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Encyclopedia > Qur'an

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Qur'an

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The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: القرآن al-qur'ān, literally "the recitation"; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Qur'an) is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind and consider the text in its original Arabic to be the literal word of Allah,[2][3] revealed to Muhammad by Gabriel over a period of 23 years[2][4][5] and view the Qur'an as God's final revelation to humanity.[6][7] A Mushaf is a Arabic word that literarly means cover, as in a book cover. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Quran reading is the reading (tartil, tajwid, or taghbir) aloud, reciting, chanting, or singing of portions of the Quran. ... TajwÄ«d (تجويد) is an Arabic word meaning proper pronunciation during recitation, as well as recitation at a moderate speed. ... Tarteel (Arabic: ترتيل ) is an Arabic term that is wide in meaning but is commonly translated in reference to the Quran as recitation. ... A manzil (منزل, plural manazil, منازل) is one of seven parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one week. ... A juz (جزء, plural ajza, اجزاء) is one of thirty parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one month. ... A hizb (حزب , plural ahzab,احزاب) is one half of a juz and thus comprises roughly one 60th of the text of the Quran. ... Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic: حافظ قرآن حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ... It has been suggested that Qari be merged into this article or section. ... Rasm is an Arabic term that signifies: drawing, sketch, trace, graph, pictures, outline, pattern, mark, notes, design, regulation, form, rate. ... Translations of the Qurán are interpretations of the holy book of Islam in languages other than Arabic. ... This is a sub-article to Translation of the Quran. ... The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim pious view which argues that the Quran is a religious text revealed by Allah to Muhammad, this assertion to be taken... The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. ... The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Some of the Quranic verses are said to be revealed pertaining to some specific person. ... Justice, truth-telling, various virtues and sins the prohibition of purjury in the Quran are repeated many times: // And eat up not one another’s property unjustly (in any illegal way e. ... Asbāb al-nuzÅ«l, an Arabic term meaning occasions of revelation, is a a secondary genre of Qurānic exegesis (tafsir) directed at establishing the context in which specific verses of the Qurān were revealed. ... Naskh, an Arabic language word usually translated as abrogation and alternately appearing as the phrase al-nāsikh wal-mansÅ«kh (the abrogating and abrogated [verses]), is a technical term for a major genre of Islamic legal exegesis directed at the problem of seemingly contradictory material within or between the... The Quran, the central religious text of Islam, contains references to over fifty people also found in the Bible, typically in the same or similar narratives. ... Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... Bakkah (Arabic: ‎) is a place mentioned in surah 3:96 of the Quran. ... A tree diagram of the Quranic initial letters, labelled with the respective numbers of occurrences. ... An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ibn Baz was a follower of the Muslim scholars Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab and Ibn Taymiyya; he belonged to that current of Muslim thought sometimes called Salafism and sometimes called Wahabbism. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... Quran desecration means insulting the Quran, the holy book of Islam, by defiling or disfacing it. ... There are two verses named Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn that are claimed to be included in the Quran. ... For the novel by Salman Rushdie, see The Satanic Verses. ... Tanazzulat, or descents (Arabic تنزلات, plural of Tanazzul, تنزل), refers to the act of descent of the pre-existing Quran through different Realms. ... The Qisas al-anbiya (قصص الأنبياء) or Stories of the Prophets refers to various collections of tales adapted from the Quran. ... Beit Al Quran, Hoora Beit Al Quran (Arabic: بيت القرآن) means House of Quran in Arabic. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... “Scripture” redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ...


Muslims regard the Qur'ān as the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with those revealed to Adam — regarded, in Islam, as the first prophet — and including the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham),[8] the Tawrat (Torah),[9][10] the Zabur (Psalms),[11][12] and the Injil (Gospel).[13][14][15] The aforementioned books are recognized in the Qur'ān,[16][17] and the Qur'anic text assumes familiarity[18] with many events from Jewish and Christian scriptures, retelling some of these events in distinctive ways, and referring obliquely to others. It rarely offers detailed accounts of historical events; the Qur'an's emphasis is typically on the moral significance of an event, rather than its narrative sequence. Details to historical events are contained within the Hadith of Muhammad and the narrations of Muhammad's Companions (Sahabah). For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... The Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham/Ibrahim) (Arabic: صحف ابراهيم) are part of the religious scriptures of Islam,and are believed to be lost by some. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Zabur (Arabic: زبور) is the holy book of the Seboun (Ar:صابؤون, Grk:Σεβομενοι) which is equated by some scholars with Psalms, is, according to Islam, one of the holy books revealed by God before the Quran (the others mentioned in the Quran being the Tawrat and Injil). ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (Asahaaba,الصحابه) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ...


The Qur'anic text itself proclaims a divine protection of its message: Surely We have revealed the Reminder and We will most surely be its guardian.[19][20]


The Qur'anic verses were originally memorized by Muhammad's companions as Muhammad recited them, with some being written down by one or more companions on whatever was at hand, from stones to pieces of bark. In the Sunni tradition, the collection of the Qur'ān compilation took place under the Caliph Abu Bakr, this task being led by Zayd ibn Thabit Al-Ansari. "The manuscript on which the Quran was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with 'Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa bint Umar (Umar's daughter)."[21]An original copy of the Uthman's standard version of Quran from his time is on display at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ...

Contents

Etymology and meaning

The original usage of the word qur`ān is in the Qur'an itself, where it occurs about 70 times assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun (maṣdar) of the Arabic verb qara`a (Arabic: قرأ), meaning "he read" or "he recited", and represents the Syriac equivalent qeryānā—which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson". While most Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qara`a itself.[22] In any case, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime.[2] A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Among the earliest meanings of the word Qur'an is the "act of reciting", for example in a Qur'anic passage: "Ours is it to put it together and [Ours is] its qur`ān".[23] In other verses it refers to "an individual passage recited [by Muhammad]". In the large majority of contexts, usually with a definite article (al-), the word is referred to as the "revelation" (tanzīl), that which has been "sent down" at intervals.[24] Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qur`ān is recited [by Muhammad], listen to it and keep silent".[25] The word may also assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel.[26] Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The term also has closely related synonyms which are employed throughout the Qur'an. Each of the synonyms possess their own distinct meaning, but their use may converge with that of qur`ān in certain contexts. Such terms include kitāb ("book"); āyah ("sign"); and sūrah ("scripture"). The latter two terms also denote units of revelation. Other related words are: dhikr, meaning "remembrance," used to refer to the Qur'an in the sense of a reminder and warning; and hikma, meaning "wisdom," sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it.[22][27] Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ...


Quran has many other names. Among those found in the text itself are al-Furqan ("discernment"),Umm al-Kitab (the "mother book", or "archetypal book"), al-huda ("the guide"), Dhikrallah ("the remembrance of God"), al-Hikmah ("wisdom'), and Kalamallah ("the word of God"). Another term found in the Qur'an is al-Kitab ("the book"), though it is also used in both the Qur'an and the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels. The term mushaf ("written work") is usually used to refer to particular manuscripts of the Qur'an but is also used in the Qur'an to identify earlier revealed books. [2] Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... ...


Structure

Main articles: Sura and Ayah
The first chapter of the Qur'an consisting of seven Ayat.
The first chapter of the Qur'an consisting of seven Ayat.

The Qur'an consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, each known as a sura. The title of each sura is derived from a name or quality discussed in the text or from the first letters or words of the sura. Muslims believe that the Prophet himself, on God's command, gave the suras their names.[2] In general, the longer chapters appear earlier in the Quran, while the shorter ones appear later. As such, the arrangement is not connected to the sequence of revelation. Each chapter, with the exception of one, commences with the bismillah Al rahman Al rahimm,[28][29] Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fatiha. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fatiha. ...


Each Sura is formed from several Ayahs or verses which originally means a sign or portent sent by God. The number of the ayahs aren't the same in various Suras. An individual ayah may be just few letters or several lines. The ayahs are unlike the highly refined poetry of the pre-Islamic Arabs in their content and distinctive rhymes and rhythms, being more akin to the prophetic utterances marked by inspired discontinuities found in the sacred scriptures of Judaism and Christianity. Since the beginning of Islam, the proper number of ayahs has been a controversial issue among Muslim scholars, some recognizing 6,000, some 6,204, some 6,219, and some 6,236, although the words in all cases are the same. The most popular edition of the Qur'an, which is based on the tradition of the school of Kufa, contains 6,236 ayahs.[2] Ayah plural Ayat (آية respectively آيات) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


There is a crosscutting division into 30 parts, juz's, each containing two units called hizbs, each of which in turn is divided into four parts (rub 'al-ahzabs). These divisions facilitate the reading of the Qur'an over periods of different lengths. The Qur'an is also divided into seven stations, or manazils, for reciting the whole text during one week.[2] A juz (جزء, plural ajza, اجزاء) is one of thirty parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one month. ... A hizb (حزب , plural ahzab,احزاب) is one half of a juz and thus comprises roughly one 60th of the text of the Quran. ... A manzil (منزل, plural manazil, منازل) is one of seven parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one week. ...


