovery of the Titanic
  70. ^ Titanic Wreck Location, Titanic-Titanic.com
  71. ^ "Scientists ponder Titanic discoveries", CNN, December 5, 2005. 
  72. ^ Lindsay, Jay. "Scientists unveil new discoveries from Titanic wreck", Associated Press, December 5, 2005. 
  73. ^ Comprehensive resume of ownership questions
  74. ^ Corporate Profile. RMS Titanic, Inc.. Retrieved on February 1, 2006.
  75. ^ Expeditions. RMS Titanic, Inc.. Retrieved on February 1, 2006.
  76. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the fourth circuit, R.M.S. TITANIC, INCORPORATED vs. THE WRECKED AND ABANDONED VESSEL - January 31, 2006PDF (127 KiB)
  77. ^ Commented excerpts of the Court of Appeals decision.
  78. ^ [6]

Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Glenn H. Curtiss at the Grande Semaine dAviation in France in 1909 Glenn Hammond Curtiss (May 21, 1878 – July 23, 1930) was an aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... Encyclopedia Titanica is an online reference work containing all extant information on the RMS Titanic. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Non-synchronous transmission is a form of transmission system based on gears that do not use synchronizing mechanisms. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

References

  • Brander, Roy. The RMS Titanic and its Times: When Accountants Ruled the Waves. Elias P. Kline Memorial Lecture, October 1998 http://www.cuug.ab.ca/~branderr/risk_essay/Kline_lecture.html
  • Butler, Daniel Allen. Unsinkable: The Full Story of RMS Titanic. Stackpole Books, 1998, 292 pages
  • Collins, L. M. The Sinking of the Titanic: The Mystery Solved Souvenir Press, 2003 ISBN 0-285-63711-8
  • Eaton, John P. and Haas, Charles A. Titanic: Triumph and Tragedy (2nd ed.). W.W. Norton & Company, 1995 ISBN 0-393-03697-9
  • Gardener, R & van der Vat, D The Riddle of the Titanic Orion 1995
  • Kentley, Eric. Discover the Titanic Ed. Claire Bampton and Sue Leonard. 1st ed. New York: DK, Inc., 1997. 22. ISBN 0-7894-2020-1
  • Lord, Walter (1997). A Night to Remember Introduction by Nathaniel Philbrick. Bantam. ISBN 0-553-27827-4
  • Lynch, Donald and Marschall, Ken. Titanic: An Illustrated History Hyperion, 1995 ISBN 1-56282-918-1
  • O'Donnell, E. E. Father Browne's Titanic Album Wolfhound Press, 1997. ISBN 0-86327-758-6
  • Quinn, Paul J. Titanic at Two A.M.: An Illustrated Narrative with Survivor Accounts. Fantail, 1997 ISBN 0-9655209-3-5
  • Wade, Wyn Craig, The Titanic: End of a Dream Penguin Books, 1986 ISBN 0-14-016691-2
  • US Coast Guard. International Ice Patrol History. Page viewed May 2006. http://www.uscg.mil/LANTAREA/IIP/General/history.shtml
  • Beveridge, Bruce. Olympic & Titanic: The Truth Behind the Conspiracy
  • Chirnside, Mark. The Olympic-Class Ships
  • Layton, J. Kent. Atlantic Liners: A Trio of Trios
  • Ballard, Robert B. Lost Liners
  • Halpern, Samuel Somewhere About Twelve FeetPDF (170 KiB)
  • Pellegrino, Charles R. Her Name, Titanic Avon, 1990 ISBN 0-380-70892-2

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

External links

  • Encyclopedia Titanica, an invaluable source of information concerning the sinking of the Titanic, including over 10000 biographies and articles.
  • Titanic Historical Society
  • Titanic Inquiry Project Complete transcripts of both the US Senate and British Board of Trade inquiries into the disaster, along with their final reports.
  • Thomas Andrews, Shipbuilder A biography of the Titanic's designer
  • PBS Online - Lost Liners
  • Ocean Planet:How Deep Can they Go?
  • Maps and aerial photos for 41°43′32″N 49°56′49″W / 41.725556, -49.946944Coordinates: 41°43′32″N 49°56′49″W / 41.725556, -49.946944
    • Maps from WikiMapia, Google Maps, Live Search Maps, Yahoo! Maps, or MapQuest
    • Topographic maps from TopoZone or TerraServer-USA
Records
Preceded by
Olympic
World's largest passenger ship
1911 – 1912
Succeeded by
Olympic



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