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Encyclopedia > Quinine
Quinine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2-ethenyl-4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-yl)- (6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)-methanol
Identifiers
CAS number 130-95-0
ATC code M09AA01 P01BC01
PubChem 8549
DrugBank APRD00563
Chemical data
Formula C20H24N2O2 
Mol. mass 324.417 g/mol
Physical data
Melt. point 177 °C (351 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 76 to 88%
Protein binding ~70%
Metabolism Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4 and CYP2C19-mediated)
Half life ~18 hours
Excretion Renal (20%)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

X (USA), D (Au) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x779, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quinine Category: ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1040, 218 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Quinine ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) (EC 1. ... Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The kidneys are organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ...

Legal status
Routes Oral, intravenous

Quinine (IPA: /ˈkwaɪnaɪn, kwɪˈniːn, ˈkwiːniːn/) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Antipyretics are drugs that prevent or reduce fever by lowering the body temperature from a raised state. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. ...


Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by P falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs took over. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical situations. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States. Quinine is also used to treat nocturnal leg cramps and arthritis, and there have been attempts (with limited success) to treat prion diseases. It was once a popular heroin adulterant. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Adulterants are chemical substances which should not be contained within other substances (eg. ...

Contents

Mechanism of action

The theorized mechanism of action for quinine and related anti-malarial drugs is that these drugs are toxic to the malaria parasite. Specifically, the drugs interfere with the parasite's ability to break down and digest hemoglobin. Consequently, the parasite starves and/or builds up toxic levels of partially degraded hemoglobin in itself. The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ...


Sources of quinine

Quinine was extracted from the bark of the South American cinchona tree and was isolated and named in 1817 by French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou. The name was derived from the original Quechua (Inca) word for the cinchona tree bark, "Quina" or "Quina-Quina", which roughly means "bark of bark" or "holy bark". Prior to 1820, the bark was first dried, ground to a fine powder and then mixed into a liquid (commonly wine) which was then drunk. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Species See text Cinchona L., is the name of a genus in Rubiaceae family, large evergreens that can grow over 10 metres tall. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pierre Joseph Pelletier, (1788-1842), was a chemist who did notable research work on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer of quinine and strychnine. ... Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (1795–1877) was a French chemist. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ...


Large scale use of quinine as a prophylaxis started around 1850, although it had been used in un-extracted form by Europeans since at least the early 1600s. Quinine was first used to treat malaria in Rome in 1631. During the 1600s, malaria was endemic to the swamps and marshes surrounding the city of Rome. Over time, malaria was responsible for the death of several Popes, many Cardinals and countless common citizens of Rome. Most of the priests trained in Rome had seen malaria victims and were familiar with the shivering brought on by the cold phase of the disease. In addition to its anti-malarial properties, quinine is an effective muscle relaxant, long used by the Quechua Indians of Peru to halt shivering brought on by cold temperatures. The Jesuit Brother Agostino Salumbrino (1561-1642), an apothecary by training and who lived in Lima, observed the Quechua using the quinine-containing bark of the cinchona tree for that purpose. While its effect in treating malaria (and hence malaria-induced shivering) was entirely unrelated to its effect in controlling shivering from cold, it was still the correct medicine for malaria. At the first opportunity, he sent a small quantity to Rome to test in treating malaria. In the years that followed, cinchona bark became one of the most valuable commodities shipped from Peru to Europe. For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Shivering is a human bodily function in response to cold. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Species See text Cinchona L., is the name of a genus in Rubiaceae family, large evergreens that can grow over 10 metres tall. ...


