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Encyclopedia > REAL ID Act

The REAL ID Act of 2005 requires people entering federal buildings, boarding airplanes or opening bank accounts to present identification that has met certain security and authentication standards. The Act is Division B of an act of the United States Congress titled Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005. It implements the following:

  • Establishing new national standards for state-issued driver licenses and non-driver identification cards;
  • Waiving laws that interfere with construction of physical barriers at the borders;
  • Updating and tightening the laws on application for asylum and deportation of aliens for terrorist activity;
  • Introducing rules covering "delivery bonds" (rather like bail bonds but for aliens who have been released pending hearings);
  • Funding some reports and pilot projects related to border security; and
  • Changing visa limits for temporary workers, nurses, and Australian citizens.

Contents

Driving licences within the European Union are subdivided in different categories. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Legislative history

The Real ID Act started off as H.R. 418, which passed the House[1] and went stagnant. Representative James Sensenbrenner (R) of Wisconsin, the author of the original Real ID Act, then attached it as a rider on a military spending bill (H.R. 1268). The House of Representatives passed that spending bill with the Real ID rider 368-58,[2] and the Senate passed the joint House-Senate conference report on that bill 100-0.[3] President Bush signed it into law on May 11, 2005.[4] Frank James Sensenbrenner, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... In legislative practice, a rider is an additional provision annexed to a bill under the consideration of a legislative assembly, having little connection with the subject-matter of the bill. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 2, 2007, it was announced that enforcement of the Act would be postponed for two years.[5] The provisions of the bill will be delayed from going into effect until December 2009. On January 11, 2008, it was announced that the deadline has been extended again, until 2011, in hopes of gaining more support from states.[6] On the same date the Department of Homeland Security released the final rule [7] regarding the implementation of the driver's licenses provisions of the Real ID Act. A pdf of the final rule, as well as DHS Secretary Chertoff's press conference, in pdf transcript, audio and video formats, can be found at BiometricBits.com. [8] is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ...


Minimum nationwide standards for state driver's licenses or ID cards

In the United States, driver's licenses are issued by the states, not by the federal government. States also issue voluntary identification cards for non-drivers, and set the rules for what data is on the card and what documents must be provided to obtain one. States also maintain databases of licensed drivers and ID cardholders. First German driving school in 1906, Aschaffenburg Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ...


Driver's license implications

  • The REAL ID Act's implications for driver's licenses and ID cards is detailed in Title II of the Act. Title II of REAL ID — “Improved Security for Driver’s License and Personal Identification Cards” — repeals the driver's licenses provisions of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act [9], also known as the "9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004", that was enacted in December 2004. Section 7212 of that law established a cooperative state-federal process, via a negotiated rule-making procedure, to create federal standards for driver’s licenses.

Instead, the Real ID Act directly imposes specific federal driver’s license standards. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is an Act of Congress. ...


The REAL ID Act Driver's License Summary[10] details the following provisions of the Act's driver's license title:

  • Repeal of 9/11 Commission Implementation Act DL/ID Provisions
  • Minimum Standards for Federal Use
  • DL/ID Document Standards
  • Minimum DL/ID Issuance Standards
  • Verification of Documents
  • Immigration Requirements
  • Security and Fraud Prevention Standards
  • Data Retention and Storage
  • Linking of Databases
  • Grants to States
  • Authority

After 2011, "a Federal agency may not accept, for any official purpose, a driver's license or identification card issued by a state to any person unless the state is meeting the requirements" specified in the REAL ID Act. States remain free to also issue non-complying licenses and IDs, so long as these have a unique design and a clear statement that they cannot be accepted for any Federal identification purpose. The federal Transportation Security Administration is responsible for security check-in at airports, so bearers of non-compliant documents would no longer be able to travel on common carrier aircraft without additional screening[11]. 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... TSA emblem The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is a U.S. government agency that was created as part of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on November 19, 2001. ...



People born on or after December 1, 1964, will have to obtain a REAL ID by December 1, 2014. Those born before December 1, 1964, will have until December 1, 2017 to obtain their REAL ID.[12] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2017 (MMXVII) will be a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The national license/ID standards cover:

  • What data must be included on the card;
  • What documentation must be presented before a card can be issued; and
  • How the states must share their databases.

Strictly speaking, many of these requirements are not new. They replace similar language in Section 7212 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Pub.L. 108-458), which had not yet gone into effect before being repealed by the Real ID Act. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 is an Act of Congress. ...


Data requirements

Each card must include, at a minimum, the person's full legal name, signature, date of birth, gender, driver's license or identification card number. It also includes a photograph of the person's face and the address of principal residence. It is required to have physical security features designed to prevent tampering, counterfeiting, or duplication of the document for fraudulent purposes. In North Carolina, these new security features include a hologram of a map of the entire North American continent[1].


It will use common machine-readable technology, with defined minimum data elements (the details of which are not spelled out, but left to the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the states, to regulate). The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ...


Documentation required before issuing a license or ID card

Before a card can be issued, the applicant must provide the following documentation[13]:

  • A photo ID, or a non-photo ID that includes full legal name and birthdate.
  • Documentation of birthdate.
  • Documentation of legal status and Social Security number
  • Documentation showing name and principal residence address.

Digital images of each identity document will be stored in each state DMV database. The promotional Social Security card as distributed by the F.W. Woolworth Company In the United States, a Social Security number (SSN) is a 9-digit number issued to citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as . ... German identity card with a KINEGRAM® A piece of identification (ID) is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ...


