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Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

R is the eighteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ar (IPA: /ɑr/; pronounced [ɑː] or [ɑɹ]).[1] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Latin_alphabet_Rr. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... For other uses of B, see B (disambiguation). ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see E (disambiguation). ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see J (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see K (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see L (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see M (disambiguation). ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see T (disambiguation). ... For other uses of U, see U (disambiguation). ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see X (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph tp Proto-Semitic R Phoenician R Etruscan R Greek Rho Later Etruscan R
Image:Proto-semiticR-01.png Image:PhoenicianR-01.png Image:EtruscanR-01.png Image:EtruscanR-02.png

The original Semitic letter was probably inspired by an Egyptian hieroglyph for "head", pronounced t-p in Egyptian, but it was used for /r/ by Semites because in their language, the word for "head" was Rêš (also the name of the letter). It developed into Greek Ρ ῥῶ (Rhô) and Latin R. It is likely that some Etruscan and Western Greek forms of the letter added the extra stroke to distinguish it from a later form of the letter P. The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Proto-semiticR-01. ... Image File history File links PhoenicianR-01. ... Image File history File links EtruscanR-01. ... Image File history File links Rho_uc_lc. ... Image File history File links EtruscanR-02. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Resh is the twentieth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Minuscule

The minuscule (lower-case) form of r developed through several variations on the capital form. In handwriting it was common not to close the bottom of the loop but continue into the leg, saving an extra pen stroke. The loop-leg stroke shortened into the simple arc used today.


Another minuscule, r rotunda, kept the loop-leg stroke but dropped the vertical stroke. It fell out of use around the 18th century. The r rotunda in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Various phonetic realizations of R

See rhotic consonant, r-colored vowel, and guttural R for discussion of the family of 'r' sounds. Rhotic consonants, or R-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants. ...   In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /r/ represents the alveolar trill sound. Other languages may use the letter r in their alphabets (or Latin transliterations schemes) to represent rhotic consonants different from the alveolar trill. In Haitian Creole, it is represents a sound so weak that it is often written interchangeably with w, eg. Kweyol for Kreyol. This sound can also change in a language perceptibly over time; the alveolar trill of British English is more characteristic of 19th / early 20th century speech and is associated with older speakers, while younger Britons have been known for a much weaker 'r' since at least the 1980s. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ...

Alveolar trill /r/ Listen Arabic, Armenian, some dialects of British English or in emphatic speech, Finnish, German in performance arts, Hungarian, Italian, Latin, Norwegian, Polish, Catalan, Romanian, Russian, Scots, Spanish 'rr', Welsh, Dutch in the Netherlands
Alveolar approximant /ɹ/ Listen English (most varieties), Faroese
Alveolar flap / Alveolar tap /ɾ/ Listen Greek, Hindi 'र', Portuguese, Catalan, Spanish 'r', Turkish, Italian
Alveolar lateral flap /ɺ/ Listen Japanese
Retroflex approximant /ɻ/ Listen some varieties of American English
Retroflex flap /ɽ/ Listen Hindi 'ड़', sometimes Scottish English
Uvular trill /ʀ/ Listen French; Dutch in Belgium, Swedish in Southern Sweden
Voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ Listen German, Danish, French in and around Paris, Modern Hebrew

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Arabic redirects here. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The alveolar tap/flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

Codes for computing

In Unicode the capital R is codepoint U+0052 and the lowercase r is U+0072. FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Image File history File links ICS_Romeo. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Romeo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Braille_R.svg en: Braille letter/symbol. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet in signals to or from ships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American Sign Language Alphabet is a manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language when spelling individual letters of a word is the preferred or only option, such as with proper names or the titles of works. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ...


The ASCII code for capital R is 82 and for lowercase r is 114; or in binary 01010010 and 01110010, correspondingly. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ...


The EBCDIC code for capital R is 217 and for lowercase r is 153. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...


The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "R" and "r" for upper and lower case respectively. A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

For other meanings and uses of the letter "R", see R (disambiguation). See also: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... R is the eighteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ...

The Letter "R" Raidô ride, journey is the suggested Proto-Germanic name of the r-rune of the Elder Futhark ᚱ. The name is attested for the same rune in all three rune poems, Norwegian Ræið Icelandic Reið, Anglo-Saxon Rad, as well as for the corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet 𐍂 r... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Ρ, ρ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into R-colored vowel. ...

General: The letter R · Rhotic consonants (R-like sounds) · Rhotic and non-rhotic accents · R-colored vowels · Guttural R · Linking R and Intrusive R
Pronunciations: Alveolar trill [r] · Alveolar approximant [ɹ] · Alveolar tap [ɾ] · Alveolar lateral flap [ɺ] ·Retroflex approximant [ɻ] · Retroflex flap [ɽ] ·Uvular trill [ʀ] ·Voiced uvular fricative [ʁ]
Variations: R rotunda · Ɍɍ (R with stroke) · Ʀʀ · Ȑȑ · Ŕŕ · Ŗŗ · Řř · Ȓȓ · Ṙṙ · Ṛṛ · Ṝṝ · Ṟṟ · Rd · Rh · Rl · Rn · Rr · Rt · Rnd · (Raidô) · (Riemann integral) · (Real part) · (Real number) · ® (Registered trademark) · (Enclosed R)
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter R with diacritics
ŔŕŘřṘṙŖŗȐȑȒȓṚṛṜṝṞṟɌɍɼⱤɽɾ
Two-letter combinations
Ra Rb Rc Rd Re Rf Rg Rh Ri Rj Rk Rl Rm Rn Ro Rp Rq Rr Rs Rt Ru Rv Rw Rx Ry Rz
RA RB RC RD RE RF RG RH RI RJ RK RL RM RN RO RP RQ RR RS RT RU RV RW RX RY RZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
                R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9
                0R 1R 2R 3R 4R 5R 6R 7R 8R 9R
historypalaeographyderivationsdiacriticspunctuationnumeralsUnicodelist of letters

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