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Encyclopedia > RMS Lusitania

The Lusitania
Career British Blue Ensign
Nationality: British
Owners: Cunard Line
Builders: John Brown & Co. Ltd, Clydebank, Scotland
Port of registry: Liverpool, United Kingdom
Laid down: June 16, 1904
Launched: Thursday, June 7, 1906[1]
Christened: by Mary, Lady Inverclyde
Maiden voyage: September 7, 1907
Fate: Torpedoed by German U-boat U-20 on Friday May 7, 1915. Wreck lies approximately 7 miles (11 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale Lighthouse in 450 feet (140 m) of water.
Specifications
Gross Tonnage: 31,550 gross register tons (GRT)
Displacement: 44,060 Long Tons
Length: 785 ft (239.87 m)
Beam: 87 ft 6 in (26.67 m)
Number of funnels: 4
Number of masts: 2
Construction: Steel
Power: 25 Scotch boilers. Four direct-acting Parsons steam turbines producing 76000hp.
Propulsion: Four triple blade propellers. (Quadruple blade propellers installed in 1909).
Service Speed: 25 knots (46.3 km/h / 28.8 mph) Top speed (single day's run): 26.7 knots (49.4 km/h) (March, 1914)
Passenger Accommodation (Designed): 552 first class, 460 second class, 1,186 third class. 2,198 total
Crew: 850

RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. Christened and launched on Thursday, June 7, 1906. Lusitania met a disastrous end as a casualty of the First World War when she was torpedoed by the German submarine U-20 on May 7, 1915. Carrying many American passengers, the great ship sank in just 18 minutes, eight miles (15 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the people aboard. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany. It is often considered by historians to be the second most famous civilian passenger liner disaster after the sinking of the Titanic. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (744 × 625 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) September 13, 1907: Lusitania arriving in New York on her maiden voyage. ... Image File history File links Government_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... HMS Indefatigable being launched at Clydebank. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Unterseeboot 20 (also known as U-20) was a German U-boat built for service in the Kaiserliche Marine. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. ... Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company, often referred to simply as Parsons, was a British shipbuilding company based in Wallsend, North England, on the River Tyne. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... HMS Indefatigable being launched at Clydebank. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Unterseeboot 20 (also known as U-20) was a German U-boat built for service in the Kaiserliche Marine. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Old Head of Kinsale is a headland in County Cork, Republic of Ireland. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Construction and trials

Lusitania was owned by the Cunard Steamship Company, built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland, and launched on Thursday, June 7, 1906. She was named after the ancient Roman province of Lusitania (present day Portugal south of the Douro river and Spanish Extremadura). Lusitania sailed on her maiden voyage to New York City on September 7, 1907 arriving on September 13, 1907, taking back the Blue Riband in 1907. The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... HMS Indefatigable being launched at Clydebank. ... Clydebank (Bruach Chluaidh in Gaelic) is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, lying on the north bank of the river Clyde. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, AD 117 Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river, and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). ... View of the river mouth from Portos Crystal Palace Gardens, facing West Douro (Latin Durius, Spanish Duero, Portuguese Douro) is one of the major rivers of Portugal and Spain, flowing from its source near Soria across central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Oporto. ... Capital Mérida Official languages Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ...


Lusitania and her sister, Mauretania, were built during the time of a passenger liner race between shipping lines based in Germany and Great Britain, and were the fastest liners of their day. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the fastest Atlantic liners were German, and the British sought to win back the title. Simultaneously, American financier J.P. Morgan was planning to buy up all the North Atlantic shipping lines, including Britain's own White Star Line. In 1903, Cunard chairman Lord Inverclyde took these threats to his advantage and lobbied the Balfour administration for a loan of £2.6 million for the construction of Lusitania and Mauretania, providing they met Admiralty specifications and Cunard remain a wholly British company. The British Government also agreed to pay Cunard an annual subsidy of £150,000 for maintaining both ships in a state of war readiness, plus an additional £68,000 to carry Royal Mail. RMS Mauretania (also known as Maury), sister ship of the Lusitania, was an ocean liner built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, and was launched on September 20, 1906. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... For other uses, see White star. ... The title of Baron Inverclyde was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1897. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... Royal Mail is the national postal service of the United Kingdom. ...


Lusitania's keel was laid at John Brown & Clydebank as Yard no. 367 on June 16, 1904. She was launched and christened by Mary, Lady Inverclyde, on Thursday, June 7, 1906.[2][3] Lord Inverclyde(1861-1905) had died before this momentous occasion. is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The title of Baron Inverclyde was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1897. ...


Much of the trim on Lusitania was designed and constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild.[4]


Starting on July 27, 1907, Lusitania underwent preliminary and formal acceptance trials. It was then she smashed all speed records ever set in the history of the shipping industry. Engineers discovered high speed caused violent vibrations in the stern, forcing the fitting of stronger bracing parts. After these physical alterations, she was finally delivered to Cunard on August 26. is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Comparison with the Olympic class

Lusitania and Mauretania were smaller than White Star Line's Olympic class vessels, Olympic, Titanic, and Britannic but also the two Cunarders entered service five years earlier than the White Star ships. Although significantly faster than the Olympics, they were not fast enough to allow Cunard to provide a weekly transatlantic departure schedule with just two vessels. Consequently Cunard would require a third ship to maintain a weekly service, and after White Star announced plans to build the Olympics, Cunard ordered a third ship, Aquitania. Like the White Star trio, Aquitania would be slower but larger and more luxurious than Lusitania and Mauretania. For other uses, see White star. ... RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... HMHS Britannic (1914), the third Olympic-class ocean liner of the White Star Line, sister ship of RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic, sank in 1916 after hitting a mine with the loss of 30 lives. ... RMS Aquitania was a Cunard Line ocean liner that was built by the John Brown and Company shipyard near Clydebank, Scotland. ...