The text of the Qur'an seems outwardly to have no beginning, middle, or end; its nonlinear structure is like that of a web or a net.[2] Some critics have also commented on the arrangement of the Qur'anic text with accusations of lack of continuity, absence of any chronological or thematic order, and presence of repetition.[30][31]


Literary structure

The Quran's message is conveyed through the use of a variety of literary structures and devices. In its original Arabic idiom, the individual components of the text — surahs and ayat — employ phonetic and thematic structures that assist the audience's efforts to recall the message of the text. There is consensus amongst Arab scholars to use the Quran as a standard by which other Arabic literature should be measured. Muslims point out (in accordance with the Quran itself) that the Quranic content and style is inimitable.[32]


Richard Gottheil and Siegmund Fränkel in the Jewish Encyclopedia write that the oldest portions of the Qur'an reflect significant excitement in their language, through short and abrupt sentences and sudden transitions. The Qur'an nonetheless carefully maintains the rhymed form, like the oracles. Some later portions also preserve this form but also in a style where the movement is calm and the style expository.[33] The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Consulting the Oracle by John William Waterhouse, showing eight priestesses in a temple of prophecy An oracle is a person or persons considered to be the source of wise counsel or prophetic opinion; an infallible authority, usually spiritual in nature. ...


Michael Sells, citing the work of the critic Norman O. Brown, acknowledges Brown's observation that the seeming "disorganization" of Qur'anic literary expression — its "scattered or fragmented mode of composition," in Sells's phrase — is in fact a literary device capable of delivering "profound effects — as if the intensity of the prophetic message were shattering the vehicle of human language in which it was being communicated."[34] Sells also addresses the much-discussed "repetitiveness" of the Qur'an, seeing this, too, as a literary device. Michael A. Sells is currently the John Henry Barrows Professor of Islamic History and Literature at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. ... Norman Oliver Brown (1913, El Oro, Mexico – 2002, Santa Cruz, California) was an American intellectual of wide ranging interests. ...

"The values presented in the very early Meccan revelations are repeated throughout the hymnic Suras. There is a sense of directness, of intimacy, as if the hearer were being asked repeatedly a simple question: what will be of value at the end of a human life?" [35]

Origin and development

Part of a series on
Islam
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim pious view which argues that the Quran is a religious text revealed by Allah to Muhammad, this assertion to be taken... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the One and Only God, known as Allah (الله) in Arabic. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Christianity · Jainism
Judaism · Sikhism

See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This box:      Islamophobia is a criticized[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

9th century quran
9th century quran

According to Islam, Muhammad received the Qur'an as a series of revelations from God through the angel Gabriel (see [Qur'an 10:37]), and is reported to have had mysterious seizures at the moments of inspiration. Welch, a scholar of Islamic studies, states in the Encyclopedia of Islam that he believes the graphic descriptions of Muhammad's condition at these moments may be regarded as genuine, seeing as he was severely disformed after these revelations. According to Welch, these seizures would have been seen as convincing evidence for the superhuman origin of Muhammad's inspirations by the people around him. Muhammad's enemies, however, accused him of being a man who was possessed, or of being a soothsayer or magician since his claimed experiences were similar to those made by those soothsayer figures well known in ancient Arabia. Additionally, Welch states that it remains uncertain whether these experiences occurred before or after Muhammad began to see himself as a prophet[36] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x561, 575 KB) Photograph of PD-by-age material Other versions original File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quran Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x561, 575 KB) Photograph of PD-by-age material Other versions original File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quran Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ...


The Qur'ān speaks well of the relationship it has with former books (the Torah and the Gospel) and attributes their similarities to their unique origin and saying all of them have been revealed by the one God.[37] Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...


Based on Islam and nature of pre-islamic Arabia it is generally accepted[citation needed] Muhammad could neither read nor write. He was seen as an intelligent and wise man who would simply recite what was revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. However some scholars (mostly Western)- (Maxime Rodinson, William Montgomery Watt, Christoph Luxenberg, etc.) - have argued that the claim that Muhammad was not able to read and write at all is based on weak traditions and that, because of many details concerning Muhammad's biography and teachings, it is not convincing. Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915–23 May 2004) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Christoph Luxenberg is the pseudonym of the author of the 2000 book Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (in English: The Syro-Aramaic reading of the Quran: a contribution to the decipherment of the Quranic language). ...


The Qur'an did not exist as a single volume between two covers at the time of Muhammad's death in 632. According to Sahih al-Bukhari, at the direction of the first Muslim caliph Abu Bakr this task fell to the scribe Zayd ibn Thabit, who gathered the Quranic material "collecting it from parchments, scapula, leaf-stalks of date palms and from the memories of men who knew it by heart". (Bukhari 6:60:201).[38]. Copies were made, and as Islam expanded beyond the Arabian peninsula into Persia, India, Russia, China, Turkey, and across North Africa, the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, in about 650 ordered a standardized version to be prepared to preserve the sanctity of the text and to establish a definitive spelling for all time. This remains the authoritative text of the Qur'an to this day.[39][40] Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collections. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... ‘Usman ibn ‘Affān () (c. ... Events Arab conquest of Persia, establishment of Islam as state religion Hindu empire in Sumatra Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia Khazars conquer Great Bulgarian Empire in southern Russia building of St. ...


Adherents to Islam hold that the wording of the Qur'anic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad himself: as the words of God, said to be delivered to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. The Qur'ān is not only considered by Muslims to be a guide but also as a sign of the prophethood of Muhammad and the truth of the religion. Muslims argue that it is not possible for a human to produce a book like the Qur'an, as the Qur'ān states: Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ...

"And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides God, if your (doubts) are true. But if ye cannot- and of a surety ye cannot- then fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones,- which is prepared for those who reject Faith. [41]

Literary usage

11th Century North African Qur'an in the British Museum
11th Century North African Qur'an in the British Museum

In addition to and largely independent of the division into surahs, there are various ways of dividing the Qur'ān into parts of approximately equal length for convenience in reading, recitation and memorization. The Qur'ān is divided into thirty ajza' (parts). The thirty parts can be used to work through the entire Qur'an in a week or a month. Some of these parts are known by names and these names are the first few words by which the Juz starts. A juz' is sometimes further divided into two ahzab (groups), and each hizb is in turn subdivided into four quarters. A different structure is provided by the ruku'at (sing. Raka'ah), semantical units resembling paragraphs and comprising roughly ten ayat each. Some also divide the Qur'ān into seven manazil (stations). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... A juz (جزء, plural ajza, اجزاء) is one of thirty parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one month. ... A hizb (حزب , plural ahzab,احزاب) is one half of a juz and thus comprises roughly one 60th of the text of the Quran. ... The Arabic word rakaah (pl. ... A manzil (منزل, plural manazil, منازل) is one of seven parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one week. ...


Recitation

The very word Qur'ān means "recitation", though there is little instruction in the Qur'an itself as to how it is to be recited. The main principle it does outline is: rattil il-Qur'ana tartilan ("repeat the recitation in a collected distinct way"). Tajwid is the term for techniques of recitation, and assessed in terms of how accessible the recitation is to those intent on concentrating on the words.[42]


To perform salat (prayer), a mandatory obligation in Islam, a Muslim is required to learn at least some suras of the Qur'ān (typically starting with the first sura, al-Fatiha, known as the "seven oft-repeated verses," and then moving on to the shorter ones at the end). Until one has learned al-Fatiha, a Muslim can only say phrases like "praise be to God" during the salat. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ...


A person whose recital repertoire encompasses the whole Qur'ān is called a qari' (قَارٍئ) or hafiz (or in the case of a female Hafaz) (which translate as "reciter" or "protector," respectively). Muhammad is regarded as the first qari' since he was the first to recite it. Recitation (tilawa تلاوة) of the Qur'ān is a fine art in the Muslim world. It has been suggested that Qari be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... Recitation means a repetition of what has been said before. ... Quran reading is the reading (tarteel, tajwid, or taghbir) aloud, reciting, chanting portions of the Quran. ...


Schools of recitation

Main article: Qira'at
Page of a 13th century Qur'an, showing Sura 33: 73
Page of a 13th century Qur'an, showing Sura 33: 73

There are several schools of Qur'anic recitation, all of which are possible pronunciations of the Uthmanic rasm: Seven reliable, three permissible and (at least) four uncanonical - in 8 sub-traditions each - making for 80 recitation variants altogether[43]. For a recitation to be canonical it must conform to three conditions: Qiraat, in the context of Islam, means literally the readings, that is the method of recitation. ... Image File history File links Quran_fragment_33,73-74. ... Image File history File links Quran_fragment_33,73-74. ... Section from verses 73 and 74 of Sura al-Ahzab Surat Al-Ahzab (Arabic: سورة الأحزاب ) (The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces) is the 33rd sura of the Quran with 73 ayat. ... Rasm is an Arabic term that signifies: drawing, sketch, trace, graph, pictures, outline, pattern, mark, notes, design, regulation, form, rate. ...