Document Verification Requirements

Section 202(c)(3) of the Real ID Act [14] requires the states to "verify, with the issuing agency, the issuance, validity, and completeness of each document" that is required to be presented by a driver's licence applicant to prove their identity, birthdate, legal status in the U.S., social security number and the address of their principal residence. The same section states that the only foreign document acceptable is a foreign passport.


The DHS final rule [15] regarding implementation of the Real ID Act driver's licence provisions relaxes, and in some instances waives altogether, these verification requirements of the Real ID Act. Thus the DHS rule concedes that there is no practical mechanism to verify with the issuers the validity of documents proving the applicant's primary address (such as a mortgage statement or a utility bill) and leaves the implementation of this verification requirement to discretion of the states (page 5297 of the DHS final rule in the Federal Register [16]). However, the DHS rule, Section 37.11(c), mandates that the Real ID licence applicants be required to present at least two documents documenting the address of their primary residence.


The DHS rule declines to implement, as impractical, the provision of the Act requiring verification of the validity of foreign passports, presented by foreign driver's licence applicants as proof of identity, with the authorities that issued these foreign passports (page 5294 of the DHS final rule in the Federal Register [17]).


Section 37.11(c) of the DHS final rule allows the states to accept several types of documents as proof of social security number: a social security card, a W-2 form, an SSA-1099 form, a non-SSA-1099 form, or a pay stub bearing the applicant's name and SSN. However, the states are not required to verify the validity of these documents directly with their issuers (e.g. with the employer that issued a W-2 form or a paystub). Instead, the DHS rule requires the states to verify the vailidy, and its match with the name given, of the social secirity number itself, via electronically querying the Social Security On-Line Verification (SSOLV) database managed by the Social Security Administration.


The DHS rule, Section 37.13(b)(3), specifies that the validity of birth certificates, presented to document the date of birth or to prove U.S. citizenship, should be verified electronically, by accessing the Electronic Verification of Vital Events (EVVE) system maintained by the National Association of Public Health Statistics and Information Systems (NAPHSIS), rather than directly with the issuers of the birth certificates (such as hospitals).


Linking of license and ID card databases

Each state must agree to share its motor vehicle database with all other states. This database must include, at a minimum, all the data printed on the state drivers' licenses and ID cards, plus drivers' histories (including motor vehicle violations, suspensions, and points on licenses). Any state that does not link its database, containing records on all drivers and ID holders, to the database of the other states loses its federal funding.


Original legislation contained one of the most controversial elements which did not make it into the final legislation that was signed into law. It would have required states to sign a new compact known as the Driver License Agreement (DLA) as written by the Joint Driver's License Compact/ Non-Resident Violators Compact Executive Board with the support of AAMVA which would have required states to give reciprocity to those provinces and territories in Canada and those states in Mexico that joined the DLA and complied with its provisions. As a part of the DLA, states would be required to network their databases with these provinces, territories and Mexican states. The databases that are accessible would include sensitive information such as Social Security numbers, home addresses and other information. The foreign states and provinces are not required to abide with the Drivers Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) and are free to access and use the sensitive information as they see fit. In the USA, the Driver License Agreement (DLA) is a new compact written by the Joint Executive Board of the Driver License Compact (DLC) and the Non-Resident Violator Compact (NRVC) with staff support provided by AAMVA (composed of Motor Vehicle and Law Enforcement Administrators and Executives). ... The American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, an International Non-Government Organization, is composed of Motor Vehicle Administrative and Law Enforcement Executives from all 50 states and Canadian Provinces. ...


Traffic violations would be required to be sent to the licensing jurisdiction and be recorded. The licensing jurisdiction would be required to act on the violation according to its own laws such as assigning points and insurance surcharges to the driver not only for violations reported from DLA members but also from non-DLA members as well. The DLA requires member states to treat non-DLA states as if they are DLA members concerning their drivers.


Since foreign countries are included, there are no procedures to deal with due process issues such as a U.S. driver getting cited for a violation in a foreign country. Although not discussed, other countries could sign on to the DLA at a later time, such as the European Union countries. In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life, liberty...


DHS regulations regarding implementation of the Driver's Licence provisions of the Act

On January 11, 2008 DHS released the final rule [18] regarding the implementation of the driver's licenses provisions of the Real ID Act. Under the DHS final rule, those states that chose to comply with Driver's Licence provisions of the Real ID Act are allowed to apply for up to two extensions of the May 11, 2008 deadline for implementing these provisions: an extension until no later than December 31, 2009 and an additional extension until no later than May 11, 2011. The DHS final rule mandates that, as of March 11, 2011, driver's licenses issued by the states that are not deemed to be in full compliance with the Real ID Act, will not be accepted for federal purposes. For the states that do not apply to DHS, by March 31, 2008, for an extension of the May 11, 2008 implementation deadline, that deadline will apply: after May 11, 2008 driver's licenses issued by such states will not be accepted for federal purposes.


After the final May 11, 2011 implementation deadline, some non-Real-ID-compliant licenses will continue to be accepted for federal purposes, provided DHS judges that the state which issued such a licence is in full compliance with the Real ID Act by May 11, 2011. However, in order for their licenses to be accepted for federal purposes, all people born after December 1, 1964 will be required to have Real-ID-compliant cards by December 1, 2014. Additionally, in order to be accepted for federal purposes, people born before December 1, 1964 will be required to have Real-ID-compliant cards by December 1, 2017.


