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Encyclopedia > RAND

The RAND Corporation (Research ANd Development[1]) is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. The organization has since expanded to working with other governments, private foundations, international organizations, and commercial organizations. Reportedly, it is known for rigorous, often-quantitative, and non-partisan analysis and policy recommendations.[1][2][not in citation given][3][4][not in citation given] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The term Rand has several possible meanings: the Rand currency of South Africa. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... This article is about the institution. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Rand Corporation Headquarters, Santa Monica, CA
Rand Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA

RAND has approximately 1,600 employees and four principal locations: Santa Monica, California (headquarters); Washington, D.C. (currently located in Arlington, Virginia); Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (adjacent to Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh); and Cambridge, United Kingdom (RAND Europe). For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... This article is about Cambridge, England; see also other places called Cambridge. ...


There are also several smaller offices of RAND in the United States, including the RAND Gulf States Policy Institute in Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans, Louisiana. In 2003, it opened the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute in Doha. This article is about Jackson, the city and related subjects within the city. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Doha (disambiguation). ...


RAND is also the home to the Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School, one of the original graduate programs in public policy and the first to offer a Ph.D. The program is unique in that students work alongside RAND analysts on real-world problems. The campus is at RAND's Santa Monica research facility. The Pardee RAND School is the world's largest Ph.D.-granting program in policy analysis. The Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS) is co-located with the RAND Corporations headquarters in Santa Monica, California. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ...


RAND publishes The RAND Journal of Economics, a scholarly peer-reviewed journal of economics.

Contents

Project RAND

RAND was set up in 1946 by the United States Army Air Forces as Project RAND, under contract to the Douglas Aircraft Company, and in May 1946 they released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship. In May 1948, Project RAND was separated from Douglas and became an independent non-profit organization. Initial capital for the split came from the Ford Foundation. The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... The Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship was a 1946 proposal, by Project RAND, for a United States satellite program. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty, promote international understanding, and advance human achievement. ...


Mission statement

RAND was incorporated as a non-profit organization to "further promote scientific, educational, and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare and security of the United States of America." Its self-declared mission is "to help improve policy and decision making through research and analysis", using its "core values of quality and objectivity."[1] For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... This article is about charitable organizations. ...


Achievements and expertise

The achievements of RAND stem from its development of systems analysis. Important contributions are claimed in space systems and the United States' space program, in computing and in artificial intelligence. RAND researchers developed many of the principles that were used to build the Internet. Numerous analytical techniques were invented at RAND, including dynamic programming, game theory, the Delphi method, linear programming, systems analysis, and exploratory modeling. RAND also pioneered the development and use of wargaming. Systems analysis is the interdisciplinary branch of science, dealing with analysis of systems, often prior to their automation as computer systems, and the interactions within those systems. ... Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... AI redirects here. ... In mathematics and computer science, dynamic programming is a method of solving problems exhibiting the properties of overlapping subproblems and optimal substructure (described below) that takes much less time than naive methods. ... For other uses, see Game theory (disambiguation) and Game (disambiguation). ... The Delphi method has been an anticipatory thinking (futures) technique aimed at building an agreement, or consensus about an opinion or view, without necessarily having people meet face to face, such as through surveys, questionnaires, e-mails etc. ... In mathematics, linear programming (LP) problems involve the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. ... Systems analysis is the interdisciplinary branch of science, dealing with analysis of systems, often prior to their automation as computer systems, and the interactions within those systems. ... Glory, an American Civil War game by GMT This article is about the civilian hobby. ...


Current areas of expertise include: child policy, civil and criminal justice, education, environment and energy, health, international policy, labor markets, national security, infrastructure, energy, environment, corporate governance, economic development, intelligence policy, long-range planning, crisis management and disaster preparation, population and regional studies, science and technology, social welfare, terrorism, arts policy, and transportation. Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, is a concept largely based on various social contract theories. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... ...


RAND designed and conducted one of the largest and most important studies of health insurance between 1974 and 1982. The RAND Health Insurance Experiment, funded by the then-U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established an insurance corporation to compare demand for health services with their cost to the patient. The RAND Health Insurance Experiment remains one of the most rigorous and comprehensive studies of health care cost, utilitzation and outcome. ... The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ...


