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Encyclopedia > Quiet Revolution

The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...


Quebec's "Quiet Revolution" was characterized by:

The changes were the result of many important transformations within Quebec society. Among those often cited are: Secularization or secularisation is a process of transformation as a society slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

// Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... The economy of Quebec, Canada is diversified and post-industrial with an average potential for growth. ... Nationalization or nationalisation is the act of transferring assets into public ownership. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ...

Origins

There is no consensus as to when the Quiet Revolution began, except perhaps on the political level with the reforms enacted by the Liberal provincial government of Jean Lesage who was elected in the July 1960 provincial election. Similarly, there is no consensus as to when the Quiet Revolution ended, but it is mostly agreed that it was before the October Crisis of 1970. The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (June 10, 1912 – December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... The Quebec general election on June 22, 1960 was one of the most significant elections in Quebec history, rivaled perhaps only by the 1976 general election. ... Military cordon in support of police taking surrender of terrorist Liberation cell, December 3, 1970 The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings by members of the Front de libération du Québec in the province of Quebec, Canada, in October 1970, which...


Many events are said to have been precursors or at least signs of this impending revolution. Among them are the Asbestos miners' strike of 1949, the Maurice Richard Riot of 1955, the signing of the Refus Global by les Automatistes and the publication of Les insolences du Frère Untel (the impertinences of Brother Somebody/Whatshisname), which criticized the near absolute dominance of the Roman Catholic Church in Quebec. The political journal Cité Libre is also credited with being an intellectual forum for critics of the Duplessis regime. The Asbestos Strike of 1949, based in and around Asbestos, Quebec, Canada, was a four-month labour dispute by the asbestos miners. ... Joseph-Henri-Maurice Rocket Richard PC, CC, OQ (born August 4, 1921 in Laval, Quebec, Canada, died May 27, 2000 in Montreal, Quebec) was a professional ice hockey player, and played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1942 to 1960. ... The Richard Riot was a riot that had occurred on 17 March 1955 in Montreal, Quebec. ... Le Refus Global, or Total Refusal, was an anti-establishment and anti-religious manifesto released on August 9th, 1948 in Montreal by a group of sixteen young Quebecois artists and intellectuals that included Paul-Émile Borduas and Jean-Paul Riopelle, . Le Refus Global originated from a group called Les Automatistes... Les Automatistes were a group of Quebecois artistic dissidents from Montreal, Quebec. ... Les insolences du Frère Untel is a book first published in Montreal by les Editions de lhomme in 1960. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Cité Libre was an influential political journal published in Quebec through the 1950s and 1960s. ...


Economic and social spheres of Quebec were controlled by the fiercely conservative Maurice Duplessis, leader of the Union Nationale. Since first settled as part of New France, the Roman Catholic Church used entities such as the Company of 100 Associates to keep control but under British rule, business maintained a powerful lobby to protect the investments needed to keep Canada's economy on pace with the U.S. Electoral fraud and corruption were commonplace in Quebec, with the Union Nationale manipulating religion with slogans such as Le ciel est bleu, l'enfer est rouge (Heaven is blue, hell is red — referring to the colours of the Union Nationale (blue) and the Liberals (red)). Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... The Company of One Hundred Associates was a business enterprise created at a time when all territories explored by the French and seized as a part of the French colonial empire were the property of the King of France. ... It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ...


The Catholic Church was not unanimously with Duplessis, as demonstrated by the leading role of the Catholic Unions and of many members of the Clergy in the Anti-Duplessis movement (Ex.: Joseph Charbonneau, the Archbishop of Montreal), but a certain number of Clergy members were satisfied with the laissez-faire economics of Duplessis, as it left to the Catholic Church the control of the social and educational services. Joseph Charbonneau, 7 Aug 1940 Credit: Jules Alexander Castonguay/Library and Archives Canada/PA-804435 Archbishop Joseph Charbonneau, (July 31, 1892 – November 19, 1959), was ordained as a priest in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada in 1916. ...