Olympics differed from Lusitania and Mauretania in the subdivision of underwater compartments. The Olympics were divided by transverse watertight bulkheads. Lusitania also had transverse bulkheads, but in addition she had longitudinal bulkheads on each side, between the boiler and engine rooms and the coal bunkers on the outside of the vessel. The British commission that investigated the Titanic disaster heard testimony stating that the flooding of bunkers outside of longitudinal bulkheads over a considerable length could increase the ship's list and "make the lowering of the boats on the other side impracticable" — exactly what happened with Lusitania.[5] A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship. ...


Career

The Lusitania being escorted by tug boats
The Lusitania being escorted by tug boats

Lusitania departed Liverpool for her maiden voyage on September 7, 1907 under the command of commodore James Watt of the Cunard Line and arrived in New York City on September 13. At the time she was the largest ocean liner in service and would continue to be until the introduction of her sister Mauretania in November that year. During her eight-year service, she made a total of 202 crossings on the Cunard Line's Liverpool-New York Route. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x557, 55 KB) Summary RMS Lusitania. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x557, 55 KB) Summary RMS Lusitania. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... The maiden voyage of a ship or aircraft is the first cruise or flight in revenue service, typically following a series of shakedown cruises or test-flights. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In October 1907, Lusitania took the Blue Riband from Kaiser Wilhelm II of the North German Lloyd, ending Germany's 10-year dominance of the Atlantic. Lusitania averaged 23.99 knots (44.4 km/h) westbound and 23.61 knots (43.7 km/h) eastbound. The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... The SS Kaiser Wilhelm II, was a 19,361 gross ton passenger steamer built at Stettin, Germany, completed in the spring of 1903. ... Hapag-Lloyd is a German transportation company comprising a cargo container shipping line and a cruise line. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ...


With the introduction of Mauretania in November 1907, Lusitania and Mauretania continued to swap the Blue Riband. Lusitania made her fastest westbound crossing in 1909, averaging 25.85 knots (47.9 km/h). In September of that same year, she lost it permanently to Mauretania.


Hudson Fulton celebration

Lusitania and other ships participated in the Hudson Fulton celebration in New York City from the end of September to early October 1909. This was in celebration of the 300th anniversary of Henry Hudson's trip up the river that bears his name and the 100th anniversary of Robert Fulton's steamboat, Clermont. The celebration also was a display of the different modes of transportation then in existence, Lusitania representing the newest advancement in steamship technology. A newer mode of travel was the aeroplane. Wilbur Wright had brought a Flyer to Governors Island and proceeded to make demonstration flights before millions of New Yorkers who had never seen an airplane. Some of Wright's trips were directly over Lusitania and passengers on the liner marveled up at the newer technology of the airplane which in 40 years time would supersede the ocean liner as the primary mode of Trans-Atlantic passenger travel. A few interesting photographs of Lusitania still exist from that week. No portrait of Hudson is known to be in existence. ... For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ...


War

The Lusitania in a 1907 painting, described as an "Auxiliary Cruiser in Warfare".
The Lusitania in a 1907 painting, described as an "Auxiliary Cruiser in Warfare".
The official warning issued by the Imperial German Embassy about travelling on the Lusitania.
The official warning issued by the Imperial German Embassy about travelling on the Lusitania.

Lusitania, like a number of liners of the era, was part of a subsidy scheme meant to convert ships into armed merchant cruisers if requisitioned by the government. This involved structural provisions for mounting deck guns. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Armed Merchantmen were merchant ships taken over by their nations navies, equipped with guns, and then used for military purposes. ...


At the onset of World War I, the British Admiralty considered Lusitania for requisition as an armed merchant cruiser; however, large liners such as Lusitania consumed too much coal, presented too large a target, and put at risk large crews and were therefore deemed inappropriate for the role. They were also very distinctive. Smaller liners were used as transports, instead. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


The large liners were either not requisitioned, or were used for troop transport or as hospital ships. Mauretania became a troop transport while Lusitania continued in her role as a luxury liner built to convey people between Great Britain and the United States. For economic reasons, Lusitania's transatlantic crossings were reduced to once a month and boiler room Number 4 was shut down. Maximum speed was reduced to 21 knots (39 km/h), but even then, Lusitania was the fastest passenger liner on the North Atlantic in commercial service, and 10 knots (18.5 km/h) faster than submarines. USNS Comfort takes on supplies at Mayport, FL enroute to Gulf Coast. ...


On February 4, 1915, Germany declared the seas around the British Isles a war zone. Effective as of February 18, Allied ships in the area would be sunk without warning. This was not wholly unrestricted submarine warfare, since efforts would be taken to avoid sinking neutral ships.[6] is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ...


Lusitania was scheduled to arrive in Liverpool on March 6, 1915. The Admiralty issued her specific instructions on how to avoid submarines. Despite a severe shortage of destroyers, Admiral Henry Oliver ordered HMS ships Louis and Laverock to escort Lusitania, and took the further precaution of sending the Q ship Lyons to patrol Liverpool Bay. Captain Dow of Lusitania, not knowing whether Laverock and Louis were actual Admiralty escorts or a trap by the German navy, evaded the escorts and arrived in Liverpool without incident.[7] is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Sir Henry Francis Oliver (January 22, 1865-October 15, 1965) served as Admiral of the Fleet from 1928 to 1929. ... A hidden gun on a Q-ship in World War I. Q-ships or Q-boats were disguised merchant vessels that carried cannons, depth charges and antisubmarine equipment. ...


On April 17, 1915, Lusitania left Liverpool on her 201st transatlantic voyage, arriving in New York on April 24. A group of German–Americans, hoping to avoid controversy if Lusitania were attacked by a U-boat, discussed their concerns with a representative of the German embassy. The embassy decided to warn passengers not to sail aboard Lusitania before her next crossing. is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Imperial German embassy placed a warning advertisement in American newspapers, including those in New York.


