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Encyclopedia > RIAA
The RIAA Logo.
The RIAA Logo.

The Recording Industry Association of America (or RIAA) is the trade group that represents the recording industry in the United States. Its members consist of a large number of private corporate entities such as record labels and distributors, who create and distribute about 90% of recorded music sold in the US. This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... An industry trade group is generally a public relations organization founded and funded by corporations that operate in a specific industry. ... The record industry (or recording industry) is the industry that manufactures and distributes mechanical recordings of music. ...

Contents


Responsibilities

The RIAA's was formed in 1952 primarily to administer the RIAA equalization curve. This is a technical standard of frequency response applied to vinyl records during manufacturing and playback. The RIAA has continued to participate in creating and administering technical standards for later systems of music recording and reproduction, including magnetic tape, cassette tapes, digital audio tapes, CDs and software-based digital technologies. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... RIAA equalization is a specification for the correct playback of vinyl records, established by the Recording Industry Association of America. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s...


The RIAA also participates in the collection, administration and distribution of music licenses and royalties. A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ... A royalty is a sum paid to the creator of performance art for the use of that art. ...


The association is responsible for certifying gold and platinum albums and singles in the USA. For more information about sales data see List of best selling albums and list of best selling singles. In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America awards certification based on the number of albums and singles shipped. ... Music recording sales certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has sold a certain number of copies. ... See the following lists for the best-selling albums of each country: Worldwide United States of America United Kingdom See also List of best-selling CDs (Brazil) List of best-selling singles RIAA certification Record company Record industry Categories: | | ... See the following lists for the best-selling singles of each country: United Kingdom (also by year) United States of America See also List of Christmas number one singles UK Singles Chart RIAA certification Record company Record industry Categories: Lists of songs ...


The RIAA's stated goals[1] are to protect intellectual property rights and the rights of artists worldwide, to perform research about the music industry,[2] and to monitor and review relevant laws, regulations and policies. In law, intellectual property (IP) is an umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain types of information, ideas, or other intangibles in their expressed form. ...


Company Structure

The RIAA is lead by Mitch Bainwol, who is Chairman and CEO since 2003. He is assisted by Cary Sherman, the President of the Board of Directors. There are 27 members of the board, who are drawn from a number of record companies [3] Mitch Bainwol became Chairman and CEO of the Recording Industry Association of America in 2003, succeeding Cary Sherman. ... A chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cary Sherman is the president of RIAA. As president Mr. ...


The RIAA represents a large number of members (see List of RIAA member labels), who are private corporate entities such as record labels and distributors, and who create and distribute about 90% of recorded music sold in the US. This is a list of RIAA member labels as of March 2006. ...


Website

The RIAA's website is an obvious target for some hackers (correctly called crackers) who oppose the RIAA's practices. Crackers (hackers) are sometimes able to deface the website [4]. The term Hackers can refer to several things: Hacker - a type of person interested in exploration, usually of a computer or electrical engineering background. ...


The RIAA's website also contains a list of members. This list has been disputed in the past, as Matador Records and Lookout Records, who are not members have been listed there [5]. The reason for this is unclear. Matador Records is an influential record label which is famous for a roster of highly-respected indie rock artists and bands. ... Lookout! Records is a record company based in Berkeley, California. ...


Anti-Piracy Efforts

The RIAA is a critic of music file-sharing, and has long contended that sharing of copyrighted music is a form of piracy, applying the well-known computing term to music. The RIAA especially targets music files uploaded onto the Internet using peer-to-peer software, a practice which the RIAA claims costs $4.2 billion worldwide [6]. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Copyright infringement (also known as piracy) is the unauthorized use of copyrighted material in a manner that violates one of the copyright owners exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works that build upon it. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


Hilary Rosen, the RIAA's president and chief executive officer from 1998 to 2003, was an outspoken critic of peer to peer file sharing[citation needed], and under her direction, the RIAA waged an aggressive legal campaign trying to eliminate illegal file-sharing worldwide. Rosen has since expressed "concern that the lawsuits have outlived most of their usefulness", and that music devices should try "to work better together." [7] Hilary B. Rosen was the chief executive of the Recording Industry Association of America from 1998 to 2003. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The RIAA and its member groups argue that Internet distribution of music, without the consent of the owner of the copyright in that music, harms the careers of current and future artists, both because record companies would have less sales, and also because musicians, singers, songwriters and producers depend heavily on royalties and fees gained from their music.


