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Encyclopedia > Quirino Cristiani

Quirino Cristiani (July 2, 1896 - August 2, 1984) was an Argentine animation director and cartoonist, responsible for the world's first two animated feature films as well as the first animated feature film with sound. July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of 2-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... A cartoonist at work. ...


Cristiani was born on July 2, 1896, in Santa Guiletta, Italy. His family moved to Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1900, and Quirino spent his childhood soaking up the fast pace and left-leaning politics of the great southern metropolis. He came to consider himself a porteño first (as the natives of the port of Buenos Aires called themselves) and an Argentinian second. July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... BUE redirects here. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...


As a teenager, he developed a passion for drawing, which led him through a brief course with the Academy of Fine Arts to the publication of political caricatures for the city newspapers. Soon the perfect target for his satire presented himself. A common caricature of Charles Darwin focuses on his beard, eyebrows, and baldness, while often giving him the features of an ape or monkey. ...


The national elections of 1916 peacefully ended the thirty-six-year-long rule of the Conservative party and placed Radical party leader Hipólito Yrigoyen in the President's seat. Yrigoyen favored the lower middle class, especially in Buenos Aires, and granted unprecedented freedom to the press. The press in response turned on him, mocking his social awkwardness, his replacement of Conservative corruption with Radical corruption in the government, and his decision to keep Argentina out of World War I, a decision that was unpopular with the germanophile Argentine military. He was soon dubbed "Peludo" ("shaggy") for his lack of personal grooming (with the additional slang meaning of "idiot"). Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Juan Hipólito del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Yrigoyen Alem (July 12, 1852 – July 3, 1933) was twice President of Argentina (from 1916 to 1922 and again from 1928 to 1930). ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz...


Living in the capital was another Italian immigrant, Frederico Valle, once a cameraman and director in Europe (he used Wilbur Wright's visit to Rome in 1909 as the opportunity to film the world's first aerial cinematography), now a producer of newsreels for his adopted country. Valle was apolitical, but he knew the porteños were not. He hired the twenty-year old Cristiani off the street, gave him "Les allumettes animées" ("Animated Matches", 1908) by Emile Cohl to teach him technique, and set him loose. Before 1916 was out, Valle's newsreel Actualides Valle came out with an episode including the one minute cartoon "La intervención en la provencia de Buenos Aires" ("Intervention in the Province of Buenos Aires") by Quirino Cristiani. The cartoon was about Yrigoyen's ouster of Buenos Aires governor Marcelino Ugarte for dishonesty. This film used cardboard cutouts as the form of animation, a choice Cristiani would stick with throughout his career. Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), the elder of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Cinematography [Greek: kine (movement) and graphos (writing)], is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... Émile Cohl (January 4, 1857 - January 20, 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely-forgotten Incoherent movement, cartoonist, and animator, called The Father of the Animated Cartoon and The Oldest Parisian. The Courtet family has been traced back to the 10th century...


This short film did surprisingly well, and Valle announced a new project: the green animator would next create the world's first feature-length animated film, with President Yrigoyen as the subject. The funding would come from a Mr. Franchini, who owned a chain of movie theaters to show the finished film. Cristiani would get his character designs from newspaper cartoonist Diógenes Taborda (pen name "El Mono", "The Monkey"). Amazingly, Cristiani actually managed to accomplish his goal (doing the lion's share of the animation while Taborda found better uses for his valuable time): the 58,000-frame El Apóstol (an hour and ten minutes at an anemic 14 frames per second) premiered on November 9, 1917. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The movie was a satire, with President Yrigoyen ascending to the heavens to use Jupiter's thunderbolts to cleanse Buenos Aires of immorality and corruption. The result is a burnt city. The film was well-received. Most of the praise went to producer Valle, with what was left over going to Taborda. Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ...


In 1918, the German commander in Argentina, Baron von Luxburg, decided to manipulate Argentina into joining World War I on its side by sinking an Argentine ship and blaming the act on the Entente. The tales of the survivors of the incident led nearly everyone to realize what really happened, but Yrigoyen swung his political weight to cover the incident up, out of fear that Argentina might be pushed into the war as an enemy of Germany, an outcome he feared just as much as a German alliance. Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... European military alliances in 1915. ...


Cristiani saw the incident as the perfect opportunity, and with a new set of producers created the world's second feature-length animated film, Sin dejar rastros in 1918. The title ("Leaving No Trace") was a reference to von Luxburg's supposed order to the German U-boat captain who sank the ship. President Yrigoyen felt he had no choice but to order the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to confiscate the film the day after it premiered. In doing this, the Radical showed himself little better than the repressive Conservative presidents he had replaced. On the other hand, Cristiani was not imprisoned and spent the next several years creating political cartoons and caricatures for the newspapers. Two other animated features were put out at this time by Andrés Ducaud, the man who designed the fire effects in El Apóstol.


To support his growing family, Cristiani founded the advertising company Publi-Cinema, where he made short commercial cartoons. To show these cartoons, he traveled to the poorer parts of town, where no movie theaters were to be found, and showed the paying public Chaplin shorts and other films interspersed with his animation. This did so well that the police shut him down for "disturbing the peace and interrupting traffic". Charles Chaplin redirects here. ...