Last voyage and sinking

Last departure

Lusitania departed Pier 54 in New York on 1 May 1915. The German Embassy in Washington had issued this warning on 22 April.[8] The archway is the only remaining identifiable piece of the pier The Lusitania at Pier 54 Chelsea Piers and Lusitania about 1910 The Carpathia at Pier 54 after the Titanic rescue Pier 54 in New York City is a former Cunard Line pier that is associated with the 1912 RMS... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

NOTICE!
TRAVELLERS intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies; that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, in accordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vessels flying the flag of Great Britain, or any of her allies, are liable to destruction in those waters and that travellers sailing in the war zone on the ships of Great Britain or her allies do so at their own risk.
IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY,
Washington, D.C. April 22, 1915

This warning was printed right next to an advertisement for Lusitania's return voyage. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


The warning led to some agitation in the press and worried the ship's passengers and crew. The captain, an experienced 58-year old sailor and master named William "Bowler Bill" Turner, tried to calm the passengers by explaining that the ship's speed made it safe from attack by submarine. Lusitania steamed out of New York at noon that day, two hours behind schedule due to a transfer of passengers and crew from the recently requisitioned Cameronia. Shortly after departure, three German spies were found on board, arrested, and detained below decks. // Master (a man having control or authority) or Masters may refer to: Guru, a teacher in Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...

The Lusitania at end of the first leg of her maiden voyage, New York City, September 1907. (*photo taken with a panoramic lens.)
The Lusitania at end of the first leg of her maiden voyage, New York City, September 1907. (*photo taken with a panoramic lens.)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1615x420, 248 KB) The Lusitania at End of Record Voyage, circa 1907 en: RMS Lusitania File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): RMS Lusitania Image:The Lusitania at... Panoramic photography is a style of photography that aims to create images with exceptionally wide fields of view, but has also come to refer to any photograph that is cropped to a relatively wide aspect ratio (see Panoramic format) While there is no formal definition for the point at which...

Passengers

Lusitania carried 1,959 passengers on her last voyage. Those aboard included:

  • Canadian businessman Sir Frederick Orr Lewis, 1st Baronet (survived)
  • William R. G. Holt, son and heir of Canadian banker Sir Herbert Samuel Holt (survived)
  • Montreal socialite Frances McIntosh Stephens, wife of politician George Washington Stephens (died)
  • Mary Crowther Ryerson of Toronto, wife of George Sterling Ryerson, founder of the Canadian Red Cross (died)
  • British MP David Alfred Thomas (survived)
  • His daughter Margaret, Lady Mackworth (survived)
  • American architect Theodate Pope (survived)
  • Oxford professor and writer Ian Holbourn (survived)
  • H. Montagu Allan's wife Marguerite (survived) and daughters Anna (died) and Gwendolyn (died)
  • Actresses Rita Jolivet (survived), Josephine Brandell (survived) and Amelia Herbert (died)
  • Belgian diplomat Marie Depage (died), wife of Antoine Depage
  • New York fashion designer Carrie Kennedy (died)
  • American building contractor and hotel proprietor Albert Bilicke (died)
  • Renowned chemist Anne Justice Shymer, president of the United States Chemical Company (died)
  • Playwrights Justus Miles Forman (died) and Charles Klein (died)
  • American theatre impresario Charles Frohman (died)
  • American philosopher, writer and Roycroft founder Elbert Hubbard (died) and his second wife Alice (died)
  • Wine merchant and philanthropist George Kessler (survived)
  • American pianist Charles Knight (died) and sister, Elaine Knight (died)
  • Renowned Irish art collector Sir Hugh Lane (died)
  • American Socialite Beatrice Witherbee (survived)
  • Her son Alfred Scott Witherbee, Jr. (died) and her mother, Mary Cummins Brown (died)
  • American engineer and entrepreneur Frederick Stark Pearson (died) and his wife Mabel (died)
  • Genealogist Lothrop Withington (died)
  • Sportsman, millionaire, leader of the Vanderbilt family, Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt (died) -- last seen fastening a woman's life vest
  • Scenic designer Oliver P. Bernard (survived), whose sketches of the sinking were published in the Illustrated London News
  • Politician and future United States' ambassador to Spain, Ogden Haggerty Hammond of Louisville, Kentucky (survived) and his first wife, Mary Picton Stevens of Hoboken, New Jersey (died), a descendant of John Stevens and Robert Livingston Stevens (parents of former New Jersey Congresswoman Millicent Fenwick).

Sir Herbert Samuel Holt (February 12, 1856 - September 29, 1941) was an Irish-born Canadian civil engineer who became a businessman, banker, and corporate director. ... The Canadian Red Cross Society is a Canadian humanitarian charitable organization. ... David Alfred Thomas, Viscount Rhondda (1856 - 1918) was a Welsh industrialist and politician. ... Margaret Haig Mackworth, 2nd Viscountess Rhondda (12 June 1883–20 July 1958) was a Welsh peeress and active suffragette. ... Theodate Pope Riddle (February 2, 1867- August 30, 1946) was a well-known American architect. ... H. Montagu Allan (October 13, 1860 - September 26, 1951) was a Canadian banker, ship owner, and a sportsman who donated the Allan Cup, the trophy symbolic of mens amateur ice hockey supremacy in Canada. ... Rita Jolivet, 1918 Rita Jolivet (born Marguerite Lucile Jolivet 1890 in Paris, died March 2, 1971 in Nice, France) was an English actress of French descent in theater and silent movies in the early twentieth century. ... Antoine Depage (Bosvoorde, 1862-Den Haag, 10 August 1925), was a Belgian surgeon; founder and president of the Belgian Red Cross. ... Justus Miles Forman ( November 1, 1875-May 7, 1915 ) was an American author and playwright. ... The playwright Charles Klein was born in London, England, on 7 January 1867. ... Charles Frohman (1860 - 1915) was a U.S. theatre manager. ... Roycroft was a reformist community of craft workers and artists which formed part of the Arts and Crafts movement in the USA. Elbert Hubbard founded the community in 1895 in the village of East Aurora, Erie County, New York, near Buffalo. ... Elbert Green Hubbard, American philosopher and writer Elbert Hubbard illustrated in the frontispiece of The Mintage Elbert Green Hubbard (June 19, 1856 – May 7, 1915) was an American writer and publisher. ... Alice Moore Hubbard (June 7, 1861- May 7, 1915) was a noted American femininst, and, with her husband, Elbert Hubbard was a leading figure in the Roycroft movement- a branch of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England with which it was contemporary. ... Sir Hugh Lane by Antonio Mancini - Oil on canvas (1913) Sir Hugh Percy Lane ( November 9, 1875-May 7, 1915 ) Born in County Cork on 9 November 1875, he is best known for for establishing Dublins Municipal Gallery of Modern Art (the first known public gallery of modern art... Frederick Stark Pearson (July 3, 1861 – May 7, 1915) was an American electrical engineer and entrepreneur. ... Lothrop Withington (January 31, 1856 - May 7, 1915) was a well-known American genealogist, historian, and book editor who was killed in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. ... The Vanderbilts are a prominent family in the history of the United States. ... Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt, born October 20, 1877 - died May 7, 1915, was a sportsman and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family. ... Scenic design also known as Stage design is the creation of theatrical scenery. ... Photograph of Oliver P. Bernard from the Boston Globe Oliver Percy Bernard MC OBE (8 April 1881 – 15 April 1939) was an English architect, and scenic, graphic and industrial designer. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... Louisville redirects here. ... Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ... Robert Livingston Stevens (1787-1856) was the son of Colonel John Stevens. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Millicent Hammond Fenwick (February 25, 1910 – September 16, 1992) was a American fashion editor, politician, and diplomat. ...