According to the 2005 annual report, "about one-half of RAND's research involves national security issues."


Many of the events in which RAND plays a part are based on assumptions which are hard to verify because of the lack of detail on RAND's highly classified work for defense and intelligence agencies. Some RAND participants who have gone on to large roles are often believed to have had a role in shaping RAND research.


The RAND Corporation posts all of its unclassified reports, in full, on its official website.


Notable RAND participants

David Laurence Aaron (b. ... The Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the Deputy National Security Advisor, is a member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, serving as deputy to the Presidents National Security Advisor. ... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... Kenneth Joseph Arrow (born August 23, 1921) is an American economist, joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics with John Hicks in 1972, and the youngest person ever to receive this award, at 51. ... In voting systems, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, or Arrow’s paradox, demonstrates that no voting system can possibly meet a certain set of reasonable criteria when there are three or more options to choose from. ... Bruno W. Augenstein Bruno Wilhelm Augenstein (March 16, 1923 – July 6, 2005) was a German-born mathematician and physicist who made important contributions in space technology, ballistic missile research, satellites, antimatter, and many other areas. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Paul Baran (born 1926) was one of the developers of packet-switched networks along with Donald Davies and Leonard Kleinrock. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... Barry W. Boehm is known for many contributions to software engineering. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Harold L. Brode is a nuclear weapons effects physicist who pioneered computer simulations of nuclear explosions at the RAND Corporation in the 1950s. ... Bernard Brodie (1910-1978) was an American military strategist well-known for establishing the basics of nuclear strategy. ... Under Secretary of Defense Dr. David S. C. Chu David S. C. Chu (朱思九; pinyin: ZhÅ« SÄ«jiÇ”) is the United States Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness) responsible as the senior policy advisor on recruitment, career development, pay and benefits, and overseeing the state of military readiness. ... Sam Cohen, neutron bomb inventor and author of Shame For the composer, see Samuel Cohen (composer). ... A neutron bomb is a type of tactical nuclear weapon developed specifically to release a relatively large portion of its energy as energetic neutron radiation. ... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... George Bernard Dantzig (8 November 1914 – 13 May 2005) was an American mathematician who introduced the simplex algorithm and independently discovered linear programming some years after it was initially invented by Soviet economist and mathematician Leonid Kantorovich. ... In mathematical optimization theory, the simplex algorithm, created by the American mathematician George Dantzig in 1947, is a popular technique for numerical solution of the linear programming problem. ... In mathematics, linear programming (LP) problems involve the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. ... BOLT-117, the worlds first laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions, smart bombs, guided bomb units or GBUs) are guided weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. ... Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War... The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. ... James J. Gillogly is an American computer scientist and cryptographer. ... Pre-19th century Leone Battista Alberti, polymath/universal genius, inventor of polyalphabetic substitution (see frequency analysis for the significance of this -- missed by most for a long time and dumbed down in the Vigenère cipher), and what may have been the first mechanical encryption aid. ... Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ... This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Samuel Augustus Nunn, Jr. ... The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, is a public, coeducational research university, part of the University System of Georgia, and located in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, with satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Shanghai, China, and Singapore. ... Brian Michael Jenkins is one of the world’s foremost authorities on terrorism and is considered by many to be the father of terrorism research in the United States. ... Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves (ISBN 0833038931) is a book written by Brian Michael Jenkins, one of the world’s foremost authorities on terrorism. ... Herman Kahn, May 1965 Herman Kahn (February 15, 1922 – July 7, 1983) was a military strategist and systems theorist employed at RAND Corporation, USA. // Born in Bayonne, New Jersey, Kahn grew up in the Bronx, then in Los Angeles following his parents divorce. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Scenario planning or Scenario thinking is a strategic planning method that some organizations use to make flexible long-term plans. ... Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (Pashto/Persian: ) (born: 22 March 1951) is the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The official portrait of Ann Dore McLaughlin hangs in the Department of Labor Ann Dore McLaughlin was U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1987 to 1989. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Raymond Edwin Ray Mabus, Jr. ... Harry Max Markowitz (born August 24, 1927) is an influential economist at the Rady School of Management at the University of California, San Diego. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... Newton Norman Minow (born January 17, 1926) is an American attorney and former Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. ... Lloyd N. Morrisett (June 23, 1892—26 November 1981) was an American educator. ... John Forbes Nash, Jr. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... ... Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science. ... Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ... Edmund Strother Phelps (born July 26, 1933 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American professor of economics at Columbia University, who was awarded the 2006 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... Arthur Emmons Raymond (March 24, 1899_March 22, 1999) was an engineer for the Douglas Aircraft Company and worked on designs from the DC-2 to the DC-8 and was a consultant on the Gemini and Apollo programs for NASA. Raymond was the Chief Engineer on the DC-3, The... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Michael Rich is Executive Vice President of the RAND Corporation, the institutions second-ranking position. ... Leo Calvin Rosten (April 11, 1908–February 19, 1997) was born on 11 April 1908 in Lodz, Russian Empire (now Poland) and died on 19 February 1997 in New York. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Robert F. Salter was an engineer who worked for the RAND Corporation. ... A vactrain is an exotic, as-yet-unbuilt proposal for future high-speed railroad transportation. ... Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train stopping at terminus Longyang Road station Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev VIP section Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. ... Paul Anthony Samuelson (born May 15, 1915) is an American neoclassical economist known for his contributions to many fields of economics, beginning with his general statement of the comparative statics method in his 1947 book Foundations of Economic Analysis. ... Thomas Schelling Thomas Crombie Schelling (born 14 April 1921) is an American economist and professor of foreign affairs, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the University of Maryland, College Park School of Public Policy. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Lloyd Stowell Shapley (born June 2, 1923) is an American mathematician and economist. ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Frank Nicholas Stanton (March 20, 1908 – December 24, 2006) served as the president of CBS between 1946 and 1971 and then vice chairman until 1973. ... William Hedgcock Webster (born March 6, 1924) was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1978 to 1987 and director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1987 to 1991. ... Albert Wohlstetter (born 1913, died January 10, 1997) was a major intellectual force behind efforts to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons and the need to develop nonnuclear alternatives. ... Roberta Morgan, better known by her married name of Roberta Wohlstetter, (August 22, 1912 - January 6, 2007), was one of Americas most important historians of military intelligence. ...

