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Encyclopedia > Quipu
Inca Quipu. Larco Museum Collection.

Quipu or khipu were recording devices used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. A quipu usually consisted of colored spun and plied thread or strings from llama or alpaca hair or cotton cords with numeric and other values encoded by knots in a base 10 positional system. Quipus may have just a few strands, but some have up to 2,000 strands. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Larco Museum Lima, Peru The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ...


Quipu is the Spanish language spelling and the most common spelling in English. Khipu is the word for "knot" in the Southern Quechua (the native Inca language); the kh is an aspirated k. In some other norms, the term is kipu. It is pronounced "key-poo". This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... KNOT is a commercial Classic Country music radio station in Prescott, Arizona, broadcasting to the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona area on 1450 AM. Query the FCCs AM station database for KNOT Radio Locator Information on KNOT AM radio stations in the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona market (Arbitron #151) By frequency: By... Southern Quechua (Spanish: Quechua sureño, Southern Quechua: Chanka Qusqu Qullaw allin qillqay Qhichwa or HananRuna Simi) is an indigenous literary language and literary norm of the Quechua language for its southern varieties, respectively, in Peru and Bolivia. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ...

Contents

Information recorded

It is generally thought that during the development of the system, there was no attempt to remaster, or recreate phonetic sounds as the script in most writing systems does. The quipu have yet to be fully deciphered, and there are a variety of theories as to how much information they contain. There is currently a theory put forward by Gary Urton that the Khipus represented a binary system capable of recording phonological or logographic data. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ...


Possible uses

Many uses that are known today for the quipu are: census counts, tax accounting (known as the Mita system), a count of items that should be bought or sold and basic numerical data. Inca administrators seemed to be the primary users of the quipu, using it as a way to keep track of their resources like livestock and farming. These administrators would be in charge of certain districts that divided up the empire. They were also used to track events and time. In North America the wampam strings and beads were used in similar ways to track important events and agreements. In ancient India sacred knotted string was also used to mark special occasions. If the use of knotted thread and related use of shell methodologies (conch shell core) have a common origin, recent DNA studies of migration from Indo-Asian continental populations into the Americas could help to refine for us the original source of "quipu/wampum", its evolution, and its spread throughout the world. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Quipucamayocs

Representation of a quipu
Representation of a quipu

Quipucamayocs (Quechua khipu kamayuq, "khipu-authority"), the accountants of Tawantin Suyu, created and deciphered the quipu knots. Quipucamayocs were capable of performing simple mathematics, basic arithmetic operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing information for the indigenous people. This included keeping track of mita, a form of taxation. The Quipucamayocs also tracked the type of labor being performed, maintained a record of economic output, and ran a census that counted everyone from infants to "old blind men over 80". The system was also used to keep track of the calendar. Image File history File links From Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1888 - Public Domain This image is from the 4th edition of the Meyers Konversationslexikon. ... Image File history File links From Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1888 - Public Domain This image is from the 4th edition of the Meyers Konversationslexikon. ... A view of Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas, now an archaeological site. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... 3 + 2 = 5 with apples, a popular choice in textbooks[1] This article is about addition in mathematics. ... 5 - 2 = 3 (verbally, five minus two equals three) An example problem Subtraction is one of the four basic arithmetic operations; it is essentially the opposite of addition. ... In mathematics, multiplication is an elementary arithmetic operation. ... In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the inverse of multiplication. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ... Output in economics is the total value of all of the goods and services produced in an entitys economy. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


Conquest

Quipucamayocs were not the only members of Inca society to use the quipu. Inca historians used the quipu when telling the Spanish about Tahuantinsuyu history (whether they recorded important numbers or actually contained the story itself is unknown). Members of the ruling class were usually taught to read the quipu as part of their education. (See: Inca education) Representation of a quipu Quipu or khipu were recording devices used during the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... This is a list of historians. ... Amauta Inca education during the time of the Inca Empire was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes and education for the general population. ...