Eastbound

Lusitania's landfall on the return leg of her transatlantic circuit was Fastnet Rock, off the southern tip of Ireland. As the liner steamed across the ocean, the British Admiralty, by means of wireless intercepts, was tracking the movements of U-20, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walther Schwieger and operating along the west coast of Ireland and moving south. Fastnet Rock (, ) is a small clay-slate island with quartz veins and the most southerly point of the Republic of Ireland, 6. ... Unterseeboot 20 (also known as U-20) was a German U-boat built for service in the Kaiserliche Marine. ... Kapitänleutnant is the third lowest officers rank in the German Navy. ... Walther Schwieger (April 7, 1885, Berlin - September 17, 1917, North Sea) was a German U-boat commander during the First World War. ...


On 5 May and 6 May, U-20 sank three vessels in the area of Fastnet Rock, and the Royal Navy sent a warning to all British ships: "Submarines active off the south coast of Ireland". Captain Turner of Lusitania was given the message twice on the evening of the 6th, and took what he felt were prudent precautions. He closed watertight doors, posted double lookouts, ordered a black-out, and had the lifeboats swung out on their davits so they could be quickly put into the water if need be. That same evening, a Seamen's Charities fund concert took place in the first class lounge. is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At about 11:00, on Friday, May 7, the Admiralty radioed another warning, and Turner adjusted his heading northeast, apparently thinking submarines would be more likely to keep to the open sea and so Lusitania would be safer close to land. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


U-20 was low on fuel and only had three torpedoes left, and Schwieger had decided to head for home. She was moving at top speed on the surface at 13:00 when Schwieger spotted a vessel on the horizon. He ordered U-20 to dive and to take battle stations.


Sinking

Lusitania was at approximately 30 miles (48 km) from Cape Clear Island when she encountered fog, and reduced speed to 18 knots.[9] She was making for the port of Queenstown (now Cobh), Ireland, 70 kilometers (43.5 miles) from the Old Head of Kinsale when the liner crossed in front of U-20 at 14:10. For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Some knots: 1. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish grid reference W793666 Statistics Province: Munster County: Elevation: 47 m (154 ft) Population (2006)  - Town:  - Environs:   6,517  6,370 Website: www. ...


One story states that when Schwieger gave the order to fire, his quartermaster, Charles Voegele, would not take part in an attack on women and children, and refused to pass on the order to the torpedo room — a decision for which he was court-martialed and served three years in prison at Kiel,[10] although this story may be apocryphal. The torpedo hit under the bridge, and was followed by a much larger secondary explosion in the starboard bow. Schwieger's own log entries attest he only fired one torpedo. Some doubt the validity of this claim, contending the German government subsequently doctored Schwieger's log,[citation needed] but accounts from other U-20 crew members confirm it. The torpedo struck just forward of the bridge, sending a plume of debris, steel plating and water upward and knocking Lifeboat #5 off its davits. Lusitania's wireless operator sent out an immediate SOS and Captain Turner gave the order to abandon ship. A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... For other uses, see SOS (disambiguation). ...


Water flooded the ship's starboard longitudinal compartments, causing an immediate 15 degrees starboard list. Captain Turner tried turning the ship toward the Irish coast in the hope of beaching her, but the helm would not respond. The torpedo had knocked out the steam lines to the rudder, rendering the controls useless. The ship's propellers continued to drive the ship at 18 knots (33 km/h), forcing water into her hull.


Lusitania's severe starboard list complicated the launch of her lifeboats — those to starboard swung out too far to conveniently step aboard.[11] While it was still possible to board the lifeboats on the port side, lowering them presented a different problem. As was typical for the period, the hull plates of the Lusitania were riveted. As the lifeboats were lowered, they dragged on these rivets, which threatened to seriously to damage the boats before they landed in the water. Many lifeboats overturned while loading or lowering, spilling passengers into the sea; others were overturned by the ship's motion when they hit the water. It has been claimed[citation needed] that some boats, by the negligence of some officers, crashed down onto the deck, crushing other passengers, and sliding down towards the bridge. This has been refuted in various articles and by passenger and crew testimony[citation needed]. Lusitania had 48 lifeboats, more than enough for all the crew and passengers, but only six were successfully lowered, all from the starboard side. A rivetted buffer beam on a steam locomotive A rivet is a mechanical fastener consisting of a smooth cylindrical shaft with heads on either end, the second one formed in position. ...


