FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Quorn" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Quorn
Quorn logo

Quorn is the leading brand of mycoprotein food product in the UK[1] and a leading brand elsewhere. Mycoprotein is the generic term for protein-rich foodstuffs made from processed edible fungus. Quorn is a meat substitute. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Quorn_logo. ... Mycoprotein is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: the albuminoid which is the principal constituent of the protoplasm of the cell. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ...


Quorn is produced as both a cooking ingredient and a range of ready meals. Quorn is sold (largely in Europe but also in other parts of the world) as a healthy food and an alternative to meat, especially for vegetarians. As it uses egg white as a binder, it is not suitable for vegans. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into TV dinner. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Healthful eating is the act of following a balanced nutritional diet. ... A meat analogue, also called meat substitute, mock meat or veat, approximates the aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of certain types of meat. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Albumen redirects here. ... A binder is a material used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ...

Contents

History

A shortage of protein-rich foods by the 1980s was predicted during the 1950s.[2] In response to this, many research programmes were undertaken to utilise single-cell biomass as an animal feed. Contrary to the trend, Lord Rank instructed the Rank Hovis McDougall (RHM) Research Centre to investigate converting starch (the waste product of cereal manufacturing undertaken by RHM) into a protein-rich food for human consumption. Joseph Arthur Rank, 1st Baron Rank (December 23, 1888 – March 29, 1972) was a British industrialist and film producer, and founder of the Rank Organisation, now known as The Rank Group Plc. ... RHM, know more fully as Rank Hovis McDougall was a United Kingdom food business until its purchase by Premier Foods in March 2007. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ...


Following an extensive screening process, the filamentous fungus Fusarium venenatum, discovered in 1967[3], was isolated as the best candidate. In 1980, RHM was given permission to sell mycoprotein for human consumption after a ten-year evaluation programme. Binomial name Fusarium venenatum Fusarium venenatum is a fungus, more precisely a mold, from which a mycoprotein can be derived. ...


The initial retail product was produced in 1985 by Marlow Foods (named after RHM's headquarters in Marlow, Buckinghamshire) - a joint venture between RHM and Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) who provided a fermenter left vacant from their abandoned single-cell feed programme. Patents for growing and processing the fungus, and other intellectual properties in the brand, were invested in Marlow by the two partners. Although the food sold well in the initial test market of the RHM staff canteen, the large supermarket chains were unconvinced until Lord Sainsbury, owner of supermarket Sainsbury's agreed to stock the novel food. Quorn entered widespread distribution in the UK in 1994, and was introduced to other parts of Europe in the 1990s and to the United states in 2002.[4] The initial advertising campaign for Quorn featured sports personalities including footballer Ryan Giggs, rugby player Will Carling and runner Sally Gunnell.[5] Overlooking river Thames and Marlow Marlow (previously Great Marlow or Chipping Marlow) is a town on the very southern tip of Buckinghamshire, England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... David John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville (born 24 October 1940) is a British businessman, politician and life peer for the Labour Party. ... This article is about the supermarket business. ... Ryan Joseph Giggs OBE[1] (born Ryan Joseph Wilson on 29 November 1973 in Cardiff) is a Welsh footballer, currently playing for Manchester United in the English Premiership, and formerly for the Welsh national team prior to his retirement from international football on June 2, 2007. ... William Carling OBE (born December 12, 1965) is a former Rugby union player, and captain of England from 1988 to 1996. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although the mycoprotein was originally conceived as a protein-rich food supplement for the predicted global famine, the food shortage never materialised. In 1989 a survey revealed almost half of the UK population was reducing their intake of red meats and a fifth of young people were vegetarians. As a result, Marlow Foods decided to sell Quorn as a new healthy meat analogue which was free of animal fats and cholesterol.


When ICI hived off its biological products divisions from the core chemical business in 1993, Marlow became part of the Astra Zeneca group, one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies. In 2003 Zeneca sold Marlow, the Quorn business, and associated trademarks and patents, to private equity firm Montagu Private Equity for £70 million.[6] Two years later food giant Premier Foods acquired Marlow for £172 million.[7] AstraZeneca PLC, is a large Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company formed on 6 April 1999 by the merger of Swedish Astra AB and British Zeneca Group PLC. Zeneca was part of Imperial Chemical Industries prior to a demerger in 1993. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... Premier Foods plc is a British-based food manufacturer headquartered in St Albans. ...