In the early years of the Spanish conquest of Peru, Spanish officials often relied on the quipu to settle disputes over local tribute payments or goods production. Also, Spanish chroniclers concluded that quipus were used basically as mnemonic devices to communicate and record information in the numerical format. Quipucamayocs could be summoned to court, where their bookkeeping was considered legal documentation of past payments. There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ...


Suppression and destruction

The Spanish quickly suppressed the use of the quipu. The Conquistadores realized the Quipucamayocs often remained loyal to their original rulers rather than the King of Spain, and Quipucamayocs could lie about the contents of a message. The Conquistadores were also attempting to convert the indigenous people to Catholicism. Anything representing the Inca religion was considered idolatry and an attempt to disregard Catholic conversion. Many Conquistadores considered the quipu to be idolatrous and therefore destroyed many of them. Conquistadors (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) were Spanish soldiers, explorers and adventurers who invaded and conquered much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement by Christopher Columbus in what is now the Dominican Republic and Haiti. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a Christian ecclesiastical... The Sun Temple complex at Písac. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Status today

Today only 600 Inca quipu survive, and about 15 or 20 were transcribed as Spanish colonial documents, but no correlation with the transcriptions has yet been found. More primitive uses of the quipu have also continued in the Peruvian highlands. Some historians believe only the Quipucamayocs that made the specific quipu could read it. If this is true it cannot be considered a form of writing, but rather a mnemonic device. Many historians, however, have attempted to convert the quipu into a decipherable language because the Tahuantinsuyu was such a powerful Empire prior to its conquest by Spain; learning more about the Inca side of the story could possibly reveal an entirely new link to the past. For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


In 1994, Frank Salomon conducted a study in the Peruvian village of Tupicocha, where khipus are still an important part of the social life of the village. This was the only village where khipus, with a similar structure to pre-Columbian examples, still function in the government, although the villagers do not associate their khipus with Inka artifacts, and they do not change the knots (Salomon 2004).


Nowadays the word Kipu is also used in the Quechua translation of Windows XP. The word Kipu stands for 'File' within the well known menu structure in Windows. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


The encoding system

Marcia and Robert Ascher, after analyzing several hundred quipus, have shown that most information on the quipus is numeric, and these numbers can be read. Each cluster of knots is a digit, and there are three types of knots: simple overhand knots; "long knots" consisting of an overhand knot with one or more additional turns; and figure-of-eight knots. A number is represented as a sequence of knot clusters in base 10. The overhand knot is a type of knot. ... A: Turn B: Round turn C: Two round turns A turn is a component of a knot. ... The figure-of-eight knot is a type of knot. ...

  • Powers of ten are shown by position along the string, and this position is aligned between successive strands.
  • Digits in positions for 10 and higher powers are represented by clusters of simple knots (e.g. 40 is four simple knots in a row in the "tens" position).
  • Digits in the "ones" position are represented by long knots (e.g. 4 is a knot with 4 turns). Because of the way the knots are tied, the digit 1 cannot be shown this way and is represented in this position by a figure-of-eight knot.
  • Zero is represented by the absence of a knot in the appropriate position.
  • Because the ones digit is shown in a distinctive way, it is clear where a number ends. One strand on a quipu can therefore contain several numbers.

For example, if 4s represents four simple knots, 3L represents a long knot with three turns, E represents a figure-of-eight knot and X represents a space:

  • The number 731 would be represented by 7s, 3s, E
  • The number 804 would be represented by 8s, X, 4L
  • The number 107 followed by the number 51 would be represented by 1s, X, 7L, 5s, E

This reading can be confirmed by a fortunate fact: quipus regularly contain sums in a systematic way. For instance, a cord may contain the sum of the next n cords, and this relationship is repeated throughout the quipu. Sometimes there are sums of sums as well. Such a relationship would be very improbable if the knots were incorrectly read.