Despite Turner's efforts to beach the liner and reduce her speed, Lusitania no longer answered the helm. There was panic and disorder on the decks. Schwieger had been observing this through U-20's periscope, and by 14:25, he dropped the periscope and headed out to sea. Principle of the periscope. ...


Within six minutes, Lusitania's forecastle began to go underwater. Her list continued to worsen and 10 minutes after the torpedoing, she had slowed enough to start putting boats in the water. On the port side, people panicked and got into the boats, even though they were swinging far in from the rails. On the starboard side, the boats were hanging several feet away from the sides. Crewmen would lose their grip on the lifeboat while trying to lower the boats into the ocean, and this caused the passengers from the boat to "spill into the sea like rag dolls."[cite this quote] Others would tip on launch as some panicking people jumped into the boat. Very few lifeboats made it into the water safely. forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Focsle of the Prince William, a modern square rigged ship, in the North Sea. ...


Captain Turner remained on the bridge until the water rushed upward and destroyed the sliding door, washing him overboard into the sea. He took the ship's logbook and charts with him. He managed to escape the rapidly sinking Lusitania and find a chair floating in the water which he clung to. He was pulled unconscious from the water but miraculously survived after spending 3 hours in the water. Lusitania's bow slammed into the bottom about 100 m (300 ft) below at a shallow angle, given her forward momentum as she sank. Along the way, some boilers exploded, including one that caused the third funnel to collapse, with the remaining funnels proceeding to snap off soon after. Captain Turner's last navigational fix had been only two minutes before the torpedoing, and he was able to remember the ship's speed and bearing at the moment of sinking. This was accurate enough to locate the wreck after the war. The ship travelled about two miles (3 km) from the time of the torpedoing to her final resting place, leaving a trail of debris and people behind. logbook aboard the frigate Grand Turk A Logbook is a book for recording readings from the log (see also maritime log). ... A 1976 United States NOAA chart of part of Puerto Rico A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, AD 117 Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river, and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In navigation, a bearing is the clockwise angle between a reference direction (or a datum line) and the direction to an object. ...


Lusitania sank in 18 minutes, 8 miles (13 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale. 1,198 people died with her, including almost a hundred children.[12] The bodies of many of the victims were buried at either Lusitania's destination, Queenstown, or the Church of St. Multose in Kinsale, but many other bodies were never recovered and remain entombed in the wreck.


Political consequences

A medal recognizing the sinking of the Lusitania.
A medal recognizing the sinking of the Lusitania.

Schwieger was condemned in the Allied press as a war criminal. Had he survived the war he would have undoubtedly been placed on trial as a war criminal at the Allies' insistence. German medal about RMS Lusitania, 1917 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... German medal about RMS Lusitania, 1917 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Of the 139 Americans aboard, 128 lost their lives. There was massive outrage in Britain and America. The British felt the Americans had to declare war on Germany. U.S. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, fearing the US would declare war, resigned from the Cabinet in protest; however, President Woodrow Wilson still did not want the country to get involved in a European dispute because the American population (many of whom were German-American) did not want to be involved in a war nor were they ready -- no matter how outraged they were. Instead of declaring war, he sent a formal protest to Germany. Wilson was bitterly criticised in Britain as a coward. In the trenches a shell that did not explode was called a "Wilson." The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...


Although unrestricted submarine warfare continued at a varying pace into the summer, on August 19 U-24 sank the White Star liner Arabic, with the loss of 44 passengers and crew. Three of the dead were Americans, and President Wilson angrily protested through German diplomatic channels. is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Unterseeboot 24 or U-24 has been the name of several German submarines or U-boats during the First World War, the Second World War and in the post-war Bundesmarine. ...


On August 27, the Kaiser imposed severe restrictions on U‐boats attacks against large passenger vessels. On September 18, 1915, he called off unrestricted submarine warfare completely. is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Munich metalworker Karl Goetz struck commemorative medallions in August 1915 to satirize what he saw as the greed of the Cunard Line and the foolishness of contraband he suspected was being smuggled with the help of US neutrality. The original medal has the incorrect date of 5 May 1915 on it. Some time thereafter British intelligence obtained a copy and saw a propaganda opportunity as the medal apparently celebrated the sinking as a premeditated crime. The incorrect date was taken as proof of this theory and combined with possibly apocryphal German press reports touting the triumph. British propagandists precommissioned Selfridges of London to make 250–300,000 copies of the medal in an attractive case claiming to be an exact copy of the German medal, which then were sold for a shilling to benefit the British Red Cross and other charities. Belatedly realizing his mistake Goetz issued a corrected medal with the date of 7 May. The Bavarian government suppressed the medal and ordered their confiscation in April 1917. The original German medals (fewer than 500 were struck) can most easily be distinguished from the English copies because the date is in German; the English version spells 'May' rather than 'Mai'. After the war Goetz expressed his regret his work had been the cause of increasing anti‐German feelings, but it remains one of the most celebrated propaganda acts of all time. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the type of communication. ... Selfridges in Birmingham. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British Red Cross Society is a prominent part of the largest impartial humanitarian organisation in the world – the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While the American public and leadership was not ready for war, the path to an eventual declaration of war had been set as a result of the sinking of the Lusitania.


According to French newspapers, the opening of the Paris Peace Conference, which resulted in the Treaty of Versailles, coincided deliberately with the anniversary of the sinking of the Lusitania. Paris 1919 redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...