Governance

The organization's governance structure includes a board of trustees. Current members of the board include: Francis Fukuyama, Timothy Geithner, John W. Handy, Rita Hauser, Karen House, Jen-Hsun Huang, Paul Kaminski, John M. Keane, Lydia H. Kennard, Ann Korologos, Philip Lader, Peter Lowy, Charles N. Martin, Jr., Bonnie McElveen-Hunter, Ronald Olson, Paul O'Neill, Michael Powell, Donald Rice, James Rohr, James Rothenberg, Donald Tang, James Thomson, and Robert C. Wright. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Board of directors. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... Timothy F. Geithner, President of the New York Fed Timothy F. Geithner is the 9th president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. ... John W. Handy General John W. Handy was Commander, U.S. Transportation Command, and Commander, Air Mobility Command, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois from October 2001 until September 2005. ... Jen-Hsun Huang Jen-Hsun Huang (黃仁勳; pinyin: Huáng Rénxūn) (born February 17, 1963) co-founded NVIDIA Corporation in 1993 and is currently the CEO and President. ... John (Jack) Keane (born 1945) is a retired four-star general and former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and a defense analyst. ... The official portrait of Ann Dore McLaughlin hangs in the Department of Labor Ann Dore McLaughlin was U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1987 to 1989. ... Philip Lader served as the US Ambassador to the Court of St. ... Ronald Olson was an American cultural anthropologist known for his work with the Haisla people of coastal British Columbia and the Tlingit people of southeastern Alaska. ... Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ... Michael Powell Michael Kevin Powell (born March 23, 1963) is an American Republican politician. ...