Some data items are not numbers but what Ascher and Ascher call number labels. They are still composed of digits, but the resulting number seems to be used as a code, much as we use numbers to identify individuals, places, or things. Lacking the context for individual quipus, it is difficult to guess what any given code might mean. Other aspects of the quipu would have communicated information as well: color coding, relative placement of cords, spacing, and the structure of cords and sub-cords.


Some have argued that far more than numeric information is present and that the quipu are a writing system. This is especially important as there is no surviving record of a written Quechua from before the Spanish invasion, either because the Spanish destroyed all records, or because the Incas hid their records from other civilizations or cultures. Writing systems of the world today. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ...


In 2003, while checking the geometric signs that appear on drawings of Inca dresses from the "First Brand Chronicle and Fair Government" written by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala in 1695, William Burns Glynn found a pattern that seems to decipher some words from quipus by matching knots to colors of strings. Book cover of Nueva Crónica y Buen Gobierno, written by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala in 1615, aproximately. ... Jan. ...


The August 12, 2005 edition of the journal Science includes a report "Khipu Accounting in Ancient Peru" by anthropologist Gary Urton and mathematician Carrie J. Brezine. Their work may represent the first identification of a quipu element for a non-numeric concept, a sequence of three figure-of-eight knots at the start of the quipu that seems to be a unique signifier. It could be a toponym for the city Puruchuco (near Lima), or the name of the khipu keeper who made it, or its subject matter, or even a time designator. is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Professor of Anthropology (1978) Director, Division of Social Sciences (1995 – present) Degrees: BA University of New Mexico 1969; MA, PhD University of Illinois 1971, 1979 Teaching Specialties: South America – the Andes, Amazonia; Native people and cultures of North and South America; topics: social/cultural anthropology, anthropology and history, primitive art... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nickname: Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est Lima Province and Lima within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled January 18, 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ...


Locations of Khipus

According to the Khipu Database Project [1] undertaken by Harvard professor Gary Urton and his colleague Carrie Brezine, 751 khipus have been reported to exist across the globe. Their whereabouts range from Europe to North and South America. Most are housed in museums outside of their native countries, however some do reside in their native locations under the care of the descendants of those who made the mystery knot records. The largest collection of all is found in western Europe at the Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin, Germany with a reported 298 khipus. The next largest collection in Europe can be seen at the Museum für Völkerkunde [2] in Munich. Pachacamac [3] in Peru and the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Antropologia e Historia [4] in Lima, Peru each house 35 khipus and the Centro Mallqui [5] in Leymebamba, Peru holds a collection of 32. The Museo Temple Radicati, Lima, Peru houses 26, the Museo de Ica, Ica, Peru has 25 and the Museo Puruchuco,[6] Ate, Peru has 23. While patrimonial khipu collections have not been accounted for in this database, their numbers are likely to be unknown. One prominent patrimonial collection held by the Rapazians of Rapaz, Peru was recently researched by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor, Frank Salomon. Professor of Anthropology (1978) Director, Division of Social Sciences (1995 – present) Degrees: BA University of New Mexico 1969; MA, PhD University of Illinois 1971, 1979 Teaching Specialties: South America – the Andes, Amazonia; Native people and cultures of North and South America; topics: social/cultural anthropology, anthropology and history, primitive art... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Pachacamac empire The ancient city of Pachacamac is a ruin 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. ... Nickname: Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est Lima Province and Lima within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled January 18, 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ...