Last living survivor

Audrey Lawson-Johnston (nee Pearl) born February 1915 is the last living survivor of the RMS Lusitania sinking. She presently resides in Bedfordshire, England.[2] Audrey became the last living survivor following the death of Barbara McDermott (nee Anderson) on April 12, 2008.[3] Bedfordshire is a county in England. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Controversies

Contraband and second explosion

The telegraph on the wreck of Lusitania
The telegraph on the wreck of Lusitania

Lusitania was carrying small arms ammunition, which would not have been explosive.[13] Under the "cruiser rules", the Germans could sink a civilian vessel only after guaranteeing the safety of all the passengers. Since Lusitania (like all British merchantmen) was under instructions from the British Admiralty to report the sighting of a German submarine, and indeed to attempt to ram the ship if it surfaced to board and inspect her, she was acting as a naval auxiliary, and was thus exempt from this requirement and a legitimate military target. By international law, the presence (or absence) of military cargo was irrelevant. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links The telegraph on the wreck of Lusitania File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The telegraph on the wreck of Lusitania File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Recent expeditions to the wreck have shown her holds are intact and show no evidence of internal explosion. The question remains, however: if ammunition and alleged "secret" cargo did not cause the violent second explosion, what did?


In 1993, Dr Robert Ballard, famous explorer who discovered Titanic, conducted an in-depth exploration of the wreck of Lusitania. Ballard found Light had been mistaken in his identification of a gaping hole in the ship's side. To explain the second explosion, Ballard advanced the theory of a coal-dust explosion. He believed dust in the bunkers would have been thrown into the air by the vibration from the explosion; the resulting cloud would have been ignited by a spark, causing the second explosion. In the years since he first advanced this theory, it has been argued this is a near-impossibility. Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ...


Critics of this theory say coal dust would have been too damp to have been stirred into the air by the torpedo impact in explosive concentrations; additionally, the coal bunker where the torpedo struck would have been flooded almost immediately by the influx of seawater which poured through the damaged hull plates. Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal. ...


More recently, marine forensic investigators have become convinced an explosion in the ship's steam-generating plant is a far more plausible explanation for the second explosion. There were very few survivors from the forward two boiler rooms, but they did report the ship's boilers did not explode; they were also under extreme duress in those moments after the torpedo's impact, however. Leading Fireman Albert Martin later testified he thought the torpedo actually entered the boiler room and exploded between a group of boilers, which was a physical impossibility. It is also known the forward boiler room filled with steam, and steam pressure feeding the turbines dropped dramatically following the second explosion. These point toward a failure, of one sort or another, in the ship's steam-generating plant. It is possible the failure came, not directly from one of the Scotch boilers in boiler room no. 1, but rather in the high-pressure steam lines to the turbines.


In any case, most researchers and historians agree a steam explosion is far more likely than clandestine high-explosives as the reason for the second explosion. It must be noted, however, it is quite likely the original torpedo damage alone, striking the ship on the starboard coal bunker of boiler room no. 1, would have sent the ship to the bottom without the aid of the second explosion. This first blast was able to cause, on its own, off-center flooding of a serious nature. The deficiencies of the ship's original watertight bulkhead design exacerbated the situation, as did the many portholes which had been left open to aid in ventilation.


Recent developments

The wreck is owned by New Mexico diver and businessman F. Gregg Bemis Jr, who bought it in 1968 from former business partners, one of whom had previously bought it in 1967 for £1000 from the Liverpool & London War Risks Insurance Association.[14][15]


The Irish Government in 1995 declared the wreck a heritage site under the National Monuments Act. This protects the wreck for 100 years. One reason for this is attributed to the presumed presence of art treasures in lead containers located in the hold believed to have been carried by Sir Hugh Lane. The Government (Irish: ) [ral̪ˠt̪ˠəs̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ... Photo of a notice at a ring fort near Lough Gur, typical of those at a national monument in Ireland. ... Sir Hugh Lane by Antonio Mancini - Oil on canvas (1913) Sir Hugh Percy Lane ( November 9, 1875-May 7, 1915 ) Born in County Cork on 9 November 1875, he is best known for for establishing Dublins Municipal Gallery of Modern Art (the first known public gallery of modern art...


In June 2005, Bemis won a High Court challenge with the Irish State and is now in a position to legally inspect and carry out a $2 million research expedition on the wreck. Bemis intends to send divers down to prove his theory the second explosion was caused by munitions being carried. The Supreme Court upheld the High Court's decision in a judgment delivered on March 27, 2007. is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


A dive team from Cork Sub Aqua Club, under license, made the first known discovery of munitions aboard in 2006. These include 15,000 rounds of 0.303 (7.7×56mmR) caliber rifle ammunition in boxes in the bow section of the ship. The 0.303 round was used by the British army in all of their battlefield rifles and machine guns. The find was photographed but left in situ under the terms of the license. In situ is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. ...


Bemis also hopes to salvage components from the wreck for display in museums. Any fine art recovered, such as the Rubens rumoured to be on board, will remain in the ownership of the Irish Government. Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ...


On March 28, 2007, the Irish Times reported the Irish Government would grant Bemis a licence to carry out research on the vessel, but the Supreme Court's decision makes it clear a further licence application would be required by Bemis. is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


References

  • Thomas A. Bailey. "The Sinking of the Lusitania," The American Historical Review, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Oct 1935), pp. 54–73 in JSTOR
  • Thomas A. Bailey; Paul B. Ryan. The Lusitania Disaster: An Episode in Modern Warfare and Diplomacy (1975)
  • Ballard, Robert D., & Dunmore, Spencer. (1995). Exploring the Lusitania. New York: Warner Books.
  • Hoehling, A.A. and Mary Hoehling. (1956). The Last Voyage of the Lusitania. Maryland: Madison Books.
  • Layton, J. Kent (2007). Lusitania: An Illustrated Biography of the Ship of Splendor.
  • Layton, J. Kent (2005). Atlantic Liners: A Trio of Trios. CafePress Publishing.
  • Ljungström, Henrik. Lusitania. The Great Ocean Liners.
  • O'Sullivan, Patrick. (2000). The Lusitania: Unravelling the Mysteries. New York: Sheridan House.
  • Preston, Diana. (2002). Lusitania: An Epic Tragedy. Waterville: Thorndike Press. Preston (2002 p 384)