  1. It must match the rasm, letter for letter.
  2. It must conform with the syntactic rules of the Arabic language.
  3. It must have a continuous isnad to Muhammad through tawatur, meaning that it has to be related by a large group of people to another down the isnad chain.

These recitations differ in the vocalization (tashkil تشكيل) of a few words, which in turn gives a complementary meaning to the word in question according to the rules of Arabic grammar. For example, the vocalization of a verb can change its active and passive voice. It can also change its stem formation, implying intensity for example. Vowels may be elongated or shortened, and glottal stops (hamzas) may be added or dropped, according to the respective rules of the particular recitation. For example, the name of archangel Gabriel is pronounced differently in different recitations: Jibrīl, Jabrīl, Jibra'īl, and Jibra'il. The name "Qur'ān" is pronounced without the glottal stop (as "Qurān") in one recitation, and prophet Abraham's name is pronounced Ibrāhām in another.[citation needed] The more widely used narrations are those of Hafs (حفص عن عاصم), Warsh (ورش عن نافع), Qaloon (قالون عن نافع) and Al-Duri according to Abu `Amr (الدوري عن أبي عمرو). Muslims firmly believe that all canonical recitations were recited by the Muhammad himself, citing the respective isnad chain of narration, and accept them as valid for worshipping and as a reference for rules of Sharia. The uncanonical recitations are called "explanatory" for their role in giving a different perspective for a given verse or ayah. Today several dozen persons hold the title "Memorizer of the Ten Recitations." This is considered to be a great accomplishment among the followers of Islam.[citation needed] Arabic redirects here. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Mutawatir is an Arabic term meaning agreed upon. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ...


The presence of these different recitations is attributed to many hadith. Malik Ibn Anas has reported:[44] Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ...

Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abd al-Qari narrated: "Umar Ibn Khattab said before me: I heard Hisham Ibn Hakim Ibn Hizam reading Surah Furqan in a different way from the one I used to read it, and the Prophet (sws) himself had read out this surah to me. Consequently, as soon as I heard him, I wanted to get hold of him. However, I gave him respite until he had finished the prayer. Then I got hold of his cloak and dragged him to the Prophet (sws). I said to him: "I have heard this person [Hisham Ibn Hakim Ibn Hizam] reading Surah Furqan in a different way from the one you had read it out to me." The Prophet (sws) said: "Leave him alone [O 'Umar]." Then he said to Hisham: "Read [it]." [Umar said:] "He read it out in the same way as he had done before me." [At this,] the Prophet (sws) said: "It was revealed thus." Then the Prophet (sws) asked me to read it out. So I read it out. [At this], he said: "It was revealed thus; this Qur'ān has been revealed in Seven Ahruf. You can read it in any of them you find easy from among them.

Suyuti, a famous 15th century Islamic theologian, writes after interpreting above hadith in 40 different ways:[45] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Surat Al-Furqan (Arabic: سورة الفرقان ) (The Criterion, The Standard) is the 25th sura of the Quran with 77 ayat. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ...

And to me the best opinion in this regard is that of the people who say that this Hadith is from among matters of mutashabihat, the meaning of which cannot be understood.

Many reports contradict presence of variant readings:[46]

  • Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami reports, "the reading of Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Zayd ibn Thabit and that of all the Muhajirun and the Ansar was the same. They would read the Qur'an according to the Qira'at al-'ammah. This is the same reading which was read out twice by the Prophet (sws) to Gabriel in the year of his death. Zayd ibn Thabit was also present in this reading [called] the 'Ardah-i akhirah. It was this very reading that he taught the Qur'an to people till his death".[47]
  • Ibn Sirin writes, "the reading on which the Qur'an was read out to the prophet in the year of his death is the same according to which people are reading the Qur'an today".[48]

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi also purports that there is only one recitation of Qur'ān, which is called Qira'at of Hafs or in classical scholarship, it is called Qira'at al-'ammah. The Qur'ān has also specified that it was revealed in the language of the prophet's tribe: the Quraysh ([Qur'an 19:97], [Qur'an 44:58]).[46] Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ...


However, the identification of the recitation of Hafs as the Qira'at al-'ammah is somewhat problematic when that was the recitation of the people of Kufa in Iraq, and there is better reason to identify the recitation of the reciters of Madinah as the dominant recitation. The reciter of Madinah was Nafi' and Imam Malik remarked "The recitation of Nafi' is Sunnah." Moreover, the dialect of Arabic spoken by Quraysh and the Arabs of the Hijaz was known to have less use of the letter hamzah, as is the case in the recitation of Nafi', whereas in the Hafs recitation the hamzah is one of the very dominant features.[citation needed]

AZ [however] says that the people of El-Hijaz and Hudhayl, and the people of Makkah and Al-Madinah, to not pronounce hamzah [at all]: and 'Isa Ibn-'Omar says, Tamim pronounce hamzah, and the people of Al-Hijaz, in cases of necessity, [in poetry,] do so.[49] Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... Hamzah sometimes written Amza is an Aarab name that is used around the Muslim world. ...

So the hamzah is of the dialect of the Najd whose people came to comprise the dominant Arabic element in Kufa giving some features of their dialect to their recitation, whereas the recitation of Nafi' and the people of Madinah maintained some features of the dialect of Hijaz and the Quraysh.[citation needed]


However, the discussion of the priority of one or the other recitation is unnecessary since it is a consensus of knowledgable people that all of the seven recitations of the Qur'an are acceptable and valid for recitation in the prayer. [citation needed]


Moreover, the so-called "un-canonical" recitations such as are narrated from some of the Companions and which do not conform to the Uthmani copy of the Qur'an are not legitimate for recitation in the prayer, but knowledge of them can legitimately be used in the tafsir of the Qur'an, not as a proof but as a valid argument for an explanation of an ayah.[citation needed]


Writing and printing

Page from a Qur'ān ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, present-day Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, circa 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper Muqaqqaq script. 170 x 109cm (66 15/16 x 42 15/16in.)Historical Region: Uzbekistan.
Page from a Qur'ān ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, present-day Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, circa 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper Muqaqqaq script. 170 x 109cm (66 15/16 x 42 15/16in.)Historical Region: Uzbekistan.

Most Muslims today use printed editions of the Qur'ān. There are many editions, large and small, elaborate or plain, expensive or inexpensive. Bilingual forms with the Arabic on one side and a gloss into a more familiar language on the other are very popular. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (966x1500, 1179 KB) Summary Art and History Trust Collection, Photo courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Licensing This image is from the website of the Smithsonian Institution [1] and may be copyrighted. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (966x1500, 1179 KB) Summary Art and History Trust Collection, Photo courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Licensing This image is from the website of the Smithsonian Institution [1] and may be copyrighted. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ...


Qur'āns are produced in many different sizes, from extremely large Qur'āns for display purposes, to extremely small Qur'āns.


Qur'āns were first printed from carved wooden blocks, one block per page. There are existing specimen of pages and blocks dating from the 10th century AD. Mass-produced less expensive versions of the Qur'an were later produced by lithography, a technique for printing illustrations. Qur'ans so printed could reproduce the fine calligraphy of hand-made versions. Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ...


The oldest surviving Qur'ān for which movable type was used was printed in Venice in 1537/1538. It seems to have been prepared for sale in the Ottoman empire. Catherine the Great of Russia sponsored a printing of the Qur'ān in 1787. This was followed by editions from Kazan (1828), Persia (1833) and Istanbul (1877). [50] For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


It is extremely difficult to render the full Qur'ān, with all the points, in computer code, such as Unicode. The Internet Sacred Text Archive makes computer files of the Qur'ān freely available both as images[51] and in a temporary Unicode version.[52] Various designers and software firms have attempted to develop computer fonts that can adequately render the Qur'ān.[53] The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value. ...


Before printing was widely adopted, the Qur'ān was transmitted by copyists and calligraphers. Since Muslim tradition felt that directly portraying sacred figures and events might lead to idolatry, it was considered wrong to decorate the Qur'ān with pictures (as was often done for Christian texts, for example). Muslims instead lavished love and care upon the sacred text itself. Arabic is written in many scripts, some of which are both complex and beautiful. Arabic calligraphy is a highly honored art, much like Chinese calligraphy. Muslims also decorated their Qur'āns with abstract figures (arabesques), colored inks, and gold leaf. Pages from some of these antique Qur'āns are displayed throughout this article. The stylized signature of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ...


Some Muslims believe that it is not only acceptable, but commendable to decorate everyday objects with Qur'anic verses, as daily reminders. Other Muslims feel that this is a misuse of Qur'anic verses, because those who handle these objects will not have cleansed themselves properly and may use them without respect.


Translations

Translation of the Quran has always been a problematic and difficult issue. Since Muslims revere the Qur'an as miraculous and inimitable (i'jaz al-Qur'an), they argue that the Qur'anic text can not be reproduced in another language or form. Furthermore, an Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on the context, making an accurate translation even more difficult.[54] Translations of the Qurán are versions of the book of Islam in languages other than Arabic. ... Polysemy (from the Greek πολυσημεία = multiple meaning) is the capacity for a sign to have multiple meanings. ...