Former members of the board include: Walter Mondale, Condoleezza Rice, Newton Minow, Brent Scowcroft, Amy Pascal, John Reed, Charles Townes, Caryl Haskins, Walter Wriston, Frank Stanton, Carl Bildt, Donald Rumsfeld, Harold Brown, Robert Curvin, Pedro Greer, Arthur Levitt, Lloyd Morrisett, Frank Carlucci, Lovida Coleman, Ratan Tata, Marta Tienda and Jerry Speyer. Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Newton Norman Minow (born January 17, 1926) is best known for his Wasteland Speech, given to the National Association of Broadcasters convention on May 9, 1961. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... Amy Pascal (born 1958) is Chairman of Sony Pictures Entertainment Motion Picture Group and Co-Chairman of Sony Pictures Entertainment. ... Charles Hard Townes (born July 28, 1915) is an American Nobel Prize-winning physicist and educator. ... Caryl Parker Haskins (1908 - 2001)[1][2] was a scientist, author, inventor, philanthropist, governmental advisor and pioneering entomologist in the study of ant biology [2]. In the 1930s he was inspired by Alfred Lee Loomis to establish his own research facility[3]. Along with Franklin S. Cooper, he founded the... Walter Wriston (August 3, 1919 - January 19, 2005) was a financier and former chairman of Citicorp. ... Frank Nicholas Stanton (March 20, 1908 – December 24, 2006) served as the president of CBS between 1946 and 1971 and then vice chairman until 1973. ...   (born July 15, 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat, currently serving as Minister for Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Harold Brown (born September 19, 1927), American scientist, was U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter. ... Arthur Levitt Jr. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... Ratan Naval Tata (born December 28, 1937, in Mumbai) is the present Chairman of the Tata Group, Indias largest conglomerate established by earlier generations of his family. ... Jerry Speyer Jerry I. Speyer (born 23 June 1940 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is one of two founding partners of the real estate company Tishman Speyer. ...


Criticism

The RAND Corporation has been criticized as militarist. Due to the nature of its work, the RAND corporation also frequently plays a role in conspiracy theories.[citation needed] Militarism is the ideology that military strength is the source of all security. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ...


In 1958, Senator Stuart Symington accused the RAND Corporation of defeatism for studying how the United States might strategically surrender to an enemy power. This led to the passage of a prohibition on the spending of tax dollars on the study of defeat or surrender of any kind. However, the senator had apparently misunderstood, as the report was a survey of past cases in which the US had demanded unconditional surrender of its enemies, asking whether or not this had been a more favorable outcome to US interests than an earlier, negotiated surrender would have been.[6] William Stuart Symington William Stuart Symington (June 26, 1901–December 14, 1988) was a businessman and political figure from Missouri. ... Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat without struggle. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


In April 1970, a Newhouse News Service story reported that Richard Nixon had commissioned RAND to study the feasibility of canceling the 1972 election. This was denied by RAND, which subsequently undertook a fruitless review of its recent work to see if there was anything that could have been misunderstood to spark the rumor.[7] Nixon redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


See also

An important 20th century work in the field of statistics and random numbers was the RAND Corporations book of tables containing, and entitled, A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an influential and independent, nonpartisan foreign policy membership organization founded in 1921 and based at 58 East 68th Street (corner Park Avenue) in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Through its membership, meetings, and studies, it has been... The Hudson Institute is a right-leaning U.S. think tank, founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by the futurist Herman Kahn and other colleagues from the RAND Corporation. ... The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; who was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ... James Q. Wilson (born May 27, 1931) is the Ronald Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University in California, and a professor emeritus at UCLA. He has a Ph. ... Kepner-Tregoe Inc. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The Rand Corporation. History and Mission. RAND Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-04-15.
  2. ^ Nicole Lurie. "Public Health Preparedness in the 21st Century: Testimony presented before the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, Subcommittee on Bioterrorism and Public Health Preparedness on March 28, 2006 (CT-257)", 2006-03-28. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. 
  3. ^ Brigette Sarabi, "Oregon: The Rand Report on Measure 11 is Finally Available", Partnership for Safety and Justice (formerly Western Prison Project), January 1, 2005. Retrieved on April 15, 2008.
  4. ^ Harvard University Institute of Politics. Guide for Political Internships. Harvard University. Retrieved on 2008-04-18.
  5. ^ Habitable Planets for man (6.4 MB PDF). RAND Corporation (free PDFs).
  6. ^ Poundstone, W. (1992). Prisoner's Dilemma. Doubleday. 
  7. ^ Poundstone, W. (1992). Prisoner's Dilemma. Doubleday. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

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