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Encyclopedia > RMS Etruria
RMS Etruria


RMS Etruria

Career British Red Ensign
Nationality British
Owner: British & North American Royal Mail Packet Company (Cunard Line)
Ordered: 1883
Builder: Messrs John Elder & Co., Glasgow
Launched: March, 1885
Maiden voyage: April 25, 1885
Fate: Scrapped
General characteristics
Tonnage: 7,718 gross tons
Length: 158.2 m (519 ft)
Beam: 17.43 m (57.2 ft)
Propulsion: 9 double-ended boilers
6, three-crank compound engines turning single screw
Speed: 19 knots (35 km/h)
Complement: 1885-1892: 550 First Class, 800 Second Class
1892-1909: 500 First Class, 160 Second Class, 800 Third Class

RMS Etruria and her sister ship RMS Umbria were the last two Cunarders that were fitted with auxiliary Sails. RMS Etruria was built by John Elder & Co of Glasgow, Scotland in 1884. The Etruria and her sister Umbria, by the standards of the time, were record breakers. They were the largest liners then in service, and they plied the Liverpool to New York Service. RMS Etruria was completed and launched in March 1885, twelve weeks later than her sister Umbria. Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Tuesday (click on link to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A postcard of SS United States. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Etruria had many distinguishing features that included two enormous funnels which gave the outward impression of huge power. She also had three large steel masts which when fully rigged had an extensive spread of canvas. Another innovation on Etruria was that she was equipped with refrigeration machinery, but it was the single screw propulsion that would bring the most publicity later in her career.


The ship epitomized the luxuries of Victorian style. The public rooms in the 1st class were full of ornately carved furniture and heavy velvet curtains hung in all the rooms, and they were cluttered with bric-a-brac that period fashion dictated. These rooms, and the First Class cabins, were situated on the Promenade, Upper, Saloon and Main Decks. There was also a Music Room, Smoke Room for gentleman, and separate dining rooms for First and Second Class passengers. By the standard of the day, Second Class accommodation was moderate, but spacious and comfortable. RMS Etruria's accommodation compromised of 550 First Class, and 800 Second Class passengers. However late in 1892 this changed to 500 First Class, 160 Second Class, and 800 Third Class (Steerage) passengers. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The term bric-a-brac refers to a selection of items of low value, often sold in street markets. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Service on the Atlantic

Front cover of a passenger list for a voyage of the RMS Etruria
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Front cover of a passenger list for a voyage of the RMS Etruria

RMS Etruria was to start her regular service to New York from Liverpool, but the clouds of crises were looming, and by the New Year of 1885 a crises involving Russia's threat to invade Afghanistan was coming to a head. This was to bring Etruria's North Atlantic service to a halt temporarily, before she had even made her maiden voyage. On the March 26, Etruria, and her sister RMS Umbria, found themselves charted to the Admiralty. With the dispute reaching a settlement, Etruria was released from Admiralty service within a few days, although her sister was retained for six months. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


On the April 25, 1885, Etruria finally made her maiden voyage under the command of Captain McMicken. She made the Atlantic crossing calling at Queenstown (Cobh). On her very next crossing, westbound (Liverpool to New York), she won the prestigious Blue Riband (see the table below) and proudly flew the pennant for Cunard. 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The maiden voyage of a ship or aircraft is the first cruise or flight in revenue service, typically following a series of shakedown cruises or test-flights. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... Cathedral of St. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... The Blue Riband is an award held by the ship with the record for a transatlantic crossing. ... A pennant is usually a narrow tapering flag most commonly flown by ships at sea. ... Cunard may refer to: Samuel Cunard (1787–1865), British shipping magnate. ...


Later in the year the Etruria was involved in a collision. On September 20, 1885, she was outward bound from New York and in Lower New York Bay, at anchor due to dense fog. The 4,276 ton cargo ship Canada, owned by the National Steamship Company of Limerick collided with the Etruria, on her starboard side. The Canada scraped alongside Etruria, ripping away a portion of her rigging, but fortunately there were no casualties. Both ships continued on there voyages. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the entrance of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... A stocked ships anchor. ... Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... Cargo is a term used to denote goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train or truck. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Casualties of war. ...


Winston Churchill

An extract of a letter written aboard RMS Etruria by Winston Churchill
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An extract of a letter written aboard RMS Etruria by Winston Churchill

In November 1895, 20 year old Winston Churchill, a lieutenant in the 4th Hussars, snatched a few weeks' leave from his regiment to visit Cuba, with the aim of observing the Cuban Revolutionary War against Spain. 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Polish Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... The Cuban Revolution was the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista’s regime by the 26th of July Movement and the establishment of a new Cuban government led by Fidel Castro in the 1950s. ...


