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Encyclopedia > Quenya
Quenya
Created by: J. R. R. Tolkien  19151973 
Setting and usage: The fictional world of Arda
Total speakers: An unknown number of people try to cultivate Quenya in written form (see Neo-Eldarin)
Category (purpose): constructed language
 artistic language
  fictional languages
   languages of Middle-Earth
    Quendian
     Eldarin
      Quenya 
Category (sources): a posteriori language with elements of Finnish, Latin and Greek.
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: art
ISO 639-3: qya 
Text in Quenya, written in the Tengwar and Latin alphabets.
Text in Quenya, written in the Tengwar and Latin alphabets.

Quenya is one of the fictional languages spoken by the Elves (the Quendi) "the ones who speak". The first-found children of Ilúvatar, in the fantasy works of J. R. R. Tolkien. It was the language developed by those non-Telerin Elves who reached Valinor (the "High Elves") from an earlier language called Common Eldarin, which also evolved from the original Primitive Quendian. Of the Three Houses of the Elves, the Noldor and the Vanyar spoke slightly different, though mutually intelligible, dialects of Quenya (Quenya [also Noldorin Quenya and later when they followed Fëanor in Arda Exilic Quenya] and Vanyarin Quenya [also Quendya], respectively). The language was also adopted by the Valar, who made some new introductions into it from their own original language, though these are more numerous in the Vanyarin dialect than the Noldorin one. This is probably the case because of the enduringly close relationship the Vanyar had with the Valar. The part of the Third House, the Teleri, that succeeded to arrive in Aman and founded the city of Alqualondë, spoke a different, closely related language, (Amanya) Telerin, although this was by some seen as a dialect of Quenya, which is untrue in a historic perspective but plausible in a linguistic one; the languages do not share a common history, but are very much alike, and later grew very close due to contact. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ... Neo-Eldarin is a term that may be employed to describe the language of texts attempting to actually use the Elven tongues invented by British author and philologist J.R.R. Tolkien for his Middle-earth legendarium. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... Some authors use fictional languages as a device to underline differences in culture, by having their characters communicate in a fashion which is both alien and dislocated. ... The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... Valinor (meaning Land of the Valar) is a fictional location from J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, the realm of the Valar in Aman. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Common Eldarin is the primordial tongue of the Eldar, those Elves who left for Valinor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Primitive Quendian is the proto-language of the Quendi, or Elves, which they spoke soon after their Awakening. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Noldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves who came to Aman, the Tatyar. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Vanyar are the fairest and most noble of the High Elves. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Arda is the name given to the Earth in a period of fictional prehistory, wherein the places mentioned in The Lord of the Rings and related material once existed. ... The Valar (singular Vala) are characters in J.R.R. Tolkiens legendarium. ... The main part of this article relates to the version of Middle-earths history that is considered canon by most Tolkien fans who accept such labels (see: Middle-earth canon). ... In the context of J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth legendarium, Telerin can refer to the following: As a language: the language of the Teleri of Valinor, derived from Common Telerin but considered a Quenya dialect; Common Telerin, the original tongue that led to Valinorean Telerin and Sindarin; Falathrin...


During the Third Age Quenya was no longer a living language in Middle-earth: most Elves spoke Sindarin, and Men mostly spoke Westron. Quenya was mainly used in official names and writings, much like the Latin language was in medieval Europe. Cp. the name Elf-Latin for Quenya. For other uses, see The Third Age. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The race of Men in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth books, such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, refers to humanity and does not denote gender. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Westron or Common Speech is the closest thing to a universal language, at least at the time during which The Lord of the Rings is set. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In Tolkien's fictional world, Quenya is usually written in Tengwar, although it was earlier written in Sarati. The language can also be written in other alphabets: modes for Cirth exist. In the real world Tengwar is not uncommon, but it is usually written in the Latin alphabet. First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sarati is an artificial script which was created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...   This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...

Contents

Fictional history

The Lay of Leithian translated and transcribed
The Lay of Leithian translated and transcribed

As told in The Silmarillion (chapter 3), the Elves devised the language at Cuiviénen, before they encountered the Vala Oromë: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Lay of Leithian is an unfinished poem written by J. R. R. Tolkien during the 1930s. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ... In the fictional works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Cuiviénen is the land where the Quendi or Elves awoke. ...

"they began to make speech and give names to all things that they perceived. Themselves they named the Quendi, signifying those that speak with voices; for as yet they had met no other living things that spoke or sang."

Since the stars were the first thing seen by the Elves as they awoke, the word el "star" was the first invented, originally an exclamation of adoration[1], and Oromë named the elves Eldar "people of the stars" in their own language. Similarly, according to the Cuivienyarna, In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Awakening of the Elves is an event which took place long before the beginning of the First Age of Middle-earth. ...