Nevertheless, the Qur'ān has been translated into most African, Asian and European languages.[54] The first translator of the Qur'ān was Salman the Persian, who translated Fatihah in Persian during the 7th century.[55] Islamic tradition holds that translations were made for Emperor Negus of Abyssinia and Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, as both received letters by Muhammad containing verses from the Qur'an.[54] Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Prophet Muhammads companions. ... ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ...


In 1936, translations in 102 languages were known.[54]


Robert of Ketton was the first person to translate the Qur'ān into a Western language, Latin, in 1143.[56] Alexander Ross offered the first English version in 1649. In 1734, George Sale produced the first scholarly translation of the Qur'ān into English; another was produced by Richard Bell in 1937, and yet another by Arthur John Arberry in 1955. All these translators were non-Muslims. There have been numerous translations by Muslims; the most popular of these are the translations by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan and Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al Hilali, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, M. H. Shakir, Muhammad Asad, and Marmaduke PickthallAhmed Raza Khan.[citation needed] Robert of Ketton (c. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Alexander Ross (c. ... George Sale (1697? - 1736), orientalist, a Kentish man, and practising solicitor. ... Richard Bell (1859, Merthyr Tydfil—1 May 1930) was one of the first two British Labour Members of Parliament elected after the formation of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900. ... Arthur John Arberry (1905 - 1969) was a respected scholar of Arabic and Islamic studies. ... Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Arabic and UrdÅ«: محمد محسن خان; born 1927) is a contemporary Saudi Salafi Islamic scholar, most notable for his English translation of Sahih Bukhari and the Quran. ... Maulana Muhammad Ali 1874-1951 Amir (1914-1951) Muhammad Ali was born in 1874 in Punjab (India). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mohammed Habib Shakir, (1866, Cairo–1939, Cairo) was an Egyptian judge, born in Cairo and a graduate from Al Azhar University. ... Muhammad Asad (born Leopold Weiss in July 1900 in what was then Polish Lemberg in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now Lviv in Ukraine; died 1992) was a Jew who converted to Islam. ... (Mohammed) Marmaduke William Pickthall, (1875–May 19, 1936), a Western Islamic scholar, noted as a poetic and accurate translator of the Quran into English. ... Sayyidunna Mawlana Sanaadi Ala Hadrat Alshaykh Allamah Muhammad Mukhtar Ziauddin AÄ¥med Riđā Abdul Mustapha Khān al-BarelwÄ« al-Barkati al-Nuri al-Razwi al-Qadiri (1856–1921, sometimes transcribed as Ahmad Raza Khan) , was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late...


The English translators have sometimes favored archaic English words and constructions over their more modern or conventional equivalents; thus, for example, two widely-read translators, A. Yusuf Ali and M. Marmaduke Pickthall, use the plural and singular "ye" and "thou" instead of the more common "you." Another common stylistic decision has been to refrain from translating "Allah" — in Arabic, literally, "The God" — into the common English word "God." These choices may differ in more recent translations.[citation needed] This article is about the Modern English personal pronoun. ...


Interpretation

Main article: Tafsir

The Qur'ān has sparked a huge body of commentary and explication, known as Tafsir. This commentary is aimed at explaining the "meanings of the Qur'anic verses, clarifying their import and finding out their significance."[57] A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ...


Tafsir is one of the earliest academic activities of Muslims. According to the Qur'an, Muhammad was the first person who described the meanings of verses for early Muslims.[58] Other early exegetes included a few Companions of Muhammad, like Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abdullah ibn Abbas, Abdullah ibn Umar and Ubayy ibn Kab. Exegesis in those days was confined to the explanation of literary aspects of the verse, the background of its revelation and, occasionally, interpretation of one verse with the help of the other. If the verse was about a historical event, then sometimes a few traditions (hadith) of Muhammad were narrated to make its meaning clear. [59] In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah () were the companions of Muhammad. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Abdullah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ubayy ibn Kab (d. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


Because Qur'ān is spoken in the classical form of Arabic, many of the later converts to Islam, who happened to be mostly non-Arabs, did not always understand the Qur'ānic Arabic, they did not catch allusions that were clear to early Muslims fluent in Arabic and they were concerned with reconciling apparent conflict of themes in the Qur'an. Commentators erudite in Arabic explained the allusions, and perhaps most importantly, explained which Qur'anic verses had been revealed early in Muhammad's prophetic career, as being appropriate to the very earliest Muslim community, and which had been revealed later, canceling out or "abrogating" (nāsikh) the earlier text. Memories of the occasions of revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), the circumstances under which Muhammad had spoken as he did, were also collected, as they were believed to explain some apparent obscurities. Although the concept of abrogation does exist in the Qur'ān, Muslims differ in their interpretations of the word "Abrogation". Some believe that there are abrogations in the text of the Qur'ān and some insist that there are no contradictions or unclear passages to explain.[citation needed] Naskh, an Arabic word meaning abrogation, is a technical term for a major genre of Islamic exegesis dealing with the problem of seemingly contradictory verses in the Quran. ... Asbāb al-nuzÅ«l, an Arabic term meaning occasions of revelation, is a a secondary genre of Qurānic exegesis (tafsir) directed at establishing the context in which specific verses of the Qurān were revealed. ...


Relationship with other literature

The Torah and the Bible

The Qur'ān retells stories of many of the people and events recounted in Jewish and Christian sacred books (Tanakh, Bible) and devotional literature (Apocrypha, Midrash), although it differs in many details. Adam, Enoch, Noah, Heber, Shelah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jethro, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Aaron, Moses, Ezra, Zechariah, Jesus, and John the Baptist are mentioned in the Qur'an as prophets of God (see Prophets of Islam). Muslims believe the common elements or resemblances between the Bible and other Jewish and Christian writings and Islamic dispensations is due to the common divine source, and that the Christian or Jewish texts were authentic divine revelations given to prophets. According to the Qur'ān This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Heber is one of the Minor characters in the Book of Genesis Heber the kenite is mentioned in the Book of Judges 4:17 of the Hebrew Bible as Jaels husband. ... Shelah or Shela (שֵׁלָה Petition, Standard Hebrew Å ela, Tiberian Hebrew Å Ä“lāh) is the name of two persons in the Bible: The son of Arpachshad, and thus the grandson of Shem. ... Lot is: Place Specific - A French département, see Lot (département) A French river, a tributary of the Garonne, see Lot River A Belgian town, see Lot, Belgium A Polish Airline, see LOT Polish Airlines Character Specific - A Biblical figure, the nephew of Abraham, see Lot (Biblical) Lot, a... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... Jethro (יִתְרוֹ Standard Hebrew Yitro, Tiberian Hebrew Yiṯrô, Shoaib Arabic Quran His excellence/posterity) is a figure from the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... St. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this, as a guide to mankind, and He sent down the criterion (of judgment between right and wrong). 3:3

Muslims believe that those texts were neglected, corrupted (tahrif) or altered in time by the Jews and Christians and have been replaced by God's final and perfect revelation, which is the Qur'ān.[60] However, many Jews and Christians believe that the historical biblical archaeological record refutes this assertion, because the Dead Sea Scrolls (the Tanakh and other Jewish writings which predate the origin of the Qur'an) have been fully translated,[61] validating the authenticity of the Greek Septuagint.[62] Tahrif (Arabic: ‎ corruption, forgery; the stem-II verbal noun of the consonantal root , to make oblique) is an Arabic term used by Muslims with regard to words, and more specifically with regard to what Jews and Christians are supposed to have done to their respective Scriptures. ... The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...


Influence of Christian apocrypha‎

The Diatessaron, Protoevangelium of James, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew and the Arabic Infancy Gospel are all alleged to have been sources that the author/authors drew on when creating the Qur'ān. The Diatessaron especially may have led to the misconception in the Koran that the Christian Gospel is one text.[63] However this is strongly refuted by Muslim scholars, who maintain that Quran is the divine word of God without any interpolation, and the similarities exist only due to the one source. Tatians Diatessaron was one of a number of harmonies of the four Gospels, that is, the material of the four distinct Gospels rewritten as a continuous narrative resolving all conflicting statements. ... The Gospel of James, also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protoevangelium of James, is an apocryphal Gospel probably written about AD 150. ... The Infancy Gospel of Thomas is a non-canonical Christian text that was part of a popular genre of the 2nd and 3rd centuries— a miracle literature of Infancy gospels that was both entertaining and inspirational, written to satisfy a hunger for more miraculous and anecdotal stories of the childhood... The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew is a part of the New Testament apocrypha, and sometimes goes by the name of The Infancy Gospel of Matthew. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Arab writing

After the Qur'an, and the general rise of Islam, the Arabic alphabet developed rapidly into a beautiful and complex form of art.[64]


Wadad Kadi, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at University of Chicago and Mustansir Mir, Professor of Islamic studies at Youngstown State University state that: [65] For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Youngstown State University, founded in 1908, is an accredited university located in Youngstown, Ohio US. As of 2005, there were 13,101 students and a student-faculty ratio of 19:1. ...