Notes

  1. ^ Atlantic Liners.
  2. ^ Lusitania, Atlantic Liner.
  3. ^ Lost Liners.
  4. ^ The Bromsgrove Society [1]
  5. ^ Inquiry.
  6. ^ Germany's second submarine campaign against the Allies during World War One was unrestricted in scope, as was submarine warfare during the Second World War.
  7. ^ Patrick Beesly, Room 40: British Naval Intelligence 1914–1918 (1982) p.95; Preston (2002), pp76–77
  8. ^ http://www.fas.org/irp/ops/ci/docs/ci1/notice.jpg
  9. ^ Lusitania (1907-1915), The Great Ocean Liners.
  10. ^ Des Hickey and Gus Smith, Seven Days to Disaster: The Sinking of the Lusitania, 1981, William Collins, ISBN 0-00-216882-0. However, Diana Preston writes in her book cited in the list of sources for this article that "the details of what really happened remain tantalisingly obscure. None of the surviving crew members of the U-20 seems ever to have referred to the incident. There is no trace of his court martial papers." However, "his story is currently being researched in Strasbourg for inclusion in a dictionary of Alsatian biographies". Preston also writes that Voegele was an electrician on board U20 and not a quartermaster. See also Blog on BBC docu-drama Lusitania
  11. ^ Report.
  12. ^ Robert Ballard, Exploring the Lusitania. This number is cited, probably to include the German spies detained below decks. The Cunard Steamship Company announced the official death toll of 1,195 on March 1, 1916.
  13. ^ Included in this cargo were 4,200,000 rounds of Remington 0.303 rifle cartridges, 1250 cases of 3 inch (76 mm) fragmentation shells, and eighteen cases of fuses. (All were listed on the ship's two-page manifest, filed with U.S. Customs after she had departed New York on May 1.) However, the materials listed on the cargo manifest were small arms and the physical size of this cargo would have been quite small. These munitions were also proven to be non-explosive in bulk, and were clearly marked as such. It was perfectly legal under American shipping regulations for her to carry these; experts agreed they were not to blame for the second explosion. Allegations the ship was carrying more controversial cargo, such as fine aluminium powder, concealed as cheese on her cargo manifests, have never been proven.
  14. ^ How deep is his love, Class Notes, Stanford Magazine, March/April 2005
  15. ^ Millionaire diver wins right to explore wreck of the Lusitania, David Sharrock, The Times, London, Apr 2 2007

is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Fragmentation is a term that occurs in several fields and describes a process of something breaking or being divided into pieces (fragments). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Thomas A. Bailey, "German Documents Relating to the 'Lusitania'", The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Sep., 1936), pp. 320–37 in JSTOR
  • Timeline, The Lusitania Resource.
  • Facts and Figures, The Lusitania Resource.

External links

Records
Preceded by
Kaiserin Auguste Victoria
World's largest passenger ship
1907
Succeeded by
Mauretania
Preceded by
Deutschland
Holder of the Blue Riband (Westbound)
1907 – 1909
Preceded by
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Holder of the Blue Riband (Eastbound)
1907

