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RC2

The MIX transformation of RC2; four of these comprise a MIXING round
Designer(s): Ron Rivest
First published: leaked in 1996, designed in 1987
Key size(s): 8–128 bits, in steps of 8 bits; default 64 bits
Block size(s): 64 bits
Structure: Source-heavy Feistel network
Rounds: 16 of type MIXING, 2 of type MASHING
Best public cryptanalysis:
A related-key attack is possible requiring 234 chosen plaintexts (Kelsey et al, 1997).

In cryptography, RC2 is a block cipher designed by Ron Rivest in 1987. "RC" stands for "Ron's Code" or "Rivest Cipher"; other ciphers designed by Rivest include RC4, RC5 and RC6. Image File history File links dup of for template reasons File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Professor Ron Rivest Professor Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer, and is the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor of Computer Science at MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a block cipher with a particular structure, named after IBM cryptographer Horst Feistel; it is also commonly known as a Feistel network. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ... A chosen plaintext attack is any form of cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and γράφειν gráfein to write) is the study of message secrecy. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... Professor Ron Rivest Professor Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer, and is the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor of Computer Science at MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Vietnam road named RC4, see Route Coloniale 4. ... General Designer(s) Ron Rivest First published 1994 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design RC6, Akelarre Algorithm detail Block size(s) 32, 64 or 128 bits (64 suggested) Key size(s) 0 to 2040 bits (128 suggested) Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 12 suggested originally Best cryptanalysis... In cryptography, RC6 is a symmetric key block cipher derived from RC5. ...


The development of RC2 was sponsored by Lotus, who were seeking a custom cipher that, after evaluation by the NSA, could be exported as part of their Lotus Notes software. The NSA suggested a couple of changes, which Rivest incorporated. After further negotiations, the cipher was approved for export in 1989. Along with RC4, RC2 with a 40-bit key size was treated favourably under US export regulations for cryptography. Lotus Software (called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) is an American software company with its headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lotus Notes is a client-server collaborative software and e-mail system owned by Lotus Software, of the IBM Software Group. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 40-bit encryption is a key size for symmetric encryption representing a low-level of security where the key is forty bits in length (five bytes). ... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... Since World War II, Western governments, including the U.S. and its NATO allies have regulated the export of cryptography for national security considerations. ...


Initially, the details of the algorithm were kept secret — proprietary to RSA Security — but on 29th January, 1996, source code for RC2 was anonymously posted to the Internet on the Usenet forum, sci.crypt. A similar disclosure had occurred earlier with RC4. It is unclear whether the poster had access to the specifications or whether it had been reverse engineered. RSA, The Security Division of EMC Corporation (NYSE: EMC), is headquartered in Bedford, Massachusetts, and maintains offices in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Singapore, and Japan. ... (Redirected from 29th January) January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Usenet is a distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name. ... There are several newsgroups relevant for discussions about cryptography and related issues. ... Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ...


RC2 is a 64-bit block cipher with a variable size key. Its 18 rounds are arranged as a source-heavy Feistel network, with 16 rounds of one type (MIXING) punctuated by two rounds of another type (MASHING). A MIXING round consists of four applications of the MIX transformation, as shown in the following diagram: In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ... In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a block cipher with a particular structure, named after IBM cryptographer Horst Feistel; it is also commonly known as a Feistel network. ...


RC2 is vulnerable to a related-key attack using 234 chosen plaintexts (Kelsey et al, 1997). In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ... A chosen plaintext attack is any form of cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. ...


Sources

Steven Levy is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the Internet, cyber security and privacy. ... Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age (ISBN 0140244328) is a book written by Steven Levy about cryptography, and was published in 2001. ...

References

Lars R. Knudsen Lars Ramkilde Knudsen (born February 21, 1962) is a Danish researcher in cryptography, particularly interested in the design and analysis of block ciphers, hash functions and message authentication codes (MACs). ... Together with Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen designed the Rijndael block cipher, which was selected as the Advanced Encryption Standard in 2000. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... David Wagner David A. Wagner (1974) is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley and a well-known researcher in cryptography. ... In cryptography, 3-Way is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen, who also (with Vincent Rijmen) designed Rijndael, the winner of NISTs Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest. ... Look up Cast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ...

External links

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Block ciphers
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Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN   Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential cryptanalysis | Mod n | Related key | XSL
Standardization: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE   Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key
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Cryptography
History of cryptography | Cryptanalysis | Cryptography portal | Topics in cryptography
Symmetric-key algorithm | Block cipher | Stream cipher | Public-key cryptography | Cryptographic hash function | Message authentication code | Random numbers

  Results from FactBites:
 
RC2: Reviews, Discography, Audio Clips, and more ||| Music.com (395 words)
The fact that RC2 are not trying to hide their Venezuelan origins is actually what saves this album from oblivion -- and even then, it remains rather ordinary despite its qualities.
RC2 's debut album runs into a few heavy progressive rock clichés, but it displays assurance and rests on strong melodies that don't shy away from the South American roots of the group.
The aforementioned "Fría" stands out: it begins with a six-minute instrumental part where Mejicano and keyboardist Rafael Paz display their best mid-tempo chops, followed by another eight minutes of a heartlifting song -- it is stretched out for too long in the finale, but that's not enough to strip it out of its highlight status.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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