President "Peludo" finished out his six-year term in 1922, and was succeeded by another Radical, Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear. During Alvear's presidency, Cristiani started making animated shorts for entertainment purposes. Some of the titles included "Firpo-Dempsey" (1923) on the boxing match between American heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey and Argentinian champion Luis Firpo, "Uruguayos forever" (1924) on Uruguay's Olympic gold medal in soccer, and "Humberto de garufa" ("Little Umberto's Folic", 1924), on the visit of Italian Prince Umberto of Savoy to Buenos Aires. In 1926, a fire destroyed Federico Valle's film vaults. Among the films lost forever was El Apóstol. Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Máximo Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear Pacheco (Buenos Aires, 4 October 1868 - Don Torcuato, 23 March 1942), better known as Marcelo T. de Alvear was an Argentina politician that was President of Argentina from 12 October 1922 to 12 October 1928. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Jack Dempsey versus Luis Firpo fight was a historical boxing fight: It was the first time that a Latin American fighter would challenge for the world Heavyweight title, and it would be one of the defining fights of Dempseys career. ... William Harrison Jack Dempsey (June 24, 1895 – May 31, 1983) was an American boxer who held the world heavyweight title between 1919 and 1926, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest champions of all time. ... Luis Ángel Firpo, (October 11, 1894? - August 7, 1960), better known as Luis Firpo was a boxer of enormous transcendence in Latin America. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... At the 1924 Summer Olympics held in Paris, France, Uruguay dominated the Football tournament winning the Gold. ... Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15, 1904, Racconigi, province of Cuneo - March 18, 1983, Geneva, Switzerland), the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May (Italian: Re di Maggio), was born the Prince of Piedmont. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1928, the aging Hipólito Yrigoyen was re-elected president of Argentina. Cristiani felt that the man was too dominated by the corrupt leaders of the Radical party. With a script by Eduardo Gonzalez Lanuza, he set out to make his third animated feature film, Peludópolis. The movie was be a sort of fable, with pirate Yrigoyen's floating "Peludo City" (Argentina) beset by hungry sharks (the Radicals). Cristiani converted the operation over to sound partway through, including a few songs in the soundtrack (he used the primitive sound-on-disc system for the recording since it was unlikely that most Argentine theaters would be able to handle sound-on-film at the time of release). Then, on September 6, 1930, a year into production, work on Peludópolis was halted when President Yrigoyen was ousted by a Conservative military coup d'état. With so much invested in the film so far, Cristiani decided to proceed, re-arranging the plot to de-emphasize Yrigoyen and the sharks, and carefully adding the characters of the generals as the heroes, in an attempt to protect himself from possible persecution. He then added an everyman character named Juan Pueblo, to become the moral center of the film. With the provisional blessing of the provisional ruler of Argentina, General José Félix Uriburu, Cristiani premiered the film on September 16, 1931. It was the first animated film with sound. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The term Sound-on-disc refers to a class of sound film processes utilizing a phonograph or other disc to record or playback sound in sync with a motion picture. ... Sound-on-film refers to a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same film strip of film carrying the picture. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu (1868 - 1932) was President of Argentina from September 6, 1930 to February 20, 1932. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ...


Few people felt that the wake of a revolution was the right time to laugh about it. In addition, the Great Depression had come to Argentina. Worst of all, Yrigoyen died in bed in 1933 and suddenly the entire country was gripped with grief for a man few had cared deeply for when he was alive. Cristiani respectfully withdrew the film from circulation. The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Quirino Cristiani never had another chance for greatness in animation. Mickey Mouse took over Argentina like he had the rest of the world, and like so many other artists, Cristiani couldn't compete. Studios Cristiani was converted into a dubbing/subbing lab, one of the best of its kind in Argentina. Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become a symbol for The Walt Disney Company. ...


Cristiani made three more animated films in his life, none of which was very memorable. When Walt Disney came to Argentina as part of his Latin America research tour, Cristiani showed his films to him, then sent him to cartoonist Molina Campos, the source of the gaucho segment in Saludos Amigos (1943). Two fires in 1957 and 1961 destroyed the majority of Cristiani's work, including the only prints of Peludópolis. He died in Bernal, Argentina, on August 2, 1984. For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Gauchos taming horses in Corrientes Province, Argentina. ... Saludos Amigos is the sixth animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • Giannalberto Bendazzi (Anna Taraboletti-Segre, translator); Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation; Indiana University Press; ISBN 0-253-20937-4 (paperback reprint, 2001)

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Untold Story of Argentina's Pioneer Animator (2937 words)
Quirino Cristiani had drawn and animated the sequence using techniques he had learned from studying films by Émile Cohl that Valle had kept in his exchange.
Cristiani's life was complicated by the fact that Valle had hired Diógenes Taborda, known as "El Mono" ("The Monkey," as was apparently very ugly), to design characters for the film.
Cristiani now had two children, and the income from the sale of his cartoons was apparently not enough to support a family of four.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Quirino Cristiani (1424 words)
Quirino Cristiani (July 2, 1896 - August 2, 1984) was an Argentine animation director and cartoonist, responsible for the world's first two animated feature films as well as the first animated feature film with sound.
Cristiani was born on July 2, 1896, in Santa Guiletta, Italy.
Cristiani converted the operation over to sound partway through, including a few songs in the soundtrack (he used the primitive sound-on-disc system for the recording since it was unlikely that most Argentine theaters would be able to handle sound-on-film at the time of release).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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