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In law, a quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative body necessary to conduct the business of that group. Ordinarily, this is a majority of the people expected to be there, although many bodies may have a lower or higher quorum. Two countries that have had previous troubles with quorums are the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a Wikimedia Foundation project intended to be a free wiki dictionary (hence: Wiktionary) (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... The stela of King Hammurabi depicts the god Shamash revealing a code of laws to the king. ... A deliberative body (or deliberative assembly) is an organization which collectively makes decisions after debate and discussion. ...

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Quorum as a tool

When quorum is not met, a legislative body cannot hold a vote, and cannot change the status quo. Therefore, voters who are in favor of the status quo are able to use an obstructive strategy called, in the United States, quorum-busting. If a significant number of voters choose not to be present for the vote, the vote will fail due to lack of quorum, and the status quo will remain. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A quorum in a legislative body is normally a majority of the entire membership of the body. If there are vacancies, that fact is not considered. Thus, a quorum of a legislative body that has 100 seats would be 51 (more than half of 100), even if some seats are vacant. However, it is also common in a legislative body to have a rule that the lack of a quorum does not affect the proceedings unless a point of order is raised. A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ...


United Kingdom

The House of Lords of the Parliament of the United Kingdom can decide on procedural issues with only three members present. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Procedural, as an adjective, refers to the concept of procedure. ...


United States

According to Article One of the United States Constitution, the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate each have a quorum of a simple majority of their respective members. The Senate has the additional requirement in Rule VI of its standing rules of a "majority of the members duly chosen and sworn." Wikisource has original text related to this article: Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution states the establishment of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as the Congress, which includes the House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... A simple majority is the most common requirement in voting for a measure to pass, especially in deliberative bodies and small organizations. ... Rules of order, also known as standing orders or rules of procedure, are the written rules of parliamentary procedure adopted by a deliberative assembly, which detail the processes used by the body to make decisions. ... An oath (from Old Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ...


The IRS requires 501(c)(3), non-profit organizations to have a quorum present at their required, yearly meetings. If it is not, then not only can they not vote, but they must also have another meeting. 501(c)(3) is a provision of the US tax code that provides exempt status, for Federal income tax purposes, for some non-profit organizations in the United States (see 26 U.S.C. Â§ 501(c)(3)). The term refers to: Section 501. ...


Quorum-busting in the United States

A prominent example of quorum-busting occurred in 2003, when the Texas House of Representatives was going to vote on a redistricting bill that would have favored the Republicans in the state. The House Democrats, certain of defeat if a quorum was present, chose not to be present in the House that day, but instead took a plane to Oklahoma, preventing the bill from passing due to a lack of a quorum. Legislative bodies often have rules to discourage quorum-busting. In many U.S. legislative bodies, such as the United States Senate and House of Representatives, if there is no quorum present a call of the house could be ordered, which would cause absent members to be arrested and brought to the floor of the body. This was the reason that the Killer D's fled to Oklahoma, which is outside of the jurisdiction of Texas law. The Killer D's effectively killed the legislation by staying in Oklahoma long enough to let the legislation expire. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... A call of the house is a motion which can be adopted by a deliberative assembly that has the authority to compel the attendance of its members in the absence of a quorum. ... The Killer Ds are a group of Texas House Democrats who left the state of Texas for Ardmore, Okla. ...


The same year, the Texas Eleven, of the Texas Senate, fled to New Mexico to prevent a quorum of the Senate to prevent another redistricting bill during a special legislative session. Though the Democrats stayed in New Mexico for 46 days, one democrat returned to Texas, creating a quorum; because there was now no point in staying in New Mexico, the Texas Eleven Minus One returned to Texas to oppose the bill with votes in opposition. The bill ultimately passed both the House and the Senate as the 2003 Texas redistricting legislation, which was ruled constitutional by the US Supreme Court in 2006, though Congressional District 23 was deemed an unconstitutional case of gerrymandering. The Texas Eleven are a group of Texas Senate Democrats who fled the state of Texas for New Mexico for 46 days in 2003 in a quorum-busting effort aimed at preventing the passage of controversial redistricting legislation that would have benefited Texas Republicans. ... The 2003 Texas redistricting refers to a highly controversial Congressional redistricting plan that ultimately went to the Supreme Court of the United States for review. ... Gerrymandering is a controversial form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ...