Preservation Issues

In preservation (library and archival science), theory and practice go hand and glove in maintaining artifacts and the intellectual record while providing access for future generations. Issues of preservation of khipus are addressed using the most appropriate techniques that will allow the artifact to endure with the least amount of artifactual degredation as possible, for years to come. Museums, archives and special collections have adopted preservation guidelines from textile practices. Khipus are made of fibers either from a protein, such as spun and plied thread like wool or hair from camelids such as alpacas, llamas and camels or from a cellulose like cotton. The knotted strings of the khipus were often made with "elaborate system of knotted cords, dyed in various colors, the significance of which was known to the magistrates" [7] Preservation of color, natural or dyed, is an issue that can not be reversed if fading has already occurred and may indicate further damage to the fibers. Colors can darken with the onset of dust as well as with the use of certain dyes and mordants. Khipus have been found with adornments such as animal shells attached to the cords and these non textile materials may include additional preservation steps. National Bureau of Standards preserving the U.S. Declaration of Independence in 1951 Decaying books at the library of Merton College, Oxford. ... A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ... For alternate uses see: Archive (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... For the film, see Hair (film). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Lama pacos (Linnaeus, 1758) The Alpaca is one of two domesticated breeds of South American camel-like ungulates, derived from the wild guanaco. ... Binomial name Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Llama (Lama glama) is a large camelid native to South America. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... KNOT is a commercial Classic Country music radio station in Prescott, Arizona, broadcasting to the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona area on 1450 AM. Query the FCCs AM station database for KNOT Radio Locator Information on KNOT AM radio stations in the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona market (Arbitron #151) By frequency: By... A magistrate is a civil or criminal (or both) judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ...


All textiles are damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light. This damage can include fading and weakening of the fiberous material. Environmental controls are used to monitor and control temperature, humidity and light exposure to storage areas. The heating, ventilating and air conditioning, or HVAC systems, of buildings that house khipu knot records are usually automatically regulated. Relative humidity should be 60% or lower with cool temperatures to compliment. High temperatures can increase embrittlement and deterioration of the khipu fibers. Damp conditions and high humidity levels can cause unwanted conditions when a protein rich material is present. As with all textile, cool, clean, dry and dark environments are most suitable. When khipus are on display their exposure to normal ambient conditions is usually minimized and closely monitored.[8] For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC sheet metal ducting and copper piping, as well as...


Khipus are also closely monitored for mold, as well as insects and their larvae. As with all textiles, these are major issues.Fumigation may not be a recommended method for fiber textiles displaying mold or with insect infestations, although it is common practice for ridding paper of mold and insects. It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Larvae are the plural of larva, juvenile form of animals with indirect development. ... Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Look up infestation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


Storage is often a time when damage can occur to a collection. The more accessible items are during storage, the higher the chances of early detection. [8] Storing khipus horizontally on boards covered with a neutral pH paper (paper that is neither acid or alkaline to prevent potential acid transfer is a preservation technique that extends the life of a collection. Extensive handling of khipus can also increase the risk of further damage. The fibers can be abraided by rubbing against each other or for those attached to sticks or rods by their own weight if held in an upright position.[9] The correct title of this article is . ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ...


When Gary Urton, professor of Anthropology at Harvard was asked "Are they [khipu] fragile?" He answered, "some of them are, and you can't touch them--they would break or turn into dust. Many are quite well preserved, and you can actually study them without doing them any harm. Of course, any time you touch an ancient fabric like that, you're doing some damage, but these strings are generally quite durable." [10] Professor of Anthropology (1978) Director, Division of Social Sciences (1995 – present) Degrees: BA University of New Mexico 1969; MA, PhD University of Illinois 1971, 1979 Teaching Specialties: South America – the Andes, Amazonia; Native people and cultures of North and South America; topics: social/cultural anthropology, anthropology and history, primitive art... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


Ruth Shady, a Peruvian Archeologist has discovered a khipu believed to be around 5000 years old in the coastal city of Caral. It was discovered quite well preserved with "brown cotton strings wound around thin sticks", along with "a series of offerings, including mysterious fiber balls of different sizes wrapped in 'nets' and pristine reed baskets. Piles of raw cotton - still uncombed and containing seeds, though turned a dirty brown by the ages - and a ball of cotton thread" were also found preserved. The reason for the well preserved khipu and other artifacts, can be attributed to the arid condition of the 11,500 feet elevated location of Caral. [citation needed] Ruth Shady Solís (born in Callao, Peru on 29th December 1946) is a Peruvian anthropologist and archeologist. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ...