The RIAA takes a broad view about what constitutes copyright infringement. In 2006, the RIAA claimed that ripping CDs and backing them up does not constitute fair use, because tracks from ripped CDs do not maintain the controversial DRM to protect the music file from copyright infringement. They argue that, there is no evidence that any of the relevant media are "unusually subject to damage" and that "even if CDs do become damaged, replacements are readily available at affordable prices."[8] The RIAA suggests that DRM restrictions should remain in effect under all circumstances, even if it potentially endangers lives.[9] 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CDS may refer to: Commercial Data Systems, Ltd. ... Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders, such as use for scholarship or review. ... Digital Rights Management or Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) is an umbrella term for any of several arrangements which allows a vendor of content in electronic form to control the material and restrict its usage in various ways that can be specified by the vendor. ...


The RIAA sees lawsuits as one way to combat the problem of Internet-based piracy. RIAA President Cary Sherman claims that the large number of lawsuits filed has "arrested the growth of a runaway solution that would have grown worse and worse."[10] Cary Sherman is the president of RIAA. As president Mr. ...


The RIAA has been more focused since 2005 on University and college-aged students, with the purpose stated by the RIAA to deter and discourage unethical habits by youth on the verge of entering the world community. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Criticism

The RIAA is criticized for actions taken against both artists and consumers
The RIAA is criticized for actions taken against both artists and consumers

Critics of the RIAA have claimed that the RIAA's attacks against music piracy has failed to stop piracy or protect their sales. They note the increase in CD sales during the Napster era and the subsequent decrease during the RIAA's crackdown on music pirates[citation needed], and instead believe that the trading of songs over P2P actually introduces new artists to people who otherwise would not have noticed them, prompting them to buy new CDs created by these artists. The steadily increasing popularity of free content, such as that provided by Creative Commons, is taken by these critics as proof that the RIAA's restriction of free music downloads runs counter to their own interests. Some of the RIAA's members have released samples with Creative Commons licenses [11]. Image File history File links Riaabad. ... Image File history File links Riaabad. ... Version 2 of Some Rights Reserved logo No Rights reserved logo The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ...


Organizations such as p2pnet [12] allege that the RIAA is, in effect, an organized cartel which artificially inflates and fixes the prices for CDs. The allegations note that the "Big Four" (EMI, Sony-BMG, Universal Music and Warner) distribute over 95 percent of all music CDs sold worldwide, and that the share of the price of an individual CD actually received by the artist is low, despite the large profits made by the record company.[13][14] In 2003, the major CD issuers in the American market, including the "Big Four" settled a major scale price-fixing case brought by 43 state Attorneys General by issuing refunds to consumers and donating CDs to libraries and educational groups [15]. This drew additional criticism, since many of the CDs donated to schools were duplicates or were inappropriate for high school libraries [16]. A cartel is a group of legally independent producers whose goal it is to fix prices, limit supplies and limit competition. ... The Compact Disc logo was inspired by that of the previous Compact Cassette. ... The EMI Group is a major record label, based in Kensington in London, in the United Kingdom. ... Bertelsmann is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... Universal Music Group (UMG) is the largest major label in the record industry, with a 23% market share. ... Time Warner Inc. ...


There is much criticism of the RIAA's policy and method of suing people for copyright infringement, notably with Internet-based pressure groups such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Boycott RIAA and FreeCulture [17]. To date, the RIAA has sued approximately 16,000 [18] people in the United States suspected of distributing copyrighted works, and have settled approximately 2,500 of the cases. There are some suggestions that the RIAA begins legal proceedings without any knowledge of whether they have engaged in copyright abuses or not [19]. EFF Logo The EFF uses the blue ribbon as symbolism for their Free Speech defense. ...


The RIAA has been criticised in the media after they subpoenaed Gertrude Walton, an 83-year-old grandmother who had died in December of 2004 [20]. Mrs. Walton stood accused of swapping rock, pop and rap songs. The RIAA in 2003 attempted to sue Sarah Seabury Ward, a 66 year-old sculptor residing in Boston, Massachusetts. They alleged that she shared more than 2,000 songs illegally. The RIAA dropped the suit when it was discovered that she was a computer novice. The case was dismissed, but without prejudice. An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Boston is a town and small port c. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... In law, the phrase without prejudice means that a claim, lawsuit, or proceeding has been brought to a temporary end but that no legal rights or privileges have been determined, waived, or lost by the result. ...