Although Arabic, as a language and a literary tradition, was quite well developed by the time of Muhammad's prophetic activity, it was only after the emergence of Islam, with its founding scripture in Arabic, that the language reached its utmost capacity of expression, and the literature its highest point of complexity and sophistication. Indeed, it probably is no exaggeration to say that the Qur'an was one of the most conspicuous forces in the making of classical and post-classical Arabic literature.

The main areas in which the Qur'an exerted noticeable influence on Arabic literature are diction and themes; other areas are related to the literary aspects of the Qur'an particularly oaths (q.v.), metaphors, motifs, and symbols. As far as diction is concerned, one could say that Qur'anic words, idioms, and expressions, especially "loaded" and formulaic phrases, appear in practically all genres of literature and in such abundance that it is simply impossible to compile a full record of them. For not only did the Qur'an create an entirely new linguistic corpus to express its message, it also endowed old, pre-Islamic words with new meanings and it is these meanings that took root in the language and subsequently in the literature...

Quranic Initials

14 different Arabic letters, form 14 different sets of “Quranic Initials” (the "Muqatta'at", such as A.L.M. of 2:1), and prefix 29 suras in the Quran. The meaning and interpretation of these initials is considered unknown to most Muslims. In 1974, an Egyptian biochemist named Rashad Khalifa claimed to have discovered a mathematical code based on the number 19[66], which is mentioned in Sura 74:30[67] of the Quran. A tree diagram of the Quranic initial letters, labelled with the respective numbers of occurrences. ... Rashad Khalifa, 1989 Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935–January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian-born American biochemist who founded the United Submitters International. ...


In culture

Most Muslims treat paper copies of the Qur'an with veneration, ritually washing before reading the Qur'an.[68] Worn out, torn, or errant (for example, pages out of order) Qur'ans are not discarded as wastepaper, but rather are left free to flow in a river, kept somewhere safe, burnt, or buried in a remote location. Many Muslims memorize at least some portion of the Qur'an in the original Arabic, usually at least the verses needed to perform the prayers. Those who have memorized the entire Qur'an earn the right to the title of Hafiz.[69] For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ...

Mizan Zainal Abidin, the monarch of Malaysia, kissing the Quran during his investiture.
Mizan Zainal Abidin, the monarch of Malaysia, kissing the Quran during his investiture.

Based on tradition and a literal interpretation of sura 56:77-79: "That this is indeed a Qur'ān Most Honourable, In a Book well-guarded, Which none shall touch but those who are clean.", many scholars opine that a Muslim perform wudu (ablution or a ritual cleansing with water) before touching a copy of the Qur'ān, or mushaf. This view has been contended by other scholars on the fact that, according to Arabic linguistic rules, this verse alludes to a fact and does not comprise an order. The literal translation thus reads as "That (this) is indeed a noble Qur'ān, In a Book kept hidden, Which none toucheth save the purified," (translated by Mohamed Marmaduke Pickthall). It is suggested based on this translation that performing ablution is not required. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Duli Yang Maha Mulia Al Wathiqu Billah, Al-Sultan Ibni Almarhum Al-Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah Al-Haj is the 17th sultan of the state of Terengganu, Malaysia, and the 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or King of Malaysia. ... Flag of the Supreme Head of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... Surat Al-Waqia (Arabic: سورة الواقعة ) (The Event, The Inevitable) is the 56th sura of the Quran with 96 ayat. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... ...


Qur'an desecration means insulting the Qur'ān by defiling or dismembering it. Muslims must always treat the book with reverence, and are forbidden, for instance, to pulp, recycle, or simply discard worn-out copies of the text. Respect for the written text of the Qur'ān is an important element of religious faith by many Muslims. They believe that intentionally insulting the Qur'ān is a form of blasphemy. Quran desecration means insulting the Quran, the holy book of Islam, by defiling or disfacing it. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ...


Cyberspace

The text of the Quran has become readily accessible over the internet, in Arabic as well as numerous translations in other languages. It can be downloaded and searched both word-by-word and with Boolean algebra. Photos of ancient manuscripts and illustrations of Quranic art can be witnessed. However, there are still limits to searching the Arabic text of the Quran.[70]


Criticism

The Qur'an's teachings on matters of war and peace have become topics of heated discussion in recent years. Some critics allege that some verses of the Qur'an in their historical and literary context sanction military action against unbelievers as a whole both during the lifetime of Muhammad and after.[71][72] In response to this criticism, some Muslims argue that such verses of the Qur'an are taken out of context,[73][74][75] and claim that when the verses are read in context it clearly appears that the Qur'an prohibits aggression,[76][77][78] and allows fighting only in self defense.[79][80] Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ...


Some critics reject the Muslim belief regarding the divine origin of the Qur'an[81][82][83], and base their argument on the problems that they claim to exist in the Qur'ān, both textually and morally.[84][85]


Others have praised the Quran's style as a book of divine guidance[86], and its eloquence has been described as perfect by Dr. Francis Steingass due to the Quran's "ability to transform savage tribes into civilized nations."[87]