Immigration

As of May 11, 2005, several portions of the Real ID Act have imposed higher burdens and stricter standards of proof for individuals applying for asylum and other related forms of relief. For the first time, immigration judges can require an applicant to produce corroborating evidence (8 U.S.C. § 1229a(c)(4)(B). Additionally, the government may also require that an applicant produce corroborating evidence, a requirement that may only be overcome if the judge is convinced that such evidence is unavailable (8 U.S.C. § 1252(b)(4)). Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Title 8 of the United States Code outlines the role of aliens and nationality in the United States Code. ... Title 8 of the United States Code outlines the role of aliens and nationality in the United States Code. ...


Restricting illegal immigrants or legal immigrants who can't prove their legal status, or are without social security numbers, from obtaining driver's licenses may keep them from obtaining liability insurance. But, the new law does allow states to offer "not for federal ID" licenses in these cases. In fact, several states (e.g., Utah and Tennessee) have already started issuing such "driving privileges certificates/cards" in lieu of regular drivers licenses, allowing such applicants to be tested and licensed to drive and obtain liability insurance. On October 27, 2007 governor Eliot Spitzer of New York announced that the state will be adopting a similar "multi-tiered" licensing scheme in which the state will issue three different kinds of driver licenses, two of which comply with the Real ID security requirements and one which will be marked as "not for federal ID" purposes. The new licenses will be available as early as mid-2008.[19] However, following a political outcry, Spitzer withdrew his proposal to issue licenses to those unable to prove legal residence. Confessore, Nicholas (2007), “Spitzer Drops Bid to Offer Licenses More Widely”, The New York Times, 14 November is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959 ) is an American lawyer, politician and the current Governor of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Waiving laws that interfere with construction of border barriers

An earlier law (Section 102 of Pub.L. 104-208, which is now part of 8 U.S.C. § 1103) provided for improvements to physical barriers at the borders of the United States. Title 8 of the United States Code outlines the role of aliens and nationality in the United States Code. ...


Subsection (a) of this law reads as follows: "The Attorney General, in consultation with the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, shall take such actions as may be necessary to install additional physical barriers and roads (including the removal of obstacles to detection of illegal entrants) in the vicinity of the United States border to deter illegal crossings in areas of high illegal entry into the United States."


Subsection (b) orders the Attorney General to commence work on specified improvements to a 14-mile section of the existing border fence near San Diego, and allocates funds for the project.


Subsection (c) provides for waivers of laws that interfere with the work described in subsections (a) and (b). Prior to the Real ID Act, this subsection allowed waivers of only two specific federal environmental laws.


The Real ID Act amends the language of subsection (c) to make the following changes:

  • Allows waivers of any and all laws "necessary to ensure expeditious construction of the barriers and roads under this section."
  • Gives this waiver authority to the Secretary of Homeland Security (rather than the Attorney General). Waivers are made at his sole discretion.
  • Restricts court review of waiver decisions: "The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear all causes or claims arising from any action undertaken, or any decision made, by the Secretary of Homeland Security pursuant to paragraph (1). A cause of action or claim may only be brought alleging a violation of the Constitution of the United States. The court shall not have jurisdiction to hear any claim not specified in this subparagraph." Claims are barred unless filed within 60 days, and cases may be appealed "only upon petition for a writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court".

These waivers apply to barrier construction anywhere on the United States border (not just at San Diego, as some sources have erroneously reported).


Application for asylum; deportation of aliens for terrorist activity

The Real ID Act introduces stricter laws governing applications for asylum and deportation of aliens for terrorist activity. However, at the same time, it makes two minor changes to U.S. immigration law: For other uses, see Refugee (disambiguation). ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ...

  • Elimination of the 10,000 annual limit for previously-approved asylees to adjust to permanent legal residence. This had been urged for years because the average asylee had a 17-year wait before he would be able to achieve legal resident status. As a result, in fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the backlog was greatly reduced as 147,131 asylees were granted legal permanent residence status.
  • Usage of 50,000 unused employment-based visas from 2003. This was a compromise between proponents who had earlier tried to include all employment visas which went unused between 2001 and 2004, and immigration restrictionists. They were used, mostly in fiscal year 2006, for Schedule A workers newly arrived mainly from the Philippines and India, rather than for adjustments of status cases like the American Competitiveness in the 21st Act.

The deportation of aliens for terrorist activities is governed by the following provisions. 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...


Section 212(a)(3)(B): Terrorist activities


The INA (Immigration & Nationality Act) defines "terrorist activity" to mean any activity which is unlawful under the laws of the place where it is committed (or which, if committed in the United States, would be unlawful under the laws of the United States or any State) and which involves any of the following:

  • (I) The hijacking or sabotage of any conveyance (including an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle).
  • (II) The seizing or detaining, and threatening to kill, injure, or continue to detain, another individual in order to compel a third person (including a governmental organization) to do or abstain from doing any act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the individual seized or detained.
  • (III) A violent attack upon an internationally protected person (as defined in Section 1116(b)(4) of Title 18, United States Code) or upon the liberty of such a person.
  • (IV) An assassination.
  • (V) The use of any:
    • (a) biological agent, chemical agent, or nuclear weapon or device.
    • (b) explosive, firearm, or other weapon or dangerous device (other than for mere personal monetary gain), with intent to endanger, directly or indirectly, the safety of one or more individuals or to cause substantial damage to property.
  • (VI) A threat, attempt, or conspiracy to do any of the foregoing.

Other pertinent portions of Section 212(a)(3)(B) are set forth below: For the 1967 film, see Robbery (film). ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease or toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... The chemical agent in the context of a work place hazard is a chemical that may be hazardous due to its physical or toxicological characteristics. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Firearms redirects here. ...