The RIAA has also been criticised for bringing lawsuits against children, such as 12 year old Brianna Lahara in 2003 [21]. The RIAA also attempted to sue Candy Chan of Michigan, for the alleged actions of her daughter, 13 year old Brittany Chan. The court dismissed Priority Records v. Chan [22] because it was ruled that the mother could not be sued for the alleged infringements of her daughter. [23] When the court ruled in favor of the mother, dismissing the case, the RIAA proceeded to sue her child. However, prosecuting a minor is more difficult, and many previous adult defendants have said that the P2P software installation and copyright infringement was done without their knowledge by one of their children. Brianna LaHara was a 12-year old girl (now 14) from New York who was sued by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on September 8, 2003 for allegedly distributing [uploading] music to the Internet which led to massive public outcry against the RIAAs heavy-handed tactics. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The RIAA's recent targeting of students has generated controversy as well. An April 4th story in the MIT campus newspaper The Tech indicates that an RIAA representative stated to Cassi Hunt, an alleged file-sharer, that previously, "the RIAA has been known to suggest that students drop out of college or go to community college in order to be able to afford settlements."[24] Front page of The Tech, issue of January 18, 2006 The Tech, first published in 1881, is the oldest and largest campus newspaper at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as well as the first newspaper to be published online. ...


The RIAA has recently sent cease-and-desist letters to YouTube users for publishing their own works without licensing.[25]


Clean Slate Program

Between September 2003 and April 2004, the RIAA operated a system called the Clean Slate Program. It aimed to give those accused of copyright infringement amnesty "on the condition that they refrain from future infringement,"[26] plus delete the infringing material. The RIAA states this is was an educational initiative about illegal file sharing, and was stopped due to increased public awareness in the issues. The program may also have been stopped due to the low number of takers.[27] There is some doubt about whether the RIAA can offer this protection, as it cannot protect from lawsuits by record companies and music publishers.[28] In addition, some Attorneys claimed the offer of amnesty was misleading, and legal documents provided by the RIAA "provides ... no promise not to sue you."[29] Amnesty (from the Greek amnestia, oblivion) is an act of justice by which the supreme power in a state restores those who may have been guilty of any offence against it to the position of innocent persons. ...


High Profile Lawsuits

In October 1998, the Recording Industry Association of America filed a lawsuit in the Ninth U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco claiming the Diamond Multimedia Rio PMP300 player violated the 1992 Audio Home Recording Act. The Rio PMP300 was significant because it was the second portable consumer MP3 digital audio player released on the market. The three judge panel ruled in favor of Diamond, paving the way for the development of the MP3 portable player market. [30] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Diamond Multimedia is a company that specializes in many forms of multimedia technology. ... The Rio PMP-300 portable mp3 player The top view shows the face of the player. ... Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (AHRA) amended the US Copyright Act by adding chapter 10 DIGITAL AUDIO RECORDING DEVICES AND MEDIA. The act was prompted by the release of the Sony Digital Audio Tape (DAT). ... The Rio PMP-300 portable mp3 player The top view shows the face of the player. ...


In 2000, the RIAA sued Napster for providing a service which enabled users to download MP3 files off other users' machines. The RIAA claims that Napster "facilitates piracy of music on an unprecedented scale." [31] In 2002 the RIAA also sued Aimster, which provided a similar service. Napster has since been taken over by Roxio and provides a legal download service. This article is about the year 2000. ... Second version (revised 2001) of Napster logo: Cat wearing headphones. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Madster was one of the many P2P file sharing services that appeared in Napsters wake. ... Roxio is a division and brand of Sonic Solutions. ...


Between 2002 and 2003, the RIAA attempted to get Verizon to disclose the identities of file-sharing customers based on a simple one-page subpoena. In December of 2003, this failed, when a federal appeals court overturned a lower court order requiring. The RIAA claims this procedure was sanctioned by the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, but the appeals court ruled that the DMCA regulation applies only to data actually hosted by an Internet service provider, rather than data on a customer's computer. The United States Supreme Court let this ruling stand in 2004. As a result, the RIAA must now file individual civil suits against each accused file-sharer, and the ISP and alleged file sharer have more legal avenues for preventing disclosure of their identity, making the entire process much more expensive, slow and complicated.[32] For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section should include material from Bell Atlantic This article or section should include material from GTE Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ) is a local exchange telephone company formed by the merger of Bell Atlantic, a former Bell Operating Company, and GTE, which was the largest independant local exchange... A subpoena is a writ commanding a person to appear under penalty (from Latin). ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States copyright law. ... An Internet service provider (ISP, also called Internet access provider or IAP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


RIAA has also filed suit in 2006 to enjoin digital satellite radio XM from enabling its subscribers from playing songs it has recorded from its satellite broadcasts.[33] It is also suing several Internet radio stations.[34]


In 2005, Patricia Santangelo has made the news by challenging the RIAA's lawsuit against her. Another defendant, Tanya Andersen, a 41 year-old single mother living in Oregon, has filed a countersuit against the RIAA. Elektra v. ... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Salem Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in which the party commencing the action, the plaintiff, seeks a legal remedy. ...