The technique of the disappearing quorum (refusing to vote although physically present on the floor), was used by the minority to block votes in the US House of Representatives until 1890. The disappearing quorum was a practice used by the minority party to prevent voting in the US House of Representatives. ...


Ordinary societies

In an ordinary society (such as a local club), if the quorum is not specified in the organization's bylaws, it is a majority of the members. This can cause problems because, in most such organizations, only a smaller portion of the membership usually comes to meetings, and without a quorum, no business may be done. It may be impossible to correct this problem within the bounds of parliamentary procedure. For this reason, it is a good idea to include a provision in the bylaws setting the quorum at some smaller number. A Bylaw (sometimes also seen as By-Law or ByLaw) is a rule governing the internal management of an organization, such as a business corporation. ... A parliamentary procedure is the individual process used for decision making by a deliberative assembly. ...


Online communities

When votes are held in large online communities, where it may never be the case that a majority of the members are "present", the effect of quorum is different. Being absent from the vote no longer requires particular effort, but is the default case: voters are usually assumed to be absent unless they cast a vote. Online communities therefore tend to have quorums that are much less than a majority of the members.


In such votes, a non-monotonic aspect can be introduced: a voter can inadvertently swing a vote from failing to passing by voting "no", if a majority has voted "yes" and that "no" vote is the one that causes quorum to be met. With no penalty for being absent, voters are faced with a strategic choice between voting "no" and not voting. A voting system is monotonic if it satisfies the monotonicity criterion, given below. ...


The Debian project has addressed this issue in its voting mechanisms with the idea of per-option quorum. A quorum is not set on the total number of votes, but on the number of votes a particular option (besides the status quo) must receive before it is considered. For example, in a yes/no vote, the quorum may say that at least 40 "yes" votes are required, along with "yes" having a majority of votes, for the vote to pass. Debian, organized by the Debian Project, is a widely used distribution of free software developed through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ...


Sub-Quorum

Sub-Quorum is a method, permitted by the governing rules of some organizations, allowing meetings to make decisons with only half the required number of people present. A decison made using Sub-Quorum would have to be ratified at a meeting with a full quorum. The system is widely used in Student Unions.[1] The largest Students Union building at Oklahoma State University, which doubles as a student activity center (student union in the USA) A students union, student government, or student council is a student organization present at many colleges and universities, often with its own building on the campus, dedicated to social...


External links

  • Quorum in the Debian Voting System
  • Voting and Quorum Procedures in the U.S. Senate [pdf ~ 55k]
  • Seattle PI article on the Texas Democratic walkout
  • Washington Post article on the 2004 elections in Texas and Texas Politics (under the results tables)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Quorum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1053 words)
When quorum is not met, a legislative body cannot hold a vote, and cannot change the status quo.
A quorum in a legislative body is normally a majority of the entire membership of the body.
The technique of the disappearing quorum (refusing to vote although physically present on the floor), was used by the minority to block votes in the US House of Representatives until 1890.
Quorum (Mormonism) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1401 words)
Each Quorum of the Seventy may consist of up to seventy ordained to the office of Seventy, and is presided over by seven presidents who hold keys to direct the affairs of the quorum.
An Elders Quorum is a local quorum organized in each ward, but presided over by a president with priesthood keys, who acts under the direction and authority of the local stake presidency, and under the direction of the presiding high priest in the ward who is typically a Bishop.
Priest Quorums are organized at the ward level and presided over by the ward Bishop, with the Bishop being the president of the quorum(s) and holds the keys of the Aaronic Priesthood in the ward.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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