"Engage in terrorist activity" defined


As used in this chapter (Chapter 8 of the INA), the term, "engage in terrorist activity" means in an individual capacity or as a member of an organization:

  • to commit or to incite to commit, under circumstances indicating an intention to cause death or serious bodily injury, a terrorist activity;
  • to prepare or plan a terrorist activity;
  • to gather information on potential targets for terrorist activity;
  • to solicit funds or other things of value for:
    • (aa) a terrorist activity;
    • (bb) a terrorist organization described in Clause (vi)(I) or (vi)(II);
    • (cc) a terrorist organization described in Clause (vi)(III), unless the solicitor can demonstrate that he did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the solicitation would further the organization’s terrorist activity;
  • to solicit any individual:
    • (aa) to engage in conduce otherwise described in this clause;
    • (bb) for membership in terrorist organization described in Clause (vi)(I) or (vi)(II); or
    • (cc) for membership in a terrorist organization described in Clause (vi)(III), unless the solicitor can demonstrate that he did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the solicitation would further the organization’s terrorist activity; or
  • to commit an act that the actor knows, or reasonably should know, affords material support, including a safe house, transportation, communications, funds, transfer of funds or other material financial benefit, false documentation or identification, weapons (including chemical, biological, or radiological weapons), explosives, or training:
    • (aa) for the commission of a terrorist activity;
    • (bb) to any individual who the actor knows, or reasonably should know, has committed or plans to commit a terrorist activity;
    • (cc) to a terrorist organization described in Clause (vi)(I) or (vi)(II); or
    • (dd) to a terrorist organization described in Clause (vi)(III), unless the actor can demonstrate that he did not know, and should not reasonably have known, that the act would further the organization’s terrorist activity.

This clause shall not apply to any material support the alien afforded to an organization or individual that has committed terrorist activity, if the Secretary of State, after consultation with the Attorney General, or the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary of State, concludes in his sole unreviewable discretion, that that this clause should not apply." A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...


"Representative" defined


As used in this paragraph, the term, "representative" includes an officer, official, or spokesman of an organization, and any person who directs, counsels, commands, or induces an organization or its members to engage in terrorist activity.


"Terrorist organization" defined


As used in Clause (i)(VI) and Clause (iv), the term ‘terrorist organization’ means an organization:

  • designated under Section 219 (8 U.S.C. § 1189);
  • otherwise designated, upon publication in the Federal Register, by the Secretary of State in consultation with or upon the request of the Attorney General, as a terrorist organization, after finding that the organization engages in the activities described in Subclause (I), (II), or (III) of Clause (iv), or that the organization provides material support to further terrorist activity; or
  • that is a group of two or more individuals, whether organized or not, which engages in the activities described in Subclause (I), (II), or (III) of Clause (iv).

Section 140(d)(2) of the "Foreign Relations Authorization Act", Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 defines "terrorism" as "premeditated, politically motivated violence, perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents." Title 8 of the United States Code outlines the role of aliens and nationality in the United States Code. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Look up clandestine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other provisions

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Delivery bonds

The Real ID Act introduces complex rules covering "delivery bonds." These resemble bail bonds, but are to be required for aliens that have been released pending hearings. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Miscellaneous provisions

The remaining sections of the Real ID Act allocate funding for some reports and pilot projects related to border security, and change visa limits for temporary workers, nurses, and Australians.


Under the REAL ID Act, nationals of Australia are eligible to receive a special E-3 visa. This provision was the result of negotiations between the two countries that also led to the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement which came into force on January 1, 2005. The E-3 visa is a United States visa for which only citizens of Australia are eligible. ... The Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States of America modelled on the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Controversy and opposition

The Real ID Act has faced widespread and intense public criticism from across the political spectrum and remains the subject of several ongoing controversies. Opponents of the Real ID Act include: libertarian groups, in particular the Cato Institute; immigrant advocacy groups; human and civil rights organizations, including ACLU; privacy advocacy groups; good government and government accountability groups; labor groups such as AFL-CIO; People for the American Way; consumer and patient protection groups; some gun rights groups; many state lawmakers, state legislatures and governors; and others. [20][21] While most liberal groups and most Democratic politicians oppose the Real ID Act to varying degrees, conservatives are split on the issue. Real ID is opposed by such conservative-leaning groups as Gun Owners of America, by the editorial page of the Wall Street Journal as well as by many current and former Republican members of Congress. Apart from the Bush administration, the Real ID Act is strongly supported by the conservative Heritage Foundation and by many anti-immigration advocates. [22] The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of 54 national and international unions (including Canadian), together representing more than 10 million workers. ... People For the American Way (PFAW) is a liberal, self described progressive advocacy organization in the United States. ... Gun Owners of America is the second largest gun rights organization in America. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ...



Among the 2008 presidential candidates, according to a February 2008 CNet report at news.com, John McCain strongly supports the Real ID Act, Barack Obama and Ron Paul flatly oppose it, while Hillary Clinton called for the law to be reviewed. [23] In a September 2007 interview Mike Huckabee expressed opposition to the Real ID Act, calling the Real ID Act "a huge mistake". [24]. CNET Networks, Inc. ... McCain redirects here. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... Ronald Ernest Ron Paul (b. ... REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... Huckabee redirects here. ...