Marlow sells Quorn brand mycoprotein in ready-to-cook forms (as cubes and a form resembling minced meat), and later introduced a range of chilled vegetarian meals based on Quorn. Its range includes pizzas, lasagna, cottage pie, and formed Quorn products resembling sliced meat, hotdogs, and burgers. As of 2006 it is available in stores in the UK, the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, the US, Switzerland and Republic of Ireland. In the UK it enjoys around 60% of the meat-replacement food market, with annual sales of around £95 million[6]. Until December 2003 Quorn had been available in France. For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... Lasagna in the crinkly American style. ... Cottage pie is a variation on shepherds pie that is based on minced (ground) beef rather than lamb or mutton. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2004 McDonald's introduced a Quorn branded burger bearing the seal of approval of the Vegetarian Society,[8] an endorsement criticised by the Vegan Society.[9] McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity established on 30 September 1847 with the aim of promoting understanding and respect for vegetarian lifestyles. ... The Vegan Society is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, promoting the vegan diet. ...


Production

Quorn is made from the soil mold Fusarium venenatum strain PTA-2684 (previously misidentified as the parasitic mold Fusarium graminearum). The fungus is grown in continually oxygenated water in large, sterile fermentation tanks. During the growth phase glucose is added as a food for the fungus, as are various vitamins and minerals (to improve the food value of the resulting product). The resulting mycoprotein is then extracted and heat-treated to remove excess levels of RNA. Previous attempts at producing such fermented protein foodstuffs were thwarted by excessive levels of DNA or RNA; without the heat treatment, purine, found in nucleic acids, is metabolised producing uric acid, which can lead to gout.[10] It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name (Schwein. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Mycoprotein is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: the albuminoid which is the principal constituent of the protoplasm of the cell. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ...


The product is then dried and mixed with chicken egg albumen, which acts as a binder. It is then textured, giving it some of the grained character of meat, and pressed either into a mince (resembling ground beef), forms resembling chicken breasts, meatballs, turkey roasts, or into chunks (resembling diced chicken breast). In these forms Quorn has a varying color and a mild flavour resembling the imitated meat product, and is suitable for use as a replacement for meat in many dishes, such as stews and casseroles. The final Quorn product is high in vegetable protein and dietary fibre and is low in saturated fat and salt. The amount of dietary iron it contains is lower than that of most meats. An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Albumen redirects here. ... In cooking, a casserole (from the French for stew pan) is a large, deep, covered pot or dish used both in the oven and as a serving dish. ... Dietary fibers are long-chain carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that are indigestible by the human digestive tract. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Contrary to some suggestions, Quorn is not genetically modified: the fungus used is still genetically unmodified from the state in which it was discovered. The different tastes and forms of Quorn are results of industrial processing of the raw fungus.


Quorn for the European market is produced at Marlow's headquarters in Stokesley, North Yorkshire and at nearby Billingham in Teesside.[11] Statistics Population: 4750 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NZ524087 Administration District: Hambleton Shire county: North Yorkshire Region: Yorkshire and the Humber Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: North Yorkshire Historic county: Yorkshire (North Riding) Services Police force: North Yorkshire Police Ambulance service: Yorkshire Post office and... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ... For people named Billingham, see Billingham (surname). ... Arms of the County Borough of Teesside Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in northern England based on Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Redcar, along the banks of the River Tees with a resident population of over 388,000 in 2005. ...


Controversy

Quorn's 2002 debut in the United States was more problematic than its European introduction had been — the sale of Quorn was contested by The American Mushroom Institute, Gardenburger and the Center for Science in the Public Interest. They filed complaints with advertising and trading-standards watchdogs in Europe and the USA, claiming that the labelling of Quorn as "mushroom based" was deceptive. The CSPI, observing that while a mushroom is a fungus, fusarium is not a mushroom, and they quipped, "Quorn's fungus is as closely related to mushrooms as humans are to jellyfish." Also see: 2002 (number). ... The American Mushroom Institute is the industry trade group for the American mushroom industry. ... Not a Gardenburger. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ...


CSPI also expressed concern that some proteins present in Quorn could produce unexpected allergic reactions in some consumers, and continues to lobby for its removal from stores on this basis. But as others counter, milk, peanuts, soy, eggs, and many other foods are common allergens (often fatally), setting a precedent that simply being an allergen for some consumers is not a reasonable cause to remove a product from stores. Calling the product "fungus food", CSPI claimed in 2003 that it "sickens 4.5% of eaters"[12]. The manufacturer disputes the figure, claiming that only 0.0007% (1 in 146,000) suffer adverse reactions[12]. The CSPI's claims were disputed by Marlow and described by Leslie Bonci, professor of nutrition at the University of Pittsburgh, as "overblown".[13] CSPI have in turn been accused of using the most extreme and overblown quotations they receive for shock value.[14] Pundit Steven Milloy, writing for the American channel Fox News, said "CSPI appears to have an unsavory relationship with Quorn competitor, Gardenburger" and called the CSPI's complaints "unscrupulous shrieking".[15] Gardenburger in turn refuted this, saying Milloy's "unsavory relationship" claim was "untrue and groundless".[16] Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Pittsburgh, commonly referred to as Pitt, is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Steven Milloy is a columnist for Fox News and a paid advocate for Phillip Morris, ExxonMobil and other corporations. ... “Fox News” redirects here. ...