Quinine also played a significant role in the colonization of Africa by Europeans. As the dawn of modern pharmacology, Quinine was the prime reason why Africa ceased to be the white man's grave. According to Clifford D. Conner in "A People's History of Science", "It was quinine's efficacy that gave colonist fresh opportunities to swarm into the Gold Coast, Nigeria and other parts of west Africa and seize fertile agricultural lands, introduce new livestock and crops, build roads and railways, drive natives into mines, and introduce all the disruptions to traditional lifestyles that cash economies brought."(Conner pp 95-96) also cites Porter, "The Greatest Benefit to Mankind, pp. 465-466)


Synthetic quinine

Main article: quinine total synthesis

Cinchona trees remain the only practical source of quinine. However, under wartime pressure, research towards its artificial production was undertaken. A formal chemical synthesis was accomplished in 1944 by American chemists R.B. Woodward and W.E. Doering.[1] Since then, several more efficient quinine total syntheses have been achieved [2] , but none of them can compete in economic terms with isolation of the alkaloid from natural sources. In total synthesis, the Quinine total synthesis describes the efforts in synthesis of quinine over a 150 year period. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917–July 8, 1979) was an American organic chemist. ... William von Eggers Doering (born 22 June 1917 in Fort Worth, Texas) is a Professor Emeritus at Harvard University and the former Chair of its Chemistry Department. ... In total synthesis, the Quinine total synthesis describes the efforts in synthesis of quinine over a 150 year period. ...


Dosing

Quinine is a basic amine and is therefore always presented as a salt. Various preparations that exist include the hydrochloride, dihydrochloride, sulfate, bisulfate and gluconate. This makes quinine dosing very complicated, because each of the salts has a different weight. In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... The gluconate ion is formed when gluconic acid dissolves in water. ...


The following amounts of each form are equal:

  • quinine base 100 mg
  • quinine bisulfate 169 mg
  • quinine dihydrochloride 122 mg
  • quinine hydrochloride 122 mg
  • quinine sulfate 121 mg
  • quinine gluconate 160 mg.

All quinine salts may be given orally or intravenously (IV); quinine gluconate may also be given intramuscularly (IM) or rectally (PR).[3][4] The main problem with the rectal route is that the dose can be expelled before it is completely absorbed, but this can be rectified by giving half dose again. Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ...


The IV dose of quinine is 8 mg/kg of quinine base every eight hours; the IM dose is 12.8 mg/kg of quinine base twice daily; the PR dose is 20 mg/kg of quinine base twice daily. Treatment should be given for seven days.


The preparations available in the UK are quinine sulfate (200 mg or 300 mg tablets) and quinine hydrochloride (300 mg/ml for injection). Quinine is not licensed for IM or PR use in the UK. The adult dose in the UK is 600 mg quinine dihydrochloride IV or 600 mg quinine sulfate orally every eight hours.


In the United States quinine sulfate is available as 324 mg tablets under the brand name Qualaquin; the adult dose is two tablets every eight hours. There is no injectable preparation of quinine licensed in the U.S.: quinidine is used instead.[5][6] Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. ...


Quinine is not recommended for malaria prevention (prophylaxis) because of its side effects and poor tolerability, not because it is ineffective. When used for prophylaxis, the dose of quinine sulphate is 300–324mg once daily, starting one week prior to travel and continuing for four weeks after returning.


Side effects

See: cinchonism

It is usual for quinine in therapeutic doses to cause cinchonism; in rare cases, it may even cause death (usually by pulmonary edema). The development of mild cinchonism is not a reason for stopping or interrupting quinine therapy and the patient should be reassured. Blood glucose levels and electrolyte concentrations must be monitored when quinine is given by injection; the patient should also ideally be in cardiac monitoring when the first quinine injection is given (these precautions are often unavailable in developing countries where malaria is most a problem). Cinchonism or quinism is a pathological condition in humans caused by an overdose of quinine or its natural source, cinchona bark. ... Cinchonism or quinism is a pathological condition in humans caused by an overdose of quinine or its natural source, cinchona bark. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Cinchonism is much less common when quinine is given by mouth, but oral quinine is not well tolerated (quinine is exceedingly bitter and many patients will vomit up quinine tablets): other drugs such as Fansidar® (sulfadoxine (sulfonamide antibiotic) with pyrimethamine) or Malarone® (proguanil with atovaquone) are often used when oral therapy is required. Blood glucose, electrolyte and cardiac monitoring are not necessary when quinine is given by mouth. Pyrimethamine (Daraprim®) is a medication used for protozoal infections. ... Proguanil (proguanil hydrochloride) is a prophylactic antimalarial drug, which works by stopping the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, from reproducing once it is in the red blood cells. ... Atovaquone (Mepron) is a medication used to treat or prevent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. ...