Because of the small population of Quebec - and Canada as a whole - capital for investment was regularly in short supply. As such, the province's natural resources were developed by foreign investors willing to risk the investment needed. As an example, iron ore was explored for and its mining developed by the U.S.-based Iron Ore Company of Canada. Even if the Stewarts of the French regime tried to create industries (Ex. The Forges du Saint-Maurice, Quebec industries were still largely undeveloped when the British conquered the territory in 1760. It was British immigrants favoured by the British Crown, (notably the Scots-Quebecoiss) who invested and built the industrialized economy in Quebec, making it the foremost economic centre in Canada and a major force in North America. Even so, until the second half of the 20th century, the majority of Francophone Quebec workers lived below the poverty line and did not join the executive ranks of the businesses of their own province. Folksinger Felix Leclerc described this phenomenon, writing, "Our people are the waterboys of their own country." Historians have referred to this period as the Grande noirceur (Great Darkness), but most will add that this period is often described and perceived as being much worse than it actually was. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Founded in 1949 from a partnership of Canadian and American interest (Hollinger, M.A. Hanna, Labrador Mining, National Republic, Armco, Youngston and Wheeling-Pittsburg), it is now owned by a new consortium (Mitshbishi Corp. ... Forges du Saint-Maurice just outside of Trois-Rivières, Quebec, is one of Canadas National Historic Sites, and birthplace of the countrys iron industry. ...


In many ways, Duplessis's death in 1959, very soon followed by the sudden death of his successor Paul Sauvé, served as a trigger for the Quiet Revolution, or rather, the two unleashed energies that had been held back by the Alexandre Taschereau and Maurice Duplessis policies for decades. Within a year of Duplessis's death, the Liberal party was elected with Jean Lesage at its head. The Liberals had campaigned under the slogans Maîtres chez nous (Masters of our own house) and Il faut que ça change (Things have to change). Portrait of Paul Sauvé. Joseph-Mignault-Paul Sauvé (March 24, 1907 – January 2, 1960) was a Quebec politician. ... Louis-Alexandre Taschereau (March 5, 1867 _ July 6, 1952) was a Liberal Canadian province of Quebec from 1920 to 1936. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (June 10, 1912 – December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ...


Secularization

At the time, the religious communities still controlled the schools and hospitals, and as a consequence, administered by members of the clergy. This began to change as the Quebec society quickly began secularizing, with the management of such institutions being entrusted to the laity.


The Commission Parent was established in 1961 to study the education system and to bring forth recommendations, which eventually led to the adoption of several reforms, the most important of which was the secularization of the education system. Although schools maintained their historical Catholic or Protestant character, in practice they became secular institutions since the province was now in charge of the school programs. Other reforms included mandatory school attendance until the age of 16 and free instruction until the 11th grade.


In 1967, CEGEPs were created to offer post-secondary professional public education everywhere in the province. In 1968 the government created the Université du Québec network to achieve similar goals for university-level education. Nevertheless, it would be almost twenty years later before business programs were put in place in Quebec's French-language universities that would equal the quality of those elsewhere in North America. A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a public educational institution in Quebec, Canada on the post-secondary level. ... The Université du Québec is a system of ten provincially-run public universities in Quebec, Canada. ...


With the diminishing role of the Church in society, which coincided with (though was not caused by) the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, the birthrate among Francophones began to drop significantly, with the rate of divorce rising. Proclamations against the use of birth control by the Church largely went ignored. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... Birth control is a regimen of one or more actions, devices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of a woman becoming pregnant or giving birth. ...


Today, researchers have noted that the low birthrate amongst Francophones (the lowest in North America) and a lack of adoption of the French language by allophones (those whose primary language is neither English nor French) immigrants could cause the French-speaking population in the city of Montréal to dive below the 50 percent mark in the coming decades. [1]. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In Quebec, an allophone (French or English. ...


Economic reforms

On the economic level, the government sought to increase Francophones' control of the province's economic sphere, which, until then, had been largely dominated by English Canadian and American investors. English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ...


Seeking a mandate for its most daring reform, the nationalisation of the province's electric companies under Hydro-Québec, the Liberal party called for a new election in 1962. The Liberal party was returned to power with an increased majority in the National Assembly of Quebec and within six months, René Lévesque, Minister of Natural Resources, enacted his plans for Hydro-Québec. Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... In the Quebec general election on November 14, 1962, the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Jean Lesage won re-election, defeating the Union Nationale under Daniel Johnson, Sr. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ...