Congressional passage procedure controversy

The original Real ID Act, H. R. 418, was approved by the House on February 10, 2005 by a vote of 261-161. At the insistence of the Real ID Act sponsor and then House Judiciary Committee Chair F. James Sensenbrenner (Republican, Wisconsin), the Real ID Act was subsequently attached by the House Republican leadership as a rider to H.R. 1268, a bill dealing with emergency appropriations for the Iraq War and with the Tsunami relief funding. H.R. 1268 was widely regarded as a "must-pass" legislation. The original version of H.R. 1268 was passed by the Senate on April 21, 2005 and did not include the Real ID Act. However, the Real ID Act was inserted in the conference report on H.R. 1268 that was then passed by the House on May 5, 2005 by a 368-58 vote and was unanimously passed by the Senate on May 10, 2005.[25] The Senate never discussed or voted on the Real ID Act specifically and no Senate committee hearings were conducted on the Real ID Act prior to its passage. [26] Critics charged that this procedure was undemocratic and that the bill's proponents avoided a substantive debate on a far-reaching piece of legislation by attaching it to a "must-pass" bill. [27][28][29][30] Frank James (Jim) Sensenbrenner, Jr. ...


A May 3, 2005 statement by the American Immigration Lawers Association said: "Because Congress held no hearings or meaningful debate on the legislation and amended it to a must-pass spending bill, the REAL ID Act did not receive the scrutiny necessary for most measures, and most certainly not the level required for a measure of this importance and impact. Consistent with the lack of debate and discussion, conference negotiations also were held behind closed doors, with Democrats prevented from participating."[31]


National ID card controversy

There is disagreement about whether the Real ID Act institutes a "national identification card" system.[32] The new law only sets forth national standards, but leaves the issuance of cards and the maintenance of databases in state hands; therefore, the Department of Homeland Security claims it is not a "national ID" system. [2] Web sites such as no2realid.org, unrealid.com, and realnightmare.org argue that this is a trivial distinction, and that the new cards are in fact national ID cards, thanks to the uniform national standards created by the AAMVA and (especially) the linked databases, and by the fact that such identification is mandatory if people wish to travel out of the US. German identity card with a KINEGRAM® A piece of identification (ID) is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... The American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, an International Non-Government Organization, is composed of Motor Vehicle Administrative and Law Enforcement Executives from all 50 states and Canadian Provinces. ...


Many advocacy groups and individual opponents of the Real ID Act believe that having a Real ID-compliant license may become a requirement for various basic tasks. Thus a January 2008 statement by ACLU of Maryland says: "The law places no limits on potential required uses for Real IDs. In time, Real IDs could be required to vote, collect a Social Security check, access Medicaid, open a bank account, go to an Orioles game, or buy a gun. The private sector could begin mandating a Real ID to perform countless commercial and financial activities, such as renting a DVD or buying car insurance. Real ID cards would become a necessity, making them de facto national IDs." However, it should be noted that in order to perform many of those tasks, government-issued identification is already required (e.g., two forms of ID - usually a driver's license, passport, or Social Security card - are required by the Patriot act in order to open a bank account).[33]


State adoption and non-compliance

Portions of the Real ID Act pertaining to states were scheduled to take effect on May 11, 2008, three years after the law passed, but the deadline had been extended to December 31, 2009.[34] On January 11, 2008, it was announced the deadline has been extended again, until 2011, in hopes of gaining more support from states.[35] is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


On January 25, 2007, a Resolution passed overwhelmingly in the Maine Legislature that refuses implementation of the Real ID Act in that state, and demands Congress repeal the law. Many Maine lawmakers believe the law does more harm than good, that it would be a bureaucratic nightmare to enforce, is threatening to individual privacy, makes citizens increasingly vulnerable to ID theft, and would cost Maine taxpayers at least $185 million in five years because of the massive unfunded federal mandates on all the states. The Resolution vote in the Maine House was 137-4 and in the Maine Senate unanimously, 34-0.[36] is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Maine Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The debating chamber of the Maine Senate in the State House in Augusta The Maine Senate is the upper house of the Maine Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maine. ...


On February 16, 2007, Utah unanimously passed a resolution that opposes the REAL ID Act.[37] The resolution states that REAL ID is "in opposition to the Jeffersonian principles of individual liberty, free markets, and limited government." It further states that "the use of identification-based security cannot be justified as part of a 'layered' security system if the costs of the identification 'layer'--in dollars, lost privacy, and lost liberty--are greater than the security identification provides": is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

"the "common machine-readable technology" required by the REAL ID Act would convert state-issued driver licenses and identification cards into tracking devices, allowing computers to note and record people's whereabouts each time they are identified"

"the requirement that states maintain databases of information about their citizens and residents and then share this personal information with all other states will expose every state to the information security weaknesses of every other state and threaten the privacy of every American"

"the REAL ID Act wrongly coerces states into doing the federal government's bidding by threatening to refuse noncomplying states' citizens the privileges and immunities enjoyed by other states' citizens"

Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington have joined Maine and Utah in passing legislation opposing Real ID.[38][39][40][41][42] However it should be noted that most of these actions are non-binding resolutions rather than acts of law, leaving the decision about compliance to the governors themselves. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Similar resolutions are pending in Alaska, Arizona, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.[43] For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Other states have moved aggressively to upgrade their IDs since 9/11, and still others have staked decidedly pro-Real ID positions, such as North Carolina,[44], and Michigan[45]. Some states whose legislatures passed non-binding resolutions opposing REAL ID are nonetheless working to comply with the law, such as Illinois[46]. In announcing the new regulations, Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff cited California, Alabama and North Dakota[47] as examples of states that had made progress in complying with Real ID. Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... [[Category:Articles needing additional references from August 2007]] Michael Chertoff (born November 28, 1953) is the current United States Secretary of Homeland Security. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ...


New York's new policy of issuing driver's licenses to undocumented residents upon presentation of a valid foreign passport goes against the requirements for documentation of legal status and a valid Social Security Number.