Work Made For Hire controversy

In 1999, Stanley M. Glazier, a Congressional staff attorney, inserted, without public notice or comment, substantive language into the final markup of a "technical corrections" section of copyright legislation, classifying many music recordings as "works made for hire," thereby stripping artists of their copyright interests and transferring those interests to their record labels. Shortly afterwards, Glazier was hired as Senior Vice President of Government Relations and Legislative Counsel for the RIAA, which vigorously defended the change when it came to light. The battle over the disputed provision led to the formation of the Recording Artists' Coalition, which successfully lobbied for repeal of the change. A work for hire is an exception to the general rule that the person who creates a work is the author of that work. ... The Recording Artists Coalition (RAC) is an American music industry organization that represents recording artists, and attempts to defend their rights and interests. ...


Legislation and Regulation Today

The RIAA has supported and still supports several pieces of legislation in the United States which it believes help it to protect from copyright infringement. This legislation includes the proposed Digital Content Protection Act of 2006, which is being considered by the Senate. According to PublicKnowledge[35] and the EFF,[36] this would prevent new ways to use media content, and could prevent customers from recording music, even if covered by fair use. This would effectively create a radio broadcast flag rule. The RIAA has supported legislation in the past which also attempted to introduce a radio broadcast flag. A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders, such as use for scholarship or review. ... A broadcast flag is a set of status bits (or flags) sent in the data stream of a digital television program that indicates whether or not it can be recorded, or if there are any restrictions on recorded content. ...


The RIAA is also involved in opposing legislation which harms the free speech rights of artists, such as restrictions on sales of recordings which might be considered controversial or which have the Parental Advisory label.[37] Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...


Similar Organizations

  • The MPAA deals with copyright abuses in the movie industry in the United States. Sometimes the shorthand *AA is used to refer to both the RIAA and the MPAA.
  • IFPI, the International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram Producers (website). IFPI represents the recording industry worldwide with over 1450 members in 75 countries and affiliated industry associations in 48 countries. The IFPI works in partnership with similar national organizations, which are listed on the site. IFPI are affiliated with the RIAA.
  • BPI, the British Phonographic Industry (website) is the UK music industry association. They founded the Brit Awards, and give Gold, Silver and Platinum disks for UK-based sales. While they do have an anti-piracy remit, it is more subdued than the RIAA's efforts.
  • FACT, the Federation Against Copyright Theft (website) is the main UK anti-piracy organization , though it mainly deals with video piracy.

The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ... The International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram Producers (IFPI) is an international record industry organization based in Zurich, Switzerland. ... The British Phonographic Industry was founded in 1973 to represent the interests of British music companies and to fight the growing problem of music piracy. ... Kaiser Chiefs collecting one of their three Brit Awards, 2006 with Vic Reeves. ... Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT) advertisement on a Hackney carriage The Federation Against Copyright Theft (FACT) is a UK-based body designed to protect the film and broadcasting industry from counterfeiting. ...