Coordinates: 51°25′N, 8°33′W The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I and occasionally Kitty Hawk) was the first powered aircraft designed and built by the Wright brothers. ... SS. Kaiserin Auguste Victoria was a German luxury liner built in 1905 by Vulcan at Stettin. ... A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... RMS Mauretania (also known as Maury), sister ship of the Lusitania, was an ocean liner built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, and was launched on September 20, 1906. ... The first Deutschland was a passenger liner by the Hamburg-Amerika line of Germany. ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... The SS Kaiser Wilhelm II, was a 19,361 gross ton passenger steamer built at Stettin, Germany, completed in the spring of 1903. ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) is a Cunard Line ocean liner named after the earlier Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth. ... The RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) is a Cunard Line ocean liner named after the earlier Cunard liner Queen Mary, which was in turn named after Mary of Teck, the Queen Consort of George V. At the time of her construction in 2003, the QM2 was the longest, widest and... MS Queen Victoria (QV) is a new cruise ship under construction for the Cunard Line at the Fincantieri ship yard in Marghera, near Venice, Italy. ... MS Queen Elizabeth is a new modified Vista Class cruise ship announced by Cunard Line. ... The RMS Britannia was an ocean liner of the British Cunard Steamship Lines. ... SS Servia was an ocean liner built by John Brown and Company, Clydebank, Scotland, for the Cunard Line. ... RMS Etruria and her sister ship RMS Umbria were the last two Cunarders that were fitted with auxiliary Sails. ... RMS Umbria and her sister ship RMS Etruria were the last two Cunarders that were fitted with auxiliary Sails. ... The RMS Campania was a British ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company, built by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan, Scotland, and launched on Thursday, September 8, 1891. ... The RMS Lucania was a British ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company, built by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan, Scotland, and launched on Thursday, February 2, 1893. ... RMS Carpathia The RMS Carpathia was a Cunard Line transatlantic passenger steamship built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson. ... RMS Mauretania (also known as Maury), sister ship of the Lusitania, was an ocean liner built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson at Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, and was launched on September 20, 1906. ... The steamship RMS Albania (1900) is a passenger ship that was owned by the Cunard Line. ... The first RMS Laconia was a Cunard ocean liner built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, launched on July 27, 1911, delivered to the Cunard Line on December 12, 1911, and began service on January 20, 1912. ... RMS Alaunia was a cruise liner owned by Cunard Line. ... RMS Aquitania was a Cunard Line ocean liner that was built by the John Brown and Company shipyard near Clydebank, Scotland. ... Orduna was an ocean liner built in 1913-14 by Harland & Wolff in Belfast for the Cunard Line. ... == R.M.S. Antonia Andania and Antonia were the first two of the six 14,000 ton A liners built for Cunard in the early 1920s. ... RMS Scythia was a Cunard liner. ... The Berengaria was originally launched as the SS Imperator by the German HAPAG Line in 1912. ... The second RMS Laconia was a Cunard ocean liner built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson as a successor to the Laconia of 1911 to 1917. ... The RMS Lancastria was a Cunard liner sunk on June 17, 1940 during World War II with the loss of, possibly, 4,000 lives. ... RMS Majestic, originally christened Bismarck, was launched in 1914 and was, at 56,551 gross tonnes, the largest ship in the world until the completion of the S.S. Normandie in 1935. ... RMS Britannic was the third White Star Line ship to bear the name. ... RMS Olympic was the first of her class of ocean liners built for the White Star Line, which also included the ill-fated liners Titanic and Britannic. ... Queen Mary 1936 RMS Queen Mary is an ocean liner that sailed the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for Cunard Line (then Cunard White Star Line). ... For other ships of the same name, see RMS Mauretania. ... RMS Queen Elizabeth was a steam-powered ocean liner of the Cunard Steamship Company. ... The RMS Caronia was a 34,183 gross-ton passenger ship of the Cunard Line. ... The RMS Saxonia was a 34,183 gross-ton passenger ship of the Cunard Line. ... RMS Sylvania was an ocean liner built in 1957 by John Brown & Co (Clydebank), Glasgow, Scotland for the United Kingdom-based shipping company Cunard Line. ... Cunard Ambassador was a cruise ship intended for the use of a company by the name of Overseas National Airways which was a charter airline. ... Cunard Countess was the name of a luxury cruise ship that was operated by the Cunard cruise lines. ... Sagafjord, and her sistership, Vistafjord, are passenger vessels originally constructed for the Norwegian American Line. ... MS Caronia is a cruise ship in operation by Cunard Line shipping Company Facts: She Entered Operation In 1999 She is part of Cunard International Power: Diesel Categories: | ... The ms Prinsendam (formerly Seabourne Sun and Royal Viking Sun) is a cruise ship for Holland America Line and is nicknamed the Elegant Explorer. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Look up conspiracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of conspiracy theories; it contains alleged conspiracies that are not accepted by mainstream academics. ... Particularly since the 1960s, conspiracy theory has been a popular subject of fiction. ... One World Government redirects here. ... Bohemian Grove is an 11 km² (2700 acre) campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue, in Monte Rio, California,[1] belonging to a private San Francisco-based mens art club known as the Bohemian Club. ... For the pirate flag, see Jolly Roger. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Illuminata redirects here. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Eurabia is a neologism that denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself to and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... False colors redirects here. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty. ... The verdict of the Scottish judges who convicted one Libyan agent, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi, on 270 counts of murder at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers – including relatives of the 270 victims – that justice had been done. ... The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... For the 1894 massacre in Lüshunkou, see Port Arthur massacre (China). ... Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, N93119, crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT (00:31, July 18 UTC), in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. ... Main article: 2004 Madrid train bombings. ... Many questions, rumors and theories about the July 2005 London bombings have been raised. ... Eric V Klipping (1249-1286) was King of Denmark (1259-1286) and son of Christopher I. Until 1264 he ruled under the auspices of his mother, the competent Queen Dowager Margaret Sambiria. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... A new plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a... For the computer software, see: Phar Lap (company). ... President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The Pont de lAlma tunnel, where Diana was fatally injured. ... A UFO conspiracy theory is any one of many often overlapping conspiracy theories which argue that evidence of the reality of unidentified flying objects is being suppressed. ... The Abduction Phenomenon is as umbrella term used to describe a number of kidnap individuals--sometimes called abductees--usually for medical testing or for sexual reproduction procedures. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the capture of a flying saucer. ... The Mantell UFO Incident was among the most publicized early UFO reports. ... Lost Cosmonauts or Phantom Cosmonauts are cosmonauts that allegedly entered outer space and records of their voyages were kept confidential or destroyed altogether. ... Paul McCartney Dead: The Great Hoax, a magazine reporting on the rumours concerning McCartney. ... The Weekly World News frequently claimed Elvis Is Alive! Elvis sightings are a recurring phenomenon in which people claim to see American singer and rock star Elvis Presley, who died on August 16, 1977. ... There are a number of theories about AIDS that make claims about the origin and/or nature of HIV and AIDS that differ radically from mainstream beliefs. ... Electron micrograph of the human immunodeficiency virus. ... New Coke was the unofficial name of the sweeter formulation introduced in 1985 by The Coca-Cola Company to replace its flagship soft drink, Coca-Cola or Coke. ... The SARS conspiracy theory began to emerge during the SARS outbreak in China in the spring of 2003, when Sergei Kolesnikov, a Russian scientist and a member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, first publicized his claim that the SARS virus is a synthesis of measles and mumps. ... Global warming conspiracy[1] and global warming conspiracy theory[2] are terms used to refer to the claim that the theory that global warming is caused by humans is a conscious fraud, perpetuated for financial or ideological reasons. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Gliwice Radio Tower. ... Watergate redirects here. ... MKULTRA redirects here. ... Operation Mockingbird is a Central Intelligence Agency operation to influence domestic and foreign media, whose activities were made public during the Church Committee investigation in 1975 (published 1976). ... Operation Northwoods memoranda (March 13, 1962). ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding anti-Communist rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
::The Lusitania:: (1025 words)
The sinking of the Lusitania was thought to have made a major impact on America and World War One, but America did not join the war for another two years.
As the Lusitania had sailed from New York, she had on board American civilians and in 1915 America was neutral in World War One.
In the hold of the Lusitania were 4,200 cases of small arms ammunition - an insignificant quantity when compared to the millions of bullets being used in each battle on the Western Front.
RMS Lusitania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2601 words)
The RMS Lusitania was an ocean liner of the British, under ownership of the Cunard Steamship Lines.
The Lusitania is reported to have carried, under the guise of bales of fur and cheese boxes, 3 inch (76mm) shells and millions of rounds of rifle ammunition.
The Lusitania's master, Captain William Turner, was equally impatient with scholars and millionaires, but listened to the protestations of one passenger, who had approached him expressing his concerns for their safety and lamenting the lack of a passenger drill.
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