Driver's licenses issued by states which do not file a waiver indicating intent to comply with the new standards will not be valid for air travel or to enter federal buildings starting May 11, 2008.[48][49]


As of January 29, 2008, the Department of Homeland Security has announced $79.8 million in grant monies[50] to assist states with REAL ID implementation, and set an application deadline of March 7, 2008.


Constitutionality

Some critics claim that the Real ID Act violates the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution as a federal legislation in an area that, under the terms of the Tenth Amendment, is the province of the states. Thus, Anthony Romero, the executive director of ACLU, stated: "... Real ID is an unfunded mandate that violates the Constitution's 10th Amendment on state powers, destroys states' dual sovereignty and consolidates every American's private information, leaving all of us far more vulnerable to identity thieves." [51]. The REAL ID Act of 2005 requires people entering federal buildings, boarding airplanes or opening bank accounts to present identification that has met certain security and authentication standards. ... For Ireland, see Tenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland. ... Anthony D. Romero is the executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ...


Former Republican U.S. Representative Bob Barr wrote in a February 2008 article: "A person not possessing a Real ID Act-compliant identification card could not enter any federal building, or an office of his or her congressman or senator or the U.S. Capitol. This effectively denies that person their fundamental rights to assembly and to petition the government as guaranteed in the First Amendment." [52] Robert L. (Bob) Barr, Jr. ...


The DHS final rule [53] regarding implementation of the Real ID Act discusses a number of constitutional concerns raised by the commenters on the proposed version of this rule. The DHS rule explicitly rejects the assertion that the implementation of the Real ID Act will lead to violations of the citizens' individual constitutional rights (page 5284 of the DHS rule in the Federal register). In relation to the Tenth Amendment argument about violation of states' constitutional rights, the DHS rule acknowledges that that these concerns have been raised by a number of individual commenters and in the comments by some states. The DHS rule does not attempt to rebuff the Tenth Amendment argument directly, but says that the DHS is acting in accordance with the authority granted to it by the Real ID Act and that DHS has been and will be working closely with the states on the implementation of the Real ID Act (pages 5284 and 5317 of the DHS final rule in the Federal Register).


On November 1, 2007, attorneys for Defenders of Wildlife and the Sierra Club filed an amended complaint in U.S. District Court challenging the 2005 REAL ID Act. The amended complaint alleges that this unprecedented authority violates the fundamental separation of powers principles enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. The environmental groups argue that Congress unconstitutionally delegated the power to the Department of Homeland Security (an appointed Executive branch not accountable to the public) to pick and choose which laws will apply to border wall construction. On December 18, 2007, Judge Ellen S. Huvelle rejected the challenge. [3] [4] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Defenders of Wildlife is dedicated to the protection of all native wild animals and plants in their natural communities. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Asylum and deportation controversy

Many immigrant and civil rights advocates feel that the changes related to evidentiary standards and the immigration officers' discretion in asylum cases, contained in the Real ID Act, would prevent many legitimate asylum seekers from obtaining asylum.[54] [55]. Thus a 2005 article in LCCR-sponsored "Civil Rights Monitor" says: "The bill also contained changes to asylum standards, which according to LCCR, would prevent many legitimate asylum seekers from obtaining safe haven in the United States. These changes gave immigration officials broad discretion to demand certain evidence to support an asylum claim, with little regard to whether the evidence can realistically be obtained; as well as the discretion to deny claims based on such subjective factors as "demeanor". Critics said the reason for putting such asylum restrictions into what was being sold as an antiterrorism bill was unclear, given that suspected terrorists are already barred from obtaining asylum or any other immigration benefit. " [56].


Similarly, some immigration and human rights advocacy groups maintain that the Real ID Act provides an overly broad definition of "terrorist activity" that will prevent some deserving categories of applicants from gaining asylum or refugee status in the United States.[57] A November 2007 report by Human Rights Watch raises this criticism specifically in relation to former child soldiers who have been forcibly and illegally recruited to participate in an armed group. [58] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Judicial review controversy

A previous version of the Real ID Act (H.R. 418) would have prohibited any judicial review of Homeland Security law waivers for barrier construction. Critics maintained that this would elevate the Secretary of Homeland Security above the law, and this language was changed in the final version (H.R. 1268). Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ...


But even the limited restrictions on judicial review remain controversial. Supporters of the Real ID Act see a need to restrain so-called "judicial activism" so needed barriers can be built. Opponents feel that the restrictions on judicial review may exceed the authority Congress has to regulate the courts (as spelled out in Article Three of the United States Constitution), and violate the principle of separation of powers. Judicial activism is a term used by political commentators to describe a tendency by judges to consider outcomes, attitudinal preferences, and other public policy issues in interpreting applicable existing law. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article Three of the United States Constitution Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ...


Privacy

Many privacy rights advocates charge that by creating a national system electronically storing vast amounts of detailed personal data about individuals, the Real ID Act increases the chance of such data being stolen and thus raises the risk of identity theft. [59] [60] [61] [62] The Bush administration, in the DHS final rule [63] regarding the Real ID Act implementation, counters that the security precautions regarding handling sensitive personal data and hiring DMV workers, that are specified in the Real ID Act and in the DHS final rule, provide sufficient protections against unauthorized use and theft of such personal data (pages 5281-5283 of the DHS final rule in the Federal Register).


Another privacy concern raised by the privacy advocates, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, is that the implementation of the Real ID Act will make it substantially easier for the government and the businesses to track numerous activities of Americans and conduct their surveillance. [64] [65] EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of...