See also

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ... For other uses, see Hafiz (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim pious view which argues that the Quran is a religious text revealed by Allah to Muhammad, this assertion to be taken... Some of the Quranic verses are said to be revealed pertaining to some specific person. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Quran alone Muslims, Quranic Muslims or sometimes, anti-hadith Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, or preserved traditions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and follow the Quran, a sacred text of Islam, exclusively. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ibn Baz was a follower of the Muslim scholars Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab and Ibn Taymiyya; he belonged to that current of Muslim thought sometimes called Salafism and sometimes called Wahabbism. ... Quran reading is the reading (tartil, tajwid, or taghbir) aloud, reciting, chanting, or singing of portions of the Quran. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. ... SÅ«rata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ... Surat āl-Imrān (Arabic: آل عمران ) (The Family of Amram) is the 3rd sura of the Quran with 200 ayat. ... Surat An-Nisa (Arabic: سورة النساء ) (The Women) [1] is the fourth chapter of the Quran, with 176 verses. ... Surat al-Maida (Arabic: سورة المائدة ) (The Table or The Table Spread) is the fifth chapter of the Quran, with 120 verses. ... Surat al-An-am (The Cattle) is the 6th sura of the Quran, with 165 ayat. ... Surat al-Araf (Arabic: سورة الأعراف ) (The Heights)[1] is the 7th sura of the Quran, with 206 ayat. ... Surat al-Anfal (Arabic: سورة الأنفال ) (the Spoils of War)[1] is the eighth chapter of the Quran, with 85 verses. ... Surat at-Tawba (Arabic: سورة التوبة ) (the Repentance) is the 9th sura of the Quran, with 129 ayat according to mainstream Islam and 127 ayat according to Quran Alone Muslims. ... Sura Yunus (Arabic: سورة يونس ) (Jonah) is the 10th sura of the Quran. ... Sura Hud (Arabic سورة هود) is the 11th sura of the Quran. ... Sura Yusuf (Joseph) is the 12th sura of the Quran. ... Surat ar-Rad (The Thunder) is the 13th sura of the Quran. ... Sura Ibrahim (Abraham) is the 14th sura of the Quran. ... Surat al-Hijr (Al-Hijr, The Stoneland, The Rock City) is the 15th sura of the Quran. ... Surat an-Nahl (The Bee) is the 16th sura of the Quran. ... Surat Al-Isra (Arabic: سورة الإسراء ) (ie The Night Journey) is the 17th sura of the Quran . ... Surat al-Kahf (Arabic: سورة الكهف ) (The Cave) is the 18th sura of the Quran with 110 ayat. ... Sura Maryam (Arabic: سورة مريم ) (Mary) is the 19th sura of the Quran and is a Makkan sura. ... Sura Ta-Ha is the 20th sura of the Quran. ... Surat al-Anbiya (The Prophets) is the 21st sura of the Quran. ... This is the Quran verse, not to be confused with The Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage, The Hajj) is the 22nd sura of the Quran with 78 ayat. ... Surat Al-Muminun (Arabic: سورة المؤمنون ) (The Believers) is the 23rd sura of the Quran with 118 ayat. ... Surat An-Nur (Arabic: سورة النور ) (The Light) is the 24th sura of the Quran with 64 ayat. ... Surat Al-Furqan (Arabic: سورة الفرقان ) (The Criterion, The Standard) is the 25th sura of the Quran with 77 ayat. ... Surat Ash-Shuara (Arabic: سورة الشعراء ) (The Poets) is the 26th sura of the Quran with 227 ayat. ... Surat An-Naml (The Ant, The Ants) is the 27th sura of the Quran with 93 ayat. ... Al-Qasas ayat 88 followed by Al-Ankabut ayat 1 Surat Al-Qasas (Arabic: سورة القصص ) (The Stories) is the 28th sura of the Quran with 88 ayat. ... Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider) is the 29th sura of the Quran with 69 ayat. ... Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans, The Byzantines) is the 30th sura of the Quran with 60 ayat. ... Surat Luqman (Luqman) is the 31st sura of the Quran with 34 ayat. ... Surat As-Sajda (The Prostration, Worship, Adoration) is the 32nd sura of the Quran with 30 ayat. ... Surat Al-Ahzab (The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces) is the 33rd sura of the Quran with 73 ayat. ... Surat Saba (Saba, Sheba) is the 34th sura of the Quran with 54 ayat. ... Surat Fatir (The Angels, Originator) is the 35th sura of the Quran with 45 ayat. ... Surat Ya-Seen (Arabic: سورة يس ) (Ya-Seen) is the 36th sura of the Quran with 83 ayat. ... Surat As-Saaffat (Those Who Set The Ranks, Drawn Up In Ranks) is the 37th sura of the Quran with 182 ayat. ... Surat Sad (The Letter Sad) is the 38th sura of the Quran with 88 ayat. ... Surat Az-Zumar (The Troops, Throngs) is the 39th sura of the Quran with 75 ayat. ... Surat Ghafir (Arabic: سورة غافر ) (The Forgiver (Allah)) is the 40th sura of the Quran with 85 ayat. ... Surat Fussilat (Explained In Detail) is the 41st sura of the Quran with 54 ayat. ... Surat Ash-Shura (Council, Consultation) is the 42nd sura of the Quran with 53 ayat. ... Surat Az-Zukhruf (Ornaments Of Gold, Luxury) is the 43rd sura of the Quran with 89 ayat. ... Surat Ad-Dukhan (Smoke) is the 44th sura of the Quran with 59 ayat. ... Surat Al-Jathiya (Crouching) is the 45th sura of the Quran with 37 ayat. ... Surat Al-Ahqaf (Arabic: سورة الأحقاف ) (The Wind-curved Sandhills, The Dunes) is the 46th sura of the Quran with 35 ayat. ... Surat Muhammad (Muhammad) is the 47th sura of the Quran with 38 ayat. ... Surat Al-Fath (Victory, Conquest) is the 48th sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... Surat Al-Hujraat (The Private Apartments, The Inner Apartments) is the 49th sura of the Quran with 18 ayat. ... Surat Qaf (Arabic: سورة Ù‚ ) (The Letter Qaf) is the 50th sura of the Quran with 45 ayat. ... Surat Adh-Dhariyat (The Winnowing Winds) is the 51st sura of the Quran with 60 ayat. ... Surat At-Tur (Arabic: سورة الطور ) (The Mount) is the 52nd sura of the Quran with 49 ayat. ... Surat An-Najm (Arabic: سورة النجم ) (The Star) is the 53rd sura of the Quran with 62 ayat. ... Surat Al-Qamar (Arabic: سورة القمر ) (The Moon) is the 54th sura of the Quran with 55 ayat. ... A. R. Rahman Allah Rakha Rahman, born January 6, 1967 as A.S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, India, is a popular Indian film music composer. ... Surat Al-Waqia (Arabic: سورة الواقعة ) (The Event, The Inevitable) is the 56th sura of the Quran with 96 ayat. ... Surat Al-Hadid (Arabic: سورة الحديد ) (The Iron) is the 57th sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mujadila (Arabic: سورة المجادلة ) (She That Disputeth, The Pleading Woman) is the 58th sura of the Quran with 22 ayat. ... Surat Al-Hashr (Arabic: سورة الحشر ) (Exile, Banishment) is the 59th sura of the Quran with 24 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mumtahina (Arabic: سورة الممتحنة ) (She That Is To Be Examined, Examining Her) is the 60th sura of the Quran, a Madinan sura with 13 ayat. ... Surat As-Saff (Arabic: سورة الصف ) (The Ranks, Battle Array) is the 61st sura of the Quran with 14 ayat. ... Surat Al-Jumua (The Congregation, Friday) is the 62nd sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ... Surat Al-Munafiqoon (The Hypocrites) is the 63rd sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ... Surat At-Taghabun (Mutual Disillusion, Haggling) is the 64th sura of the Quran with 18 ayat. ... Surat At-Talaq (Divorce) is the 65th sura of the Quran with 12 ayat. ... Surat At-Tahrim (Banning, Prohibition) is the 66th sura of the Quran with 12 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mulk (The Sovereignty, Control) is the 67th sura of the Quran with 30 ayat. ... Surat Al-Qalam (The Pen) is the 68th sura of the Quran with 52 ayat. ... Surat Al-Haaqqa (The Reality) is the 69th sura of the Quran with 52 ayat. ... Surat Al-Maarij (Arabic: سورة المعارج ) (The Ascending Stairways) is the 70th sura of the Quran with 44 ayat. ... Surat Nuh (Arabic: سورة نوح ) (Noah) is the 71st sura of the Quran with 28 ayat. ... Surat Al-Jinn (Arabic: سورة الجن ) (The Jinn or The Sprites) is the 72nd sura of the Quran with 28 ayat. ... Surat Al-Muzzammil (The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up) is the 73rd sura of the Quran with 20 ayat. ... Surat Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak) is the 74th sura of the Quran with 56 ayat. ... Surat Al-Qiyama (The Rising Of The Dead, Ressurrection) is the 75th sura of the Quran with 40 ayat. ... Surat Al-Insan (Man) is the 76th sura of the Quran with 31 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mursalat (The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth) is the 77th sura of the Quran with 50 ayat. ... Surat Al-Naba (The Tidings, The Announcement) is the 78th sura of the Quran with 40 ayat. ... Surat Al-Naziat (Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers) is the 79th sura of the Quran with 46 ayat. ... Surat Abasa (Arabic: سورة عبس ) (He Frowned) is the 80Th sura of the Quran with 42 ayat. ... Surat At-Takwir (The Overthrowing) is the 81st sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... Surat Al-Infitar (The Cleaving, Bursting Apart) is the 82nd sura of the Quran with 19 ayat. ... Surat Al-Mutaffifin (Defrauding, The Cheats, Cheating) is the 83rd sura of the Quran with 36 ayat. ... Surat Al-Inshiqaq (The Sundering, Splitting Open) is the 84th sura of the Quran with 25 ayat. ... Surat Al-Burooj (The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations) is the 85th sura of the Quran with 22 ayat. ... Surat At-Tariq (The Morning Star, The Nightcomer) is the 86th sura of the Quran with 17 ayat. ... Surat Al-Ala (The Most High, Glory To Your Lord In The Highest) is the 87th sura of the Quran with 19 ayat. ... Surat Al-Ghashiya (Arabic: , The Overwhelming, The Pall) is the 88th sura of the Quran with 26 ayat. ... Surat Al-Fajr (Arabic: , The Dawn, Daybreak) is the 89th sura of the Quran with 30 ayat. ... Surat Al-Balad (Arabic: , The City, This Country) is the 90th sura of the Quran with 20 ayat. ... Surat Ash-Shams (Arabic: , The Sun) is the 91st sura of the Quran with 15 ayat. ... Surat Al-Lail (الّيل al-Layl the Night) is the 92nd sura of the Quran with 21 ayat. ... Surat Ad-Dhuha (Arabic: , The Morning Hours, Morning Bright) is the 93rd sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ... Surat Al-Inshirah (Arabic: , Expansion) is the 94th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat At-Tin (Arabic: , The Fig, The Figtree) is the 95th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat al-Alaq, Iqra, or al-Qalam ( , The Clot / , Recite / , The Pen) is the 96th sura of the Quran. ... Surat Al-Qadr (Arabic: سورة القدر ) (Power, Fate) is the 97th sura of the Quran with 5 ayat. ... Surat Al-Bayyina (Arabic: سورة البينة ) (The Clear Proof, Evidence) is the 98th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat Az-Zalzala (Arabic: سورة الزلزلة ) (The Earthquake) is the 99th sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat Al-Adiyat (Arabic: سورة العاديات ) (The Courser, The Chargers) is the 100th sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ... Surat Al-Qaria (Arabic: سورة القارعة ) (The Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The Disaster) is the 101st sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ... Surat Ar-Takathur (Arabic: سورة التكاثر ) (Rivalry In World Increase, Competition) is the 102nd sura of the Quran with 8 ayat. ... Surat Al-`Asr (The Declining Day, Eventide, The Epoch, Time) is the 103rd sura of the Quran. ... Surat Al-Humaza (The Traducer, The Gossipmonger) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 9 ayat. ... al-Fil is also the name of a sura by the unsuccessful would-be prophet Musaylimah. ... Surat Quraysh (Arabic: سورة قريش ) (after the tribe of Quraysh) is the 106th chapter of the Quran. ... Surat Al-Maun (Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Have You Seen) is the 107th sura of the Quran with 7 ayat. ... Surat al-Kawthar (Arabic: سورة الكوثر ) (Abundance) is the 108th sura of the Quran, and the shortest. ... The 109th Sura of the Quran. ... Sura An-Nasr (Divine Support) is the 110th sura of the Quran with 3 ayat. ... The 111th Sura of the Quran. ... Al-Ikhlas is the 112th Sura of the Quran, a short 4_verse declaration of Gods absolute unity (tawhid), rejecting the doctrines of polytheism and trinitarianism. ... Surat Al-Falaq (Dawn, Daybreak) is the 113th Sura of the Quran. ... Classification : Mecci Meaning of the name The Mankind Other names muawwidhatayn Sura number 114 Para number 30 Statistics Number of Rukus 1 Number of verses 6 Harf-e-Mukattaat No Number of Ayats on particular subjects About prayer for seeking refuge to God Number of Sijdahs No An...