The UK's Advertising Standards Authority also had concerns over Marlow's practice of marketing Quorn as "mushroom in origin", saying it had been "misleading consumers". The ASA noted "despite the advertiser’s explanation that they used the term because customers were unfamiliar with the main ingredient, mycoprotein, the ASA considered that the claim implied that Quorn was made from mushroom. Marlow Foods were asked either to delete the claim or give in the same font size, a statement of the mycoprotein origin of the product, or the fungal origin of the product."[17] The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the independent British self regulatory organisation (SRO) of the advertising industry. ...


Quorn's uptake in the vegetarian market was hampered by the use of battery eggs in its production process, a practice opposed on ethical grounds by many vegetarians. For this reason, the Vegetarian Society initially did not approve these products. Working with the Vegetarian Society, Marlow began phasing out battery eggs in 2000,[18] and by 2004 all Quorn products sold in the UK were produced without battery eggs, earning the seal of approval of the UK branch of the Vegetarian Society.[19] The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ...


References

General references

The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Farhad Manjoo (born 1978) is a staff writer for Salon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Specific references

  1. ^ Management Today magazine, article dated 1 March 2004: "Quorn is the leading brand in the UK's £582 million vegetarian market, according to The Grocer, with sales of £75 million."
  2. ^ History. Quorn USA website. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  3. ^ Melanie Warner (2005-05-03). Lawsuit Challenges a Meat Substitute. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  4. ^ What is Quorn?. Quorn USA website. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  5. ^ Quorn joins Premier line-up for £172m. Evening Standard. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  6. ^ a b Quorn to get a higher profile as Premier buys maker for £172m. Yorkshire Post (2005-06-07). Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  7. ^ Acquisition of Marlow Foods Holdings Limited for £172m. Press release announcing acquisition by Premier Foods. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  8. ^ Quorn timeline. Quorn UK website. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  9. ^ Vegetarian group backs McDonalds. BBC News Online (2004-10-01). Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  10. ^ Mycoprotein and Quorn product manufacture. Marlow Foods USA. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  11. ^ Marlow Foods Locality. Quorn UK website (Google cache). Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  12. ^ a b 4½% of Britons Report Problems After Eating Quorn. CSPI press release (2003-09-23). Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  13. ^ Joe Lewandowski (2002-10-1). Quorn Dogged: Scientists Call Advocacy Group's Complaints Unfounded. The Natural Foods Merchandiser. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  14. ^ For example, citing of a comment from the CSPI Quorn complaint website that the consumer "was twice incontinent of feces in public!!" Victims of Quorn Poisoning.
  15. ^ Steven Milloy (2002-08-30). Quorn & CSPI: The Other Fake Meat. Fox News. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  16. ^ Scott C. Wallace, CEO of Gardenburger. Gardenburger rebuttal to: "The Other Fake Meat" by Steven Milloy. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  17. ^ Annual Report 2002 (PDF, page 5). Advertising Standards Authority. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  18. ^ Tina Fox, Chief Executive, Vegetarian Society. Selling the Symbol : The Vegetarian Society's Seedling Licence Scheme. speech to the 36th World Vegetarian Congress in November 2004. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  19. ^ Soya & mycoprotein information sheet. Vegetarian Society. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yorkshire Post was founded in 1754, as the Leedes Intelligencer, making it one of Britains first daily newspapers. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Premier Foods plc is a British-based food manufacturer headquartered in St Albans. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Steven Milloy is a columnist for Fox News and a paid advocate for Phillip Morris, ExxonMobil and other corporations. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the independent British self regulatory organisation (SRO) of the advertising industry. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Details of the ingredients of some finished Quorn products

  Results from FactBites:
 
Quorn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1428 words)
Quorn is sold (largely in Europe) as a meat substitute or imitation meat.
Quorn is made from the soil mold Fusarium venenatum strain PTA-2684 (previously misidentified as the parasitic mold Fusarium graminearum).
In this form Quorn has a light brown colour and a mild flavour vaguely akin to a nutty beef, and is suitable for use as a replacement for meat in many dishes, such as stews and casseroles.
Article about "Quorn" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (549 words)
Quorn is the trademark of a fungus-based food product, sold (largely in Europe) as a meat substitute to vegetarians and the health conscious.
The final Quorn product is high in vegetable protein, dietary fibre, and is low in saturated fat and salt.
Quorn was first test-marketed in the UK in 1985 (although the product was not in general nationwide distribution until 1994), and introduced into other parts of Europe in the late 1990s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m