Supporters of the Real ID Act, such as a conservative think-tank the Heritage Foundation, reject this criticism and maintain that states will be permitted to share data only when validating someone's identity. [66] The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ...


The Data Privacy and Integrity Advisory Committee, which was established to advise the Department of Homeland Security on privacy-related issues, released a statement regarding the Department of Homeland Security's proposed rules for the standardization of state driver licenses on May 7, 2007[67]. The committee stated that "Given that these issues have not received adequate consideration, the Committee feels it is important that the following comments do not constitute an endorsement of REAL ID or the regulations as workable or appropriate," and "The issues pose serious risks to an individual’s privacy and, without amelioration, could undermine the stated goals of the REAL ID Act." The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ...


Congressional efforts to change or repeal the Real ID Act

On February 28, 2007 U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka [D-HI] introduced the Senate Bill S. 717, "Identification Security Enhancement Act of 2007", subtitled: "A bill to repeal title II of the REAL ID Act of 2005, to restore section 7212 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, which provides States additional regulatory flexibility and funding authorization to more rapidly produce tamper- and counterfeit-resistant driver's licenses, and to protect privacy and civil liberties by providing interested stakeholders on a negotiated rulemaking with guidance to achieve improved 21st century licenses to improve national security". [68] The bill is co-sponsored by Senators Lamar Alexander [R-TN], Max Baucus [D-MT], Patrick Leahy [D-VT], John Sununu [R-NH], Jon Tester [D-MT]. The bill was read twice and referred to the Senate Committee on the Judiciary on February 28, 2007. Daniel Kahikina Dan Akaka (Chinese: 阿卡卡 李碩, Hanyu pinyin: akaka lishuo) (born September 11, 1924) is a U.S. Senator from Hawaiʻi and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... Max Sieben Baucus (b. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... John Sununu is the name of two U.S. politicians: John H. Sununu, Governor of New Hampshire (1983-1989) and White House Chief of Staff for George H. W. Bush (1989-1991) John E. Sununu, his son, U.S. Congressman (1997-2003) and U.S. Senator (2003-present) This is... Jonathan Jon Tester (born August 21, 1956) is the Democratic Senator-elect from Montana. ...


A similar bill was introduced on February 16, 2007 in the U.S. House of Representatives by Rep. Thomas Allen [D-ME], with 32 co-sponsors (all Democrats). The House bill, H.R. 1117, "REAL ID Repeal and Identification Security Enhancement Act of 2007", is subtitled: "A bill to repeal title II of the REAL ID Act of 2005, to restore section 7212 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, which provides States additional regulatory flexibility and funding authorization to more rapidly produce tamper- and counterfeit-resistant driver's licenses, and to protect privacy and civil liberties by providing interested stakeholders on a negotiated rulemaking with guidance to achieve improved 21st century licenses to improve national security." [69] On May 23, 2007, the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee referred H.R. 1117 to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement.


A more limited bill, S. 563, that would extend the deadlines for the states' compliance with the Real ID Act, was introduced on February 13, 2007 in the U.S. Senate by Sen. Susan Collins [R, ME], together with Senators Lamar Alexander [R, TN], Thomas Carper [D, DE], Charles Hagel [R, NE], and Olympia Snowe [R, ME]. [70] Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7, 1952, in Caribou, Maine) is an American politician, the junior U.S. Senator from Maine and a Republican. ... Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... Thomas Richard Carper (born January 23, 1947) is a United States politician who has been a U.S. Senator from Delaware since 2001. ... Charles Timothy Chuck Hagel (born October 4, 1946) is the senior United States Senator from Nebraska. ... Olympia Jean Bouchles Snowe (born February 21, 1947 in Augusta, Maine) is a Republican politician and the senior United States Senator from Maine. ...


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  1. ^ 261-161-11 House.gov
  2. ^ HR 1268: Making emergency supplemental appropriations
  3. ^ Senate.gov
  4. ^ Pub.L. 109-13
  5. ^ LATimes.com
  6. ^ New rules on licenses pit states against feds
  7. ^ DHS REAL ID Final Rule, January 11, 2008
  8. ^ Biometric Bits
  9. ^ Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 , ww.govtrack.us. Accessed February 19, 2008
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  12. ^ Homeland Security: REAL ID Final Rule
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  65. ^ Real ID. Threatening Your Privacy Through an Unfunded Government Mandate. Electronic Frontier Foundation, www.eff.org (August 16, 2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  66. ^ Federal ID plan raises privacy concerns. CNN, www.cnn.com (August 16, 2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-17.
  67. ^ Ryan Singel. 7 May 2007. Homeland Security's Own Privacy Panel Declines to Endorse License Rules.
  68. ^ S. 717: Identification Security Enhancement Act of 2007 GovTrack.us. Access date February 17, 2008
  69. ^ H.R. 1117: REAL ID Repeal and Identification Security Enhancement Act of 2007 GovTrack.us. Access date February 17, 2008
  70. ^ S. 563: A bill to extend the deadline by which State identification documents shall comply with certain minimum standards and for other purposes GovTrack.us. Access date February 18, 2008