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Notes

  1. ^ Pronunciation: [qurˈʔaːn]
    Arabic pronunciation 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qur'an". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-11-4. 
  3. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 2, Verses 23-24
  4. ^ Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers,
  5. ^ Qur'an, Chapter 17, Verse 106
  6. ^ Qur'an, Chapter 33, Verse 40
  7. ^ Watton, Victor, (1993), A student's approach to world religions:Islam, Hodder & Stoughton, pg 1. ISBN 0-340-58795-4
  8. ^ Qur'ān Chapter 87, Verses 18-19
  9. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 3, Verse 3
  10. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 5, Verse 44
  11. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 4, Verse 163
  12. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 17, Verse 55
  13. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 5, Verse 46
  14. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 5, Verse 110
  15. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 57, Verse 27
  16. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 3, Verse 84
  17. ^ Quran, Chapter 4, Verse 136
  18. ^ "The Qur'an assumes the reader to be familiar with the traditions of the ancestors since the age of the Patriarchs, not necessarily in the version of the "Children of Israel" as described in the Bible but also in the version of the "Children of Ismail" as it was alive orally, though interspersed with polytheist elements, at the time of Muhammad. The term Jahiliya (ignorance) used for the pre-Islamic time does not mean that the Arabs were not familiar with their traditional roots but that their knowledge of ethical and spiritual values had been lost." Exegesis of Bible and Qur'an, H. Krausen. http://www.geocities.com/athens/thebes/8206/hkrausen/exegesis.htm
  19. ^ Qur'ān, Chapter 15, Verse 9
  20. ^ Qur'ān Chapter 5, Verse 46
  21. ^ However, the Quran in a single manuscript form was only made during the reign of the Caliph Othman who ordered the production of several copies.Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 201
  22. ^ a b "Ķur'an, al-", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
  23. ^ Qur'an 75:17
  24. ^ cf. Qur'an 20:2; 25:32
  25. ^ Qur'an 7:204
  26. ^ See:
    • "Ķur'an, al-", Encyclopedia of Islam Online.
    • Qur'an 9:111
  27. ^ According to Welch in the Encyclopedia of Islam, the verses pertaining to the usage of the word hikma "should probably be interpreted in the light of IV, 105, where it is said that "Muhammad is to judge (tahkum) mankind on the basis of the Book sent down to him."
  28. ^ Arabic: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم, transliterated as: bismi-llāhi ar-raḥmāni ar-raḥīmi.</ ref> an Arabic phrase meaning ("In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful"), with the exception of the ninth chapter. There are, however, still 114 occurrences of the basmala in the Qur'an, due to its presence in verse 27:30 as the opening of Solomon's letter to the Queen of Sheba. cf. Encyclopedia of Islam, "Kur`an, al-"
  29. ^ See:
    • "Kur`an, al-", Encyclopedia of Islam Online
    • Allen (2000) p. 53
  30. ^ Samuel Pepys: "One feels it difficult to see how any mortal ever could consider this Koran as a Book written in Heaven, too good for the Earth; as a well-written book, or indeed as a book at all; and not a bewildered rhapsody; written, so far as writing goes, as badly as almost any book ever was!" http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=21
  31. ^ "The final process of collection and codification of the Qur'an text was guided by one over-arching principle: God's words must not in any way be distorted or sullied by human intervention. For this reason, no serious attempt, apparently, was made to edit the numerous revelations, organize them into thematic units, or present them in chronological order.... This has given rise in the past to a great deal of criticism by European and American scholars of Islam, who find the Qur'an disorganized, repetitive, and very difficult to read." Approaches to the Asian Classics, Irene Blomm, William Theodore De Bary, Columbia University Press,1990, p. 65
  32. ^ Issa Boullata, "Literary Structure of Qur'an," Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, vol.3 p.192, 204
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Michael Sells, Approaching the Qur'an (White Cloud Press, 1999), and Norman O. Brown, "The Apocalypse of Islam." Social Text 3:8 (1983-1984)
  35. ^ Michael Sells, Approaching the Qur'an (White Cloud Press, 1999)
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam online, Muhammad article
  37. ^ AL-BAQARA. 2:285 Muslim texts. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  38. ^ See also [2] for an extended account incorporating further sources
  39. ^ Mohamad K. Yusuff, Zayd ibn Thabit and the Glorious Qur’an
  40. ^ The Koran; A Very Short Introduction, Michael Cook. Oxford University Press, P.117 - P.124
  41. ^ AL-BAQARA. USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim texts. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  42. ^ Sonn, Tamara (2006), "Art and the Qur'an", in Leaman, Oliver, The Qur'an: an encyclopedia, Great Britain: Routeledge, pp. 71-81
  43. ^ Navid Kermani, Das ästhetische Erleben des Koran. Munich (1999)
  44. ^ Malik Ibn Anas, Muwatta, vol. 1 (Egypt: Dar Ahya al-Turath, n.d.), 201, (no. 473).
  45. ^ Suyuti, Tanwir al-Hawalik, 2nd ed. (Beirut: Dar al-Jayl, 1993), 199.
  46. ^ a b Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan, Principles of Understanding the Qu'ran, Al-Mawrid
  47. ^ Zarkashi, al-Burhan fi Ulum al-Qur'ān, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1980), 237.
  48. ^ Suyuti, al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'ān, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (Baydar: Manshurat al-Radi, 1343 AH), 177.
  49. ^ E. W. Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon
  50. ^ The Qur'an in Manuscript and Print. THE QUR'ANIC SCRIPT. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  51. ^ Article by A. Yusuf Ali. The Holy Qur'an. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  52. ^ Unicode Qur'an. Sacred-texts. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  53. ^ Mishafi Font. Award-winning calligraphic typeface. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  54. ^ a b c d Fatani, Afnan (2006), "Translation and the Qur'an", in Leaman, Oliver, The Qur'an: an encyclopedia, Great Britain: Routeledge, pp. 657-669
  55. ^ An-Nawawi, Al-Majmu', (Cairo, Matbacat at-'Tadamun n.d.), 380.
  56. ^ (2002) Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 42. 
  57. ^ Preface of Al'-Mizan, reference is to Allameh Tabatabaei
  58. ^ 2:151
  59. ^ [3]
  60. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam (1984). Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8. p.69
  61. ^ The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English (2002) HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-060064-0
  62. ^ http://www.septuagint.net
  63. ^ On pre-Islamic Christian strophic poetical tests in the Koran, Ibn Rawandi, ISBN 1-57392-945-X
  64. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2006), "Cyberspace and the Quran", in Leaman, Oliver, The Qur'an: an encyclopedia, Great Britain: Routeledge, pp. 130-135
  65. ^ Wadad Kadi and Mustansir Mir, Literature and the Qur'an, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, vol. 3, pp. 213, 216
  66. ^ Rashad Khalifa, Quran: Visual Presentation of the Miracle, Islamic Productions International, 1982. ISBN 0-934894-30-2
  67. ^ Qur'an, Chapter 74, Verse 30
  68. ^ Mahfouz (2006), p.35
  69. ^ Kugle (2006), p.47; Esposito (2000a), p.275
  70. ^ Rippin, Andrew (2006), "Cyberspace and the Quran", in Leaman, Oliver, The Qur'an: an encyclopedia, Great Britain: Routeledge, pp. 159-163
  71. ^ Robert Spencer. Onward Muslim Soldiers, page 121.
  72. ^ Syed Kamran Mirza What is Islamic Terrorism and How could it be Defeated?
  73. ^ Ali, Maulana Muhammad; The Religion of Islam (6th Edition), Ch V "Jihad" Page 413. Published by The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement [4]
  74. ^ Sohail H. Hashmi, David Miller, Boundaries and Justice: diverse ethical perspectives, Princeton University Press, p.197
  75. ^ Khaleel Muhammad, professor of religious studies at San Diego State University, states, regarding his discussion with the critic Robert Spencer, that "when I am told ... that Jihad only means war, or that I have to accept interpretations of the Quran that non-Muslims (with no good intentions or knowledge of Islam) seek to force upon me, I see a certain agendum developing: one that is based on hate, and I refuse to be part of such an intellectual crime." [5]
  76. ^ Ali, Maulana Muhammad; The Religion of Islam (6th Edition), Ch V "Jihad" Page 414 "When shall war cease". Published by The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement [6]
  77. ^ Sadr-u-Din, Maulvi. "Quran and War", page 8. Published by The Muslim Book Society, Lahore, Pakistan. [7]
  78. ^ Article on Jihad by Dr. G. W. Leitner (founder of The Oriental Institute, UK) published in Asiatic Quarterly Review, 1886. ("jihad, even when explained as a righteous effort of waging war in self defense against the grossest outrage on one's religion, is strictly limited..")
  79. ^ The Quranic Commandments Regarding War/Jihad An English rendering of an Urdu article appearing in Basharat-e-Ahmadiyya Vol. I, p. 228-232, by Dr. Basharat Ahmad; published by the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam
  80. ^ Ali, Maulana Muhammad; The Religion of Islam (6th Edition), Ch V "Jihad" Pages 411-413. Published by The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement [8]
  81. ^ Koran, by Gabriel Oussani, The Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved April 13, 2006
  82. ^ Patricia Crone, Michael Cook, and Gerd R. Puin as quoted in Toby Lester. "What Is the Koran?", The Atlantic Monthly, January 1999. 
  83. ^ Jewish Encyclpoedia: comp. also xvi. 70
  84. ^ The Encyclopedia of Religion, By Mircea Eliade. Volum 12 pg. 165-6, pub. 1987 ISBN 0-02-909700-2
  85. ^ Robert Spencer. Onward Muslim Soldiers,
  86. ^ The New Approach to the Study of the Quran, Dr. hasanuddin Ahmed, 2004, page 13, Goodword books, Quote:"Its style, in accordance with its contents and aim, is stern, grand, forcible - ever and anon truly sublime...It soon attracts, astounds, and in the end enforces our reverence"
  87. ^ The "Dictionary of Islam" by Thomas Patrick Hughes, p 528 Quote: "its eloquence was perfect, simply because it created a civilized nation out of savage tribes, and shot a fresh woof into the old warp of history."