More public institutions were created to follow through with the desire to increase the province's economic autonomy. The public companies SIDBEC (iron and steel), SOQUEM (mining), REXFOR (forestry) and SOQUIP (petroleum) were created to exploit the province's abundant natural resources. The Société générale de financement (General financing corporation) was created in 1962 to encourage Quebecers to invest in their economic future and to increase the profitability of small companies. In 1963, in conjunction with the Canada Pension Plan the government of Canada authorized the province to create its own Régie des Rentes du Québec (Quebec Pension Plan); universal contributions came into effect in 1966. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec was created in 1965 to manage the considerable revenues generated by the RRQ and to provide the capital necessary for various projects in the public and private sectors. The Société générale de financement (SGF) is a holding company owned by the Government of Quebec. ... The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program. ... The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec manages public pension plans in the Canadian province of Québec. ...


A new labour code (Code du Travail) was adopted in 1964. It made unionising much easier and gave public employees the right to strike. It was during the same year that the Code Civil (Civil Code) was modified to recognise the legal equality of spouses. In case of divorce, the rules for administering the Divorce Act were retained using Quebec's old Community property matrimonial regime until 1980, when new legislation brought an automatic equal division of certain basic family assets between spouses. The Civil Code of Québec (Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the province of Quebec, Canada. ... Canadas Divorce Act (R.S., 1985, c. ... Community property is a marital property regime that originated in civil law jurisdictions, and is now also found in some common law jurisdictions. ... Matrimonial regimes are the property ownership regimes that are set forth in the law to which couples may precribe under civil law marriage law. ...


Nationalism

The heightened sense of national capacity and identity generated by the multiple reforms helped to transform the nationalist discourse of Quebec, which had stemmed in part from political deadlocks between the provincial government and the federal government in Ottawa since 1867. For some, this could be achieved through a reform of the British North America Act, while for sovereignists, the BNAA was considered a null and void act passed by an imperialist foreign power.[clarify] Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ...


In the 1966 election, a post-Duplessis Union Nationale party ridiculed the rapid changes made by the Liberal government and promised reforms if returned to power under leader Daniel Johnson Sr. While visiting Montreal for Expo 67, General Charles de Gaulle proclaimed Vive le Québec libre! in a speech at Montreal City Hall, which gave the Quebec independence movement further public credibility. Though the Union Nationale lost the popular vote, they captured a six-seat majority government. In 1968, the sovereignist Parti Québécois was created, with René Lévesque as its leader. In the Quebec general election on June 5, 1966, the Union Nationale under Daniel Johnson, Sr. ... Daniel Johnson, Sr. ... The 1967 International and Universal Exposition, or simply Expo 67 was the General Exhibition Category 1 Worlds Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada from April 27 to October 29, 1967. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Charles De Gaulle delivering the famous speech upon the Montreal city hall balcony. ... Vive le Québec libre ! (Long live free Quebec!) was a famous and controversial phrase in a speech delivered by French President Charles de Gaulle in Montreal on July 24, 1967. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ...


External links

  • Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution, 1960-1966
  • The Quiet Revolution

Important figures

Pierre Bourgault (January 23, 1934-June 15, 2003) was a Quebec politician and essayist and public speaker who advocated Quebec sovereignty. ... Marie Thérèse Forget Casgrain, CC, OBE, LL.D (July 10, 1896 – November 2, 1981) was a feminist, reformer, politician and senator in Quebec, Canada. ... Michel Chartrand (born in Montréal, Québec on June 16, 1916), is a former Quebec militant union leader and politician. ... Paul Gérin-Lajoie (born February 23, 1920) is a Canadian lawyer, philanthropist, and politician. ... Eric William Kierans (February 2, 1914 - May 9, 2004) was a Canadian economist and politician. ... Pierre Laporte (February 25, 1921 - October 1970), was a Canadian politician who was assassinated by members of the terrorist group, the Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front). ... Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (June 10, 1912 – December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Quiet Revolution - Quebec History (1206 words)
The Quiet Revolution is the name given to a period of Quebec history extending from 1960 to 1966 and corresponding to the tenure of office of the Liberal Party of Jean Lesage.
Underlying the concept of the Quiet Revolution is a perception or interpretation of the time period that preceded it and which is called “duplessisme”, from the name of the Prime Minister of Quebec, Maurice Duplessis.
The first major change that took place during the Quiet Revolution was the large-scale rejection of past values.
our philosophy | quietrevolution (178 words)
Within fifty years we will be living in a world which is powered predominantly by renewable energy, with no sacrifice to quality of life.
Quiet Revolution is a pioneer in this transition, the next industrial revolution.
Quiet Revolution Ltd develops and supplies elegant renewable energy solutions, especially small wind products optimised for use at the point of energy demand.
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