Getting there involved travelling by way of New York via Liverpool and Queenstown on the Etruria. Thus, on November 9, Winston Churchill arrived in New York harbour aboard the Etruria, and first set foot in his mother's homeland and the city where she had been born and brought up. Three days later he travelled on to Cuba. Churchill returned to Britain early in 1896 travelling again on the Etruria. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


On January 6, 1900, Etruria left Liverpool, and one week later she arrived in New York. On the 13th engineers were inspecting the ship, and on examination of the propeller shaft, they found cracks that were not there when the ship left Liverpool. Her sister ship had suffered a failure of her propeller shaft at sea in 1893, and do avoid the same fate the Etruria was confined to her pier until a replacement shaft was shipped over from Britain. After this was done, and the new shaft had been fitted in New York, she departed on February 17 for the homeward bound service. In 1900 the Etruria remained on the North Atlantic service while her sister was requisitioned to carry troops to and from South Africa during the Boar War. By July of 1900 both the sisters were back on the North Atlantic service. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... // Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ...

RMS Etruria
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RMS Etruria

A year to forget

In 1901 the Etruria, along with her sister ship, was fitted with a wireless, putting her right in the forefront of this new technology. On the February 22, 1902, Etruria left New York and was due to arrive in Queenstown on March 1. On the February 26 she radioed the Umbria to pass on messages to one of her passengers. However, that evening her propeller shaft fractured leaving her drifting helplessly. She tried with no success to radio the Umbria again to report her predicament. In these days before the Titanic disaster, radio operators did not man there sets 24 hours a day. Eventually she managed to attract the attention of the Leyland ship William Cliff, by firing distress rockets. The William Cliff stood along side in an hour and stayed with her during the night whilst attempts were made to repair her. Etruria then made sail and the William Cliff took her in tow; the ships headed for Horta, in the Azores, which were 500 miles to the south-east of her stricken position. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... RMS Titanic was an Olympic class passenger liner that collided with an iceberg and sank in 1912. ... Map sources for Leyland at grid reference SD544214 Leyland is a town in the borough of South Ribble, Lancashire, United Kingdom, approximately 6 miles south of Preston. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft. ... A WWI-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ... Horta is both a parish and a district in western part of the Azores. ... Motto: Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos (Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem: A Portuguesa (national) Hino dos Açores (local) Capital Ponta Delgada (Presidency of the Regional Government) Angra do Heroísmo (Supreme Court)1 Horta (Legislative Assembly)2 Largest city Ponta Delgada Portuguese Government Autonomous...


She arrived in the Azores on Sunday, March 9, and on the 15th her passengers and mail were transferred on to SS Elbe, which had been chartered for the task on the 10th. It was summer 1902 before the Etruria was repaired and back in service, but in October, after a particularly rough Atlantic crossing, her propeller shaft again showed serious cracks and she was taken out of service and waited in New York for yet another new shaft to be sent over and installed. It was the November 1 before she set sail for home again, 1902 had been a very bad year for the ship. Motto: Antes morrer livres que em paz sujeitos (Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem: A Portuguesa (national) Hino dos Açores (local) Capital Ponta Delgada (Presidency of the Regional Government) Angra do Heroísmo (Supreme Court)1 Horta (Legislative Assembly)2 Largest city Ponta Delgada Portuguese Government Autonomous... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft. ...


More bad luck

RMS Etruria
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RMS Etruria

1903 did not start to well for the Etruria either. On the February 28 she was leaving New York and ran aground on sand and mud in the entrance to Gedrey Channel. Fortunately, after she was refloated later the same day there was no damage found and she set of on her voyage to Liverpool. 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... In computer gaming, a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon or Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social chat rooms. ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ...


Later in the year, on the October 10, the Etruria was only four hours out of New York when at 2:30pm the ship was struck by a freak wave. The wave was reported to be at least 50 feet high, and stuck the ship on the port side. The wave carried away part of the fore bridge and smashed the guardrail stanchions. A number of First Class passengers were sitting in deck chairs close to the bridge, and they caught the full force of the water. One passenger, a Canadian, was fatally injured, and several other passengers were hurt, but luckily there were no more fatalities. Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... The Draupner wave, a single giant wave measured on New Years Day 1995, finally confirmed the existence of freak waves, which had previously been considered near-mythical Rogue waves, also known as freak waves, are relatively large and spontaneous ocean surface waves which can sink even large ships and... A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ...


Once again an accident aboard Etruria resulted in death in January of 1907. Two of Etruria's sailors were trying to secure the lashings of the starboard anchor in a very rough weather, during a westbound crossing. Unfortunately both men were killed. 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ...