Conservation

Even when prevention and stabilization attempts have occurred, corrective care may still be required. Conservators in the field of library science have a skill set to handle a variety of situations. If khipus are to be conserved close to their native origin or birth place, local camelid or wool in natural colors can be obtained and used to mend breaks and splits within the cords.[11] Assessment of each individual cord, even though some khipu have been recorded to have hundreds of cords, is required and conserved individually. Khipu cords can be "mechanically cleaned with brushes, small tools and light vacuuming". [11] Just as the application of fungicides are not recommended for ridding khipus of mold, neither are the use of solvents for cleaning and ridding khipus of dirt. Rosa Choque Gonzales and Rosalia Choque Gonzales, conservators from southern Peru, worked to conserve the Rapaz patrimonial khipus in the Andean village of Rapaz, Peru. These khipus had undergone repair in the past, so this conservator team used new local camelid and wool fibers to spin around the area under repair in a similar fashion to the earlier repairs found on the khipu.[11] Library science is an interdisciplinary science incorporating the humanities, law and applied science to study topics related to libraries, the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources, and the political economy of information. ... Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and a bad smell. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Khipu Database Project.
  2. ^ State Museum of Ethnography.
  3. ^ Museo de Pachacamac.
  4. ^ Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Antropologia e Historia.
  5. ^ Centro Mallqui.
  6. ^ Museo Puruchuco.
  7. ^ Bingham, Hiram (1948). Lost City of the Incas, The Story of Machu Picchu and its Builders’.. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce. 
  8. ^ a b Conservation Register.
  9. ^ Piechota, Dennis (1978). "Storage Containerization Archaeological Textile Collections". Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 18: 10-18. 
  10. ^ Conversations String Theorist.
  11. ^ a b c Salomon, Frank & Renata Peters, (2007), 'Governance and Conservation of the Rapaz Khipu Patrimony.', Forthcoming.

Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, (19 November 1875 – 6 June 1956) was an American academic, explorer and politician. ...

In literature

The treasure hunt of Clive Cussler's Dirk Pitt novel Inca Gold centers on the decryption of a quipu's message. A treasure hunt can be one of a number of things. ... // Clive Eric Cussler (born July 15, 1931 in Aurora, Illinois)[1][2] is an American adventure novelist and successful amateur marine archaeologist. ... Dirk Pitt is a fictional character, the protagonist of a series of bestselling adventure novels written by Clive Cussler. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Inca Gold is a book written by Clive Cussler. ...


In The Stone Dance of the Chameleon, the blinded wise ones use quipu to store all their knowledge in a vast unlit library. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


In "Letters from a Peruvian Woman", Zilia treasures her quipus


There's also an argentinian publishing house called Ediciones Quipu.


In film

Several imagined examples of quipu usage occur in the animated series The Mysterious Cities of Gold. “Cities of Gold” redirects here. ...


In the April 27, 2007 episode of Numb3rs ("The Art of Reckoning"), a character uses quipu to keep a private journal. He misidentifies the quipu as Aztec in origin. Numb3rs (also capitalized as NUMB3RS and pronounced as Numbers) is an American television show produced by brothers Ridley Scott and Tony Scott. ... It has been suggested that Mexica be merged into this article or section. ...


See also

Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... National Bureau of Standards preserving the U.S. Declaration of Independence in 1951 Decaying books at the library of Merton College, Oxford. ...