References

  1. ^ About the RIAA, RIAA Website
  2. ^ Marketing and Research Data, RIAA Website
  3. ^ Board of the RIAA (RIAA website)
  4. ^ RIAA hacked, faces more opposition, Geek News
  5. ^ How the RIAA expands its membership, p2pnet
  6. ^ Anti-Piracy, RIAA Website
  7. ^ For the Record, for What It's Worth, by Hilary Rosen, the Huffington Post, 4 June 2006
  8. ^ RIAA Says Ripping CDs to Your iPod is NOT Fair Use, EFF Deep Links, 15 February 2006
  9. ^ Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies - Joint Reply Comments (pdf), by RIAA and other organizations, pp 22-23, 2 February 2006. Ed Felten provided a response at RIAA Says Future DRM Might “Threaten Critical Infrastructure and Potentially Endanger Lives”, Freedom to Tinker, 8 March 2006
  10. ^ RIAA's next moves in Washington, ZDNet, 26 May 2006
  11. ^ Examples of Creative Commons samples released include the Fort Minor Remix Contest at ccMixter
  12. ^ RIAA file sharing travesty, p2pnet
  13. ^ Artists receive about 10% royalties for CD sales, and about 5-8% royalties for downloads, of which about 20% goes to the manager. However, before royalties are start to be paid to the artist, the record company takes back the money used for the recording. Sources: How Music Royalties Work, by Lee Ann Obringer, How Stuff Works; and Follow the Money: Who's Really Making the Dough?, by Eric Leach and Bill Henslee, Electronic Musician, 1 November 2001
  14. ^ EMI made $169 million in 2005, according to EMI Net Profit Up 20 Percent for 2005, NewsFactor, 23 May 2006
  15. ^ Source: Compact Disc Minimum Advertised Price Antitrust Litigation Settlement
  16. ^ CD trove is proving short on treasures, Seattle Pi, 24 June 2004; and CD settlement delivers duds, Stevens Point Journal, 22 July 2004
  17. ^ Stop the RIAA! petition, EFF; Website, Boycott RIAA; RIAA Free, FreeCulture
  18. ^ How Can I Swap Safely?, Wired, January 2006
  19. ^ How the RIAA Litigation Process Works, Recording Industry vs The People, 23 May 2006
  20. ^ I sue dead people, ARS Technica, 4 February 2005
  21. ^ RIAA settles with 12-year-old girl, CNet News, 9 September 2003
  22. ^ Index of Litigation Documents Referred to in Recording Industry vs. The People, Ray Beckerman
  23. ^ Priority Records v. Chan: RIAA Must Get Guardian Ad Litem Appointed for Suit Against 13 Year Old, Digital Music News, 3 June 2006
  24. ^ Run Over by the RIAA Don...t Tap the Glass, Cassi Hunt, MIT Tech, Tuesday, April 4, 2006. Volume 126, Number 15.
  25. ^ [1], RIAA sues Youtube users
  26. ^ Clean Slate Program, RIAA Website
  27. ^ 1,108 people signed up to the Clean Slate program, according to RIAA Drops 'Clean Slate', by Fraser Lovatt, Digital-Lifestyles.org, 21 April 2004
  28. ^ Fake "Clean Slate" Gone - How About a Real One?, EFF Deep Links, April 17, 2004
  29. ^ Ira Rothken, Consumers Strike Back, Sue RIAA, PCWorld.com, September 11, 2003
  30. ^ Court OKs Diamond Rio MP3 Player, by Elizabeth Clampet, InternetNews.Com, 16 June 1999
  31. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - Napster and Digital Music, RIAA Website
  32. ^ Subpoena Defense
  33. ^ XM Faces The Music In RIAA Copyright Suit, by Joseph Palenchar, TWICE, 22 May 2006
  34. ^ RIAA sues Internet radio stations, Out-Law.com, July 2001
  35. ^ "New and Improved" Draft Broadcast Flag Bill: This Time for TV and Radio, by Alex Curtis, PublicKnowledge, 20 January 2006
  36. ^ New Senate Broadcast Flag Bill Would Freeze Fair Use, EFF Deep Links, 20 January, 2006
  37. ^ Freedom of Speech, RIAA Website

Hilary B. Rosen was the chief executive of the Recording Industry Association of America from 1998 to 2003. ... The Huffington Post is a group weblog and news site started by Arianna Huffington on May 9, 2005. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Edward William Felten (born March 25, 1963) is a professor of computer science at Princeton University. ... In 1989 Ziff Davis Inc. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... EFF Logo The EFF uses the blue ribbon as symbolism for their Free Speech defense. ...

See also

The copyright social conflict (sometimes jocularly referred to as the copyfight) is a name given to the broader social conflict between copyright owners who wish to control the acquisition and subsequent use by others of material they have copyrighted, and individuals who wish for barriers on information, like copyright, to... This is a list of RIAA member labels as of March 2006. ... The Parental Advisory sticker is found on some records. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
RIAA equalization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (499 words)
RIAA equalization is a specification for the correct playback of vinyl records, established by the Recording Industry Association of America.
The RIAA equalization curve has operated as a de facto global industry standard for the recording and playback of vinyl records since 1954.
RIAA equalization is a form of preemphasis on recording, and deemphasis on playback.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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