In 1994, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the use of over-the-counter (OTC) quinine as a treatment for nocturnal leg cramps. Pfizer Pharmaceuticals had been selling the brand name Legatrin® for this purpose. This was soon followed by disallowing even prescription quinine for leg cramps, and all OTC sales of the drug for malaria. From 1969 to 1992, the FDA received 157 reports of health problems related to quinine use, including 23 which had resulted in death.[1] Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... “FDA” redirects here. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is the worlds largest research-based pharmaceutical company[1].[1] The company is based in New York City. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Quinine can cause paralysis if accidentally injected into a nerve. It is extremely toxic in overdose and the advice of a poisons specialist should be sought immediately. Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicos and logos [1]) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms [2]. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people. ...


Quinine and pregnancy

In very large doses, quinine also acts as an abortifacient; in the United States quinine is classed as a Category X teratogen by the Food and Drug Administration, meaning that it can cause birth defects (especially deafness) if taken by a woman during pregnancy. In the UK, the recommendation is that pregnancy is not a contra-indication to quinine therapy for falciparum malaria (which directly contradicts the US recommendation), although it should be used with caution; the reason for this is that the risks to the pregnancy are small and theoretical, as opposed to the very real risk of death from falciparum malaria. Further research, conducted in Sweden's Consug University hospital, has found a weak but significant correlation between dosage increase in pregnancy and Klebs-Loeffler bacillus infections in neonates. An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... This article discusses the way the word deaf is used and how deafness is perceived by hearing and Deaf communities. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Binomial name Welch, 1897 Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. ...


Quinine and interactions with other diseases

Quinine can cause hemolysis in G6PD deficiency, but again this risk is small and the physician should not hesitate to use quinine in patients with G6PD deficiency when there is no alternative. Quinine can also cause drug-induced immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). {{otheruses4|1=medical hemoglobin]] into the surrounding fluid (plasma, in vivo). ... Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ... Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease featuring nonimmune hemolytic anemia in response to a number of causes. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). ...


Quinine can cause abnormal heart rhythms and should be avoided if possible in patients with atrial fibrillation, conduction defects or heart block. Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is a cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) that involves the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. ... A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ...


Quinine must not be used in patients with hemoglobinuria, myasthenia gravis or optic neuritis, because it worsens these conditions. In medicine, haemoglobinuria is a condition in which the oxygen transport protein haemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ... Optic neuritis, sometimes called retrobulbar neuritis, is the inflammation of the optic nerve that may cause a complete or partial loss of vision. ...


Quinine and hearing impairment

Some studies have related the use of quinine and hearing impairment, which can cause some high-frequency loss, but it has not been conclusively established whether such impairment is temporary or permanent.[7] A hearing impairment or hearing loss is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ...


Non-medical uses of quinine

Tonic water, in normal light and UV.
Tonic water, in normal light and UV.

Quinine is a flavour component of tonic water, bitter lemon, and vermouth. According to tradition, the bitter taste of anti-malarial quinine tonic led British colonials in India to mix it with gin, thus creating the gin and tonic cocktail, which is still popular today in many parts of the world. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 244 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 244 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Canada Dry brand of tonic water, shown on the right under ultraviolet light, quinine, even in negliglible quantity makes the liquid fluorescent Tonic water (or Indian tonic water) is a carbonated soft drink flavored with quinine. ... Bitter Lemon is a soft drink, which is produced by several soft drink companies: Krest (Coca cola) Schweppes An urban legend claims that Krest Bitter lemon functions as a spermicide. ... It has been suggested that Punt e mes be merged into this article or section. ... Gin and tonic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration limits tonic water quinine to 83 parts per million, which is one-half to one-quarter the concentration used in therapeutic tonic. “FDA” redirects here. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


In France, quinine is an ingredient of an apéritif known as Quinquina. Campari apéritif. ... Also known as Peruvian Bark; in France, Quinquina is a collective name for alcoholic bitters (Aperitif) having quinine as one of their main ingrediences. ...