References

  • Adrien, Kenneth (2001). Andean Worlds: Indigenous History, Culture and Consciousness. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-2359-6. 
  • The Archaeological Institute of America (November/December 2005). "Conversations: String Theorist". Archaeology 58 (6). ISSN 0003-8113. 
  • Ascher, Marcia; and Robert Ascher (1978). Code of the Quipu: Databook. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ASIN B0006X3SV4. 
  • Ascher, Marcia; and Robert Ascher (1980). Code of the Quipu: A Study in Media, Mathematics, and Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-09325-8. 
  • Cook, Gareth (January 2007). "Untangling the Mystery of the Inca". Wired (15.01). ISSN 1059-1028. 
  • Day, Cyrus Lawrence (1967). Quipus and witches' knots; the role of the knot in primitive and ancient cultures. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press. OCLC 1446690. 
  • Nordenskiold, Erland (1925). The Secret of the Peruvian Quipus. OCLC 2887018. 
  • Piechota, Dennis (1978). "Storage Containerization Archaeological Textile Collections". Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 18: pp.10-18. ISSN 0197-1360. 
  • Salomon, Frank (2001). "How an Andean 'Writing Without Words' Works". Current Anthropology 42: pp.1-27. ISSN 0011-3204. 
  • Salomon, Frank (2004). The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-822-33379-1. OCLC 54929904. 
  • Salomon, Frank; and Renata Peters (2007-03-31). "Governance and Conservation of the Rapaz Khipu Patrimony" (with collaboration of Carrie Brezine, Gino de las Casas Ríos, Víctor Falcón Huayta, Rosa Choque Gonzales, and Rosalía Choque Gonzales). paper delivered at Interdisciplinary Workshop on Intangible Heritage. Collaborative for Cultural Heritage and Museum Practices, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
  • Urton, Gary (1998). "From Knots to Narratives: Reconstructing the Art of Historical Record Keeping in the Andes from Spanish Transcriptions of Inka Khipus". Ethnohistory 45 (5): pp.409-438. DOI:10.2307/483319. ISSN 0014-1801. 
  • Urton, Gary (2003). Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-78539-9. OCLC 50323023. 
  • Urton, Gary; and Carrie Brezine (2003-2004). The Khipu Database Project.

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Gareth Cook is a Pulitzer prize winning science journalist, currently at the Boston Globe. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Professor of Anthropology (1978) Director, Division of Social Sciences (1995 – present) Degrees: BA University of New Mexico 1969; MA, PhD University of Illinois 1971, 1979 Teaching Specialties: South America – the Andes, Amazonia; Native people and cultures of North and South America; topics: social/cultural anthropology, anthropology and history, primitive art... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

  • The Khipu Database Project at Harvard University (gallery, archives, references, researchers, etc.)
  • The Quipu, an Incan Data Structure by Antonio Gutierrez, from "Geometry Step by Step from the Land of the Incas"
  • Quipu: A Modern Mystery
  • Geometry from the land of the Incas
  • Speaking of Graphics: The Quipu and Statistical Graphics
  • Untangling the Mystery of the Inca
  • From Knots to Narratives
  • Science: Inka Accounting Practices
  • Open / Popular (Ad Hoc) Khipu Decipherment Project
  • History of Counting-PlainMath.Net

Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...

Discovery of "Puruchuco" toponym

  • Experts 'decipher' Inca strings - BBC
  • Peruvian ‘writing’ system goes back 5,000 years[1] - MSNBC
  • American Textile History Museum
  • American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works

  Results from FactBites:
 
Quipu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1390 words)
Quipu or khipu were recording devices used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region.
Khipu is the word for "knot" in the Cusco dialect of the Quechua language (the native Inca language); the kh is an aspirated k.
Their work may represent the first identification of a quipu element for a non-numeric concept, a sequence of three figure-of-eight knots at the start of the quipu that seems to be a unique signifier.
Incan knotted code cracked? | The San Diego Union-Tribune (832 words)
Quipus are the mysterious bundles of colored and knotted threads that served as the Inca empire's means of recording information.
Quipus were used both by high officials to issue instructions and by lower officials to report what they had done.
Among a cache of 21 quipus recovered from a house, probably that of the chief quipu keeper, seven are clearly related in a three-tier accounting hierarchy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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