The end of Etruria's Career

The two 23 year old sisters were now getting to the point where technical progress had well and truly overtaken them. The RMS Lusitania and Mauretania were off the drawing board, were slowly taking shape, and were due to enter service in late 1907. The RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company, built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland, and launched on June 6, 1906. ... Two ocean liners of the Cunard Line have been named RMS Mauretania, after the ancient territory of Mauretania. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On Wednesday the August 26, 1908, RMS Etruria was moving astern from her pier in Liverpool to anchor opposite the Princes' Landing Stage, where her passengers would embark. Unfortunately a hopper crossing the Mersey came too close to the Etruria and was violently rammed by her. Etruria's rudder and propeller were thrust deep into the hopper, almost severing it in two. However, being impaled on the Etruria's propeller prevented the hopper from sinking. Both vessels drifted helplessly in the Mersey, and the hopper was violently crushed against the landing stage. This not only spelt the end for the hopper but finished the career of the Etruria as well. Her propeller, rudder and steering gear was seriously damaged, and it put paid to any idea of her sailing to New York. Etruria's passengers were put up in hotels and then caught the Umbria later in the Week. As for the Etruria, she was taken into dock where temporary repairs were made. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Hopper Barge is a kind of non-mechanical (cannot move around itself) ship or vessel in the category of Barge, which can carry the dumping materials (like rocks, sand, soil and rubbish) to fill up the sea, river or lake for land by the method of reclamation. ... The River Mersey is a river in the north west of England. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The worlds oldest depiction of a rudder. ...


She would not cross the Atlantic again, and after spending time laid up at Birkenhead, she was finally sold for scrap for the sum of £16,750 in October 1909. On the October 10, 1910, the Mersey tug Black Cock took the Etruria in tow to her final destination of Preston, Lancashire, were she was broken up. Map sources for Birkenhead at grid reference SJ3088 Birkenhead is a town on The Wirral Peninsula, Merseyside, on the left bank of the River Mersey, opposite Liverpool. ... The River Mersey is a river in the north west of England. ... TUG is a three-letter acronym which can stand for: Graz University of Technology in Graz, Austria the TeX Users Group The Ultimate Group, an entertainment production company, founded by Chris Stokes Tie Up Games (a form of bondage) For the word tug, see Tug (disambiguation). ... Preston is a city and local government district in North West England. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...

Prices of passage aboard RMS Etruria, May 1895
From Pier 40, North River, foot of Clarkson Street, City of New York
Every Saturday, New York-Queenstown-Liverpool
1st Class 1st Class 1st Class 1st Class Return 1st Class Return 1st Class Return 2nd Class Cabin 2nd Class Cabin 2nd Class Cabin Return 2nd Class Cabin Return Under 1 Year old
$75 $90 $175 $125 $150 $315 $40 $45 $75 $85 Free outward

The Blue Riband

Records of RMS Umbria & RMS Etruria
The Blue Riband of the North Atlantic
Westbound
Steamer Date Line From To Nautical Miles Days/Hours/Minutes Knots
RMS Etruria 1885 (16/8- 22/8) Cunard Queenstown Sandy Hook 2801 6/5/31 18.73
RMS Umbria 1887 (29/5-4/6) Cunard Queenstown Sandy Hook 2848 6/4/12 19.22
RMS Etruria 1888 (27/5-2/6) Cunard Queenstown Sandy Hook 2854 6/1/55 19.56
Eastbound
Steamer Date Line From To Nautical Miles Days/Hours/Minutes Knots
Etruria 1885 (1/8-7/8) Cunard Sandy Hook Queenstown 2822 6/9/0 18.44
Etruria 1888 (7/7-14/7) Cunard Sandy Hook Queenstown 2981 6/4/50 19.36

The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... Sandy Hook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sandy Hook, Connecticut Sandy Hook, Kentucky Sandy Hook, Mississippi Sandy Hook, on the coast of New Jersey (See also Sandy. ... The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... Sandy Hook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sandy Hook, Connecticut Sandy Hook, Kentucky Sandy Hook, Mississippi Sandy Hook, on the coast of New Jersey (See also Sandy. ... The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... Sandy Hook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sandy Hook, Connecticut Sandy Hook, Kentucky Sandy Hook, Mississippi Sandy Hook, on the coast of New Jersey (See also Sandy. ... The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... Sandy Hook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sandy Hook, Connecticut Sandy Hook, Kentucky Sandy Hook, Mississippi Sandy Hook, on the coast of New Jersey (See also Sandy. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ... The Cunard Line formerly Cunard White Star Line is the British cruise line that operates the RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2) ocean liners. ... Sandy Hook is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sandy Hook, Connecticut Sandy Hook, Kentucky Sandy Hook, Mississippi Sandy Hook, on the coast of New Jersey (See also Sandy. ... Queenstown is the name of several places in the world including: Queenstown, Ireland is the former name of Cobh, Ireland. ...

External links

  • Cunard Heritage site

 
 

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