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Broad coalition launches campaign to urge the public to submit comments to Dept. of Homeland Security regarding REAL ID program. Comments due May 8, 2007. [5]
  • Actual proposed rules Search ID: DHS-2006-0030-0001 Click on "Docket ID" for commentary.
  • Real ID - The Art of the Possible [6]
  • National Governor's Association (NGA) and National Council of State Legislator's (NCSL) REAL ID Impact Analyis [7]
  • 9/11 Security Solutions, LLC Identity Document Security Library [8]
  • U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia
    Title: Understanding the Realities of REAL ID: A Review of Efforts to Secure Drivers' Licenses and Identification Cards
    [9]
  • NoNAIS.org [10] which covers developments around the US REAL ID proposal as well as the USDA National Animal Identification System which is a remarkably similar system for animals.
  • From California DMV: Report to the Legislature on the Status of the REAL ID Act
  • Legislators Against REAL ID [11]
  • REAL ID Nightmare [12]
  • The American Civil Liberties Union's position against REAL ID [13]
  • Comments of the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) and [Experts in Privacy and Technology] against Homeland Security's Real_ID Bill [14]
  • Alaska Libertarian Party on the REAL ID Act and the Tenth Amendment. [15]
  • Liberty Coalition on National ID [16]
  • Beware the IDs of March [17]
Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law, see also Immigration to the United States. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... A Labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees) to fill the market-place demands for employment at any price. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ... Those who find positive economic effects focus on added productivity and lower costs to consumers for certain goods and services. ... Immigration reduction refers to movements active within the United States that advocate a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the United States or other countries. ... The Guest worker program is a program that has been proposed many times in the past and now also by U.S. President George W. Bush as a way to permit U.S. employers to sponsor non-U.S. citizens as laborers for approximately three years, to be deported afterwards... Image File history File links US_Department_of_Homeland_Security_Seal. ... The Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (also called The DREAM Act) refers to a proposed immigration legislation in the United States Congress that is intended to cancel the removal and adjust the status of certain long-term residents who entered the United States as children. ... Radio Station advertisement in Spanish in East Los Angeles against the H.R.4437. ... Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act (McCain-Kennedy Bill, S. 1033) was a comprehensive immigration reform bill introduced in the United States Senate on May 12, 2005, which was the first of its kind since the early 2000s in incorporating legalization, guest worker programs, border enforcement components. ... S. 2691/ H. R. 5744, also known as the “Securing Knowledge Innovation and Leadership Act of 2006”, or the “SKIL Bill” from its acronym and rhyme, is targeted at increasing legal immigration of scientific, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers into the United States by increasing the quotas on the... For the 2007 act, see Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. ... The Security Through Regularized Immigration and a Vibrant Economy Act of 2007 or STRIVE Act of 2007 is proposed United States legislation designed to address the problem of illegal immigration, introduced into the United States House of Representatives (H.R. 1645). ... The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, or, in its full name, the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (S. 1348) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to legal citizenship for the approximately... Operation Wetback was a 1954 project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to remove about 1. ... President George W. Bush signs the Secure Fence Act of 2006, in the Roosevelt Room on October 26, 2006. ... In 2006, millions of people were involved in protests over a proposed reform to U.S. immigration policy. ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest and primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and is responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nations border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security. ... The Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles (CHIRLA) is an American political advocacy organization. ... NAOC Logo The Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CCIR), also known as CCIR/NAOC or New American Opportunity Campaign is a non-profit immigrant rights advocacy organization based in Washington, DC, established in 2003 to pass comprehensive immigration reform. ... The National Immigration Forum was established in 1982, dedicated to increasing public support for admitting larger numbers of immigrants and refugees into the United States. ... CCC Logo The Center for Community Change (CCC) is one of the larger community building organizations in the United States. ... The We Are Americe Alliance (WAAA) is a national alliance of immigrant rights organizations and allies in the United States that work towards social justice, including comprehensive immigration reform and immigrants civic participation. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-partisan, non-profit 501(c)(3) educational organization in the United States that advocates for reforms of U.S. immigration policies that would result in significant immigration reduction. ... The Minuteman Project is an activist organization started in April 2005 by a group of private United States individuals to monitor the United States–Mexico borders flow of illegal immigrants, although it has expanded to include the United States-Canada border as well. ... The Minuteman Civil Defense Corps, often confused with The Minuteman Project, Inc. ... California Coalition for Immigration Reform (CCIR) is a political advocacy group devoted to immigration reduction, based in Huntington Beach, California. ... Save Our State logo “Save Our State” redirects here. ... The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... NumbersUSA is an immigration reduction organization whose intent is to reduce United States annual immigration to pre-1965 levels, but without the country of origin quotas that were in place during this period. ... The Migration Policy Institute is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2001 by Kathleen Newland and Demetrios G. Papademetriou. ... The first naturalization law in the United States was the 1795 Naturalization Act which restricted citizenship to free white persons who had resided in the country for five years. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... This article is about the former U.S. law. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The Bracero Program, (from the Spanish word brazo, meaning arm), was a temporary contract labor program initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico. ... The Immigration and Nationality Act amendments of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act, INS Act of 1965, Pub. ... The Immigration Reform and Control Act (Simpson-Mazzoli Act (IRCA), Pub. ... The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
FOXNews.com - The Real ID Act - FOX Fan (2081 words)
The Department of Homeland Security is in charge of the Real ID program — ensuring we all meet the new federal ID standards.
To do so, each Real ID will be encoded on a strip in the back with a lot of our personal information.
I really don't like the idea of someone able to swipe my ID and will be able to keep my info.
REAL ID Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2808 words)
This practice, which is allowed under REAL ID, allows applicants who are unable to prove their legal status in the US to be tested and licensed to drive and obtain liability insurance using a special license which is otherwise marked as not being valid for the purpose of identification.
The Real ID Act introduces stricter laws governing applications for asylum and deportation of aliens for terrorist activity.
The Real ID Act introduces complex rules covering "delivery bonds." These resemble bail bonds, but are to be required for aliens that have been released pending hearings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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