Quinine is often added to street drugs cocaine or ketamine in order to "cut" the product and make more profit. Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... A cutting agent is a chemical used to cut (adulterate) illicit drugs with something less expensive than the drug itself. ...


Because of its relatively constant and well-known fluorescence quantum yield, quinine is also used in photochemistry as a common fluorescence standard. Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ...


In Canada, quinine is an ingredient in the carbonated chinotto beverage called Brio. A Chinotto tree Chinotto fruit The   (pronounced [], roughly key-NAWT-toe) is a small bitter citrus fruit from the chinotto, or myrtle-leaved orange tree (). The tree grows to a height of 3m and can be found in Liguria, Tuscany, Sicily and Calabria regions of Italy. ...


In the United Kingdom, quinine is an ingredient in the carbonated and caffeinated beverage, Irn-Bru. Irn Bru Irn Bru is the most popular caffeinated soft drink in Scotland. ...


References

  1. ^ Woodward R, Doering W (1944). "The Total Synthesis of Quinine". J Am Chem Soc 66 (849). 
  2. ^ see review article in Angewandte Chemie, Int. Ed., 2005, 44, p. 854 ff
  3. ^ Barennes H, et al. (1996). "Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new intrarectal quinine formulation in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria". Brit J Clin Pharmacol 41 (5): 389. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1996.03246.x. 
  4. ^ "Safety and efficacy of rectal compared with intramuscular quinine for the early treatment of moderately sever malaria in children: randomised clinical trial". Brit Med J 332 (7549): 1055–57. 
  5. ^ Center for Disease Control (1991). "Treatment with Quinidine Gluconate of Persons with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Infection: Discontinuation of Parenteral Quinine". Morb Mort Weekly Rep 40 (RR-4): 21–23. Retrieved on 2006-05-06. 
  6. ^ Magill A, Panosian C (2005). "Making Antimalarial Agents Available in the United States". New Engl J Med 353 (4): 335–337. 
  7. ^ Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden (1994). "The concentration-effect relationship of quinine-induced hearing impairment". Clin Pharmacol Ther 55 (3): 317–323. PMID 8143397. Retrieved on 2006-05-06. 

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (usually abbreviated as , or JACS), is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1879 by the American Chemical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Jeffrey I. Seeman, The Woodward-Doering/Rabe-Kindler Total Synthesis of Quinine: Setting the Record Straight Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Eng. 2007, 9, 1373. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera Bobadilla Cerda y Mendoza, cuatro conde de Chinchón (1589, Madrid—October 28, 1647, Madrid) was a Spanish nobleman and captain general and viceroy of Peru, from January 14, 1629 to December 18, 1639. ... Chinchona officinalis Jesuits Bark, also called the Peruvian Bark, is the historical name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Quinine Bark - Cinchona - Database entry for - Quinine Bark - Cinchona - Quinine Bark (2727 words)
In the U.S., quinine bark is used as a tonic and digestive aid; to reduce heart palpitations and normalize heart functions; to stimulate digestion and appetite; for hemorrhoids, varicose veins, headaches, leg cramps, colds, flu, and indigestion; and for its astringent, bactericidal, and anesthetic actions in various other conditions.
Quinine was used sporadically through the first half of the 18th century for cardiac problems and arrhythmia and it became a standard of cardiac therapy in the second half of the 19th century.
"Desensitization of insulin secretory response to imidazolines, tolbutamide, and quinine.
Quinine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1302 words)
Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste.
Quinine was extracted from the bark of the South American cinchona tree, isolated and named in 1820 by French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou.
Quinine is a flavour component of tonic water and bitter lemon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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