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... Image File history File links Quran. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The Jews of Islam is a book written by Middle-East historian and scholar Bernard Lewis. ... Encyclopedia of Quran (EQ) is an scholarly work published by Brill Academic Publishers. ... Patricia Crone, Ph. ... Michael Cook (13 February 1933 -- 1 July 1994) was a playwright. ...

References

  • Allen, Roger (2000). An Introduction to Arabic literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521776570. 
  • Esposito, John; Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad (2000). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513526-1. 
  • Esposito, John (2002). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. 
  • Kugle, Scott Alan (2006). Rebel Between Spirit And Law: Ahmad Zarruq, Sainthood, And Authority in Islam. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253347114. 
  • Mahfouz, Tarek (2006). Speak Arabic Instantly. Lulu Press, Inc.. ISBN 1847289002. 
  • Molloy, Michael (2006). Experiencing the World's Religions, 4th, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0073535647. 
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qur'an". Encyclopedia Britannica Online.  

For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ...

Further reading

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Translations
Older commentary
  • al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir -- Jami' al-bayān `an ta'wil al-Qur'ān, Cairo 1955-69, transl. J. Cooper (ed.), The Commentary on the Qur'an, Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-19-920142-0
  • Tafsir Ibn-Kathir, Hafiz Imad al-din Abu al-Fida Ismail ibn Kathir al-Damishqi al-Shafi'i - (died 774 Hijrah (Islamic Calendar))
  • Tafsir Al-Qurtubi (Al-Jami'li-Ahkam), Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad Abi Bakr ibn Farah al-Qurtubi - (died 671 Hijrah (Islamic Calendar))
Older scholarship
  • Nöldeke, Theodor -- Geschichte des Qorâns, Göttingen, 1860.
Recent scholarship
  • Al-Azami, M. M. -- The History of the Qur'anic Text from Revelation to Compilation, UK Islamic Academy: Leicester 2003.
  • Gunter Luling A challenge to Islam for reformation: the rediscovery and reliable reconstruction of a comprehensive pre-Islamic Christian hymnal hidden in the Koran under earliest Islamic reinterpretations. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers 2003. (580 Seiten, lieferbar per Seepost). ISBN 81-2081952-7
  • Luxenberg, Christoph (2004) -- The Syro-Aramaic Reading Of The Koran: a contribution to the decoding of the language of the Qur'an, Berlin, Verlag Hans Schiler, 1 May 2007 ISBN 3-89930-088-2
  • McAuliffe, Jane Damen -- Quranic Christians : An Analysis of Classical and Modern Exegesis, Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-521-36470-1
  • McAuliffe, Jane Damen (ed.) -- Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Brill, 2002-2004.
  • Puin, Gerd R. -- "Observations on Early Qur'an Manuscripts in Sana'a," in The Qur'an as Text, ed. Stefan Wild, , E.J. Brill 1996, pp. 107-111 (as reprinted in What the Koran Really Says, ed. Ibn Warraq, Prometheus Books, 2002)
  • Rahman, Fazlur -- Major Themes in the Qur'an, Bibliotheca Islamica, 1989. ISBN 0-88297-046-1
  • Louay M. Safi -- Quranic Themes
  • Robinson, Neal, Discovering the Qur'an, Georgetown University Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58901-024-8
  • Sells, Michael, -- Approaching the Qur'an: The Early Revelations, White Cloud Press, Book & CD edition (November 15, 1999). ISBN 1-883991-26-9
  • Stowasser, Barbara Freyer -- Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation, Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (June 1, 1996), ISBN 0-19-511148-6
  • Wansbrough, John -- Quranic Studies, Oxford University Press, 1977
  • Watt, W. M., and R. Bell, Introduction to the Qur'an, Edinburgh University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-7486-0597-5

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Sayyidunna Mawlana Sanaadi Ala Hadrat Alshaykh Allamah Muhammad Mukhtar Ziauddin Aĥmed Riđā Abdul Mustapha Khān al-Barelwī al-Barkati al-Nuri al-Razwi al-Qadiri (1856–1921, sometimes transcribed as Ahmad Raza Khan) , was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Internet Sacred Text Archive (ISTA) is a website dedicated to the preservation of electronic public domain texts, specifically those with significant cultural value. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Theodor Nöldeke (March 2, 1836 - 1930), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. ... Gunter Luling (1928 -) is a Syrian born German philological scholar and pioneer in the study of early Islamic origins. ... Christoph Luxenberg is the pseudonym of the author of the 2000 book Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (in English: The Syro-Aramaic reading of the Quran: a contribution to the decipherment of the Quranic language). ... The Syro-Aramaic Reading Of The Koran: a contribution to the decoding of the language of the Quran English Edition of 2007 (Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (2000) is a book by German philologist and professor of ancient Semitic and... Gerd Rüdiger Puin is a European scholar and the world foremost authority on Quranic paleography, the study and scholarly interpretation of ancient texts. ... Fazlur Rahman Malik (Urdu: فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988) was a well-known scholar of Islam; M. Yahya Birt of the Association of Islam Researchers described him as probably the most learned of the major Muslim thinkers in the second-half of the twentieth century, in terms of both... Louay M. Safi was born in Damascus. ... Michael A. Sells is currently the John Henry Barrows Professor of Islamic History and Literature at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. ... John Edward Wansbrough (19 February 1928, Peoria Illinois - 10 June 2002, Montaigu-de-Quercy France) was a historian of Islam who taught at SOAS in London. ...

External links

Manuscripts
Audio/Video/Documentary
  • Video's on different topics from Quran
  • Listen to Quran
  • Quran Academy: Audio/Video commentary/translation of the Qur'ān
  • Several Quran Tafseers in English and Arabic
  • Videos of recitation, commentary, or prayer
  • English Reading
  • Reciter.org
  • Video's Quran
  • QuranChannel.com - A Collection of Quran playlists and radio channels
  • English Quran, French, karaoke audio mode for Arabic.
  • Quran Onlinelisten Online Quran Or download in mp3 format.
Encyclopedic articles

Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the One and Only God, known as Allah (الله) in Arabic. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... This article is about political For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This box:      Islamophobia is a criticized[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Takaful - Islamic Insurance ==]] “The basic fundamentals underlying the Takaful concept are very similar to cooperative and mutual principles, to the extent that the cooperative and mutual model is one that is accepted under Islamic Law. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... Sexuality in Islam is largely described by the Quran, Islamic tradition, and religious leaders both past and present as being confined to marital relationships between men and women. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... In Islam, Alcohol is forbiden to drink, but is allowed to be used for medical and other purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...


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City of Light; The Path to the True Islam and (Submission) Islam and muslims islaam Allah god muslim moslem moslems ... (1003 words)
Our aim is to purge these innovations by upholding the Qur'an and nothing but the Qur'an alone, and present the jewel of true Submission to the world.
OD emphasizes in the Quran that the highest transgression against Him is the practice of "shirk" or to set up partner or partners for GOD.
Every element of the Quran is mathematically composed - the suras, the verses, the words, the number of certain letters, the number of words from the same root, the number and variety of divine names, the unique spelling of certain words, More
USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts (487 words)
The Qur'an is one leg of two which form the basis of Islam.
Unlike the Sunnah, the Qur'an is quite literally the Word of Allah, whereas the Sunnah was inspired by Allah but the wording and actions are the Prophet's.
It is an obligation - and blessing - for all who hear of the Qur'an and Islam to investigate it and evaluate it for themselves.
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