Imin, Tata and Enel awoke before their spouses, and the first thing that they saw was the stars, for they woke in the early twilight before dawn. And the next thing they saw was their destined spouses lying asleep on the green sward beside them. Then they were so enamoured of their beauty that their desire for speech was immediately quickened and they began to ‘think of words' to speak and sing in. (HoME 11, p. 421)

Over time, however, the Eldar changed the language, adding to it words of their liking and softening it from its origins in Valarin speech. The Valar adopted this language in order to converse with the Eldar in Valinor. The War of the Jewels is the 11th volume of Christopher Tolkiens series The History of Middle-earth, analysing the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


The Noldor who fled to Middle-earth following the Darkening of Valinor spoke Quenya among themselves. However, when Elu Thingol of Doriath, who was the king of the Sindar (Elves of the Telerin line who remained in Beleriand instead of journeying to Valinor) learned about their slaying of the Teleri, he forbade the use of Quenya in his realm. The Sindar, however, had been slow to learn Quenya, while the Noldor at this time had fully mastered Sindarin. (The Silmarillion, chapter 15). In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Noldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves who came to Aman, the Tatyar. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Elu Thingol, a fictional character of Middle-earth, created by J. R. R. Tolkien, was the King of Doriath and High King of the Sindar, More accurately Thingol is the Sindarin form of an epithet of Elu. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the fictional Sindar (meaning Grey People, singular Sinda, although the latter term was not generally used by Tolkien) are Elves of Telerin descent. ... In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Beleriand was the region of northwestern Middle-earth during the First Age. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ...


The Quenya used in Middle-earth of the Third Age (the time of the setting of The Lord of the Rings) had come to be a scholarly pursuit — something akin to Latin in our time. (Indeed, Tolkien occasionally refers to Quenya as "Elven-Latin".) Quenya was used as a formal language and for writing; Sindarin was the vernacular of all Elves. However, the Noldor still remembered Quenya and valued it highly, which we can see in the way they treat Frodo's greeting elen síla lúmenn' omentielvo ("A star shines on the hour of our meeting"). Galadriel is perhaps the only major Elf character in Middle-earth during the events of The Lord of the Rings who learned Quenya as a cradle-tongue: she was born in Valinor, during the days of the Two Trees. Noldorin (Exilic) Quenya differed somewhat from Valinórean Quenya, because the language continued to evolve after exile and underwent some regularisation as it became a language of lore. There were also a few changes in pronunciation. For other uses, see The Third Age. ... This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in The Lord of the Rings. ...


Non-fictional development

Outside the fiction, the grammar of Quenya was influenced by Finnish, which is an agglutinative language; grammatical inspiration also came from Latin and Greek. The phonology was also based on Finnish and, to a lesser extent, Latin, Italian and Spanish. Some interesting phonological rules are that no consonant cluster can begin or end a syllable (with one exception, the dual dative ending -nt); voiced stops must be preceded by sonorants; and a word may not end in a non-coronal consonant. It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ...


The most striking feature of Quenya is that it is a highly agglutinating language, meaning that multiple affixes are often added to words to express grammatical functions. It is possible for one Quenya word to have the same meaning as an entire English sentence. For example, one could say "I have seen it" in Quenya in a single word, namely Ecénienyes. It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Tolkien wrote much more material about Quenya and his other languages than he published in his lifetime. In fact, Tolkien, a professional linguist, insisted that he originally invented Middle-earth and its inhabitants as a means of imposing upon his artificial languages a history of war, migration and suffering. The famous novels might be considered incidental to his further and more passionately developed linguistic hobby.


The journals Vinyar Tengwar and Parma Eldalamberon are devoted to editing and publishing Tolkien's linguistic papers.


Quenya is one of many constructed languages introduced over the years by science fiction and fantasy writers, some others being Klingon, Newspeak, Nadsat, the Ascian language and Lapine. A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Nadsat is a constructed slang dialect of English with many Russian influences invented by the linguist, novelist, and composer Anthony Burgess. ... The Ascian Language is a fictional language invented by Gene Wolfe for his Fantasy series “The Book of the New Sun”. The language is spoken by the inhabitants of the “northern continents” of the future earth, the Ascians, who are enslaved by their masters (the Group of Seventeen) in a... Lapine is an artificial language constructed by Richard Adams and spoken by the fictional rabbits of his novel Watership Down. ...


In Tolkien's early writings (see: The History of Middle-earth), this language was called Qenya (although pronounced the same as Quenya). It underwent countless revisions in both grammar and vocabulary before it reached the form found in The Lord of the Rings and again went through changes before the completion of The Silmarillion. The term Qenya is now used to distinguish between old Qenya and the new Quenya. However, the fluid nature of Quenya (or Qenya, for that matter) makes such a distinction a highly disputed one. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916, wearing his British Army uniform in a photograph from the middle years of WW1. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books published from 1983-1996, that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens mythopoeic works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher Tolkien in 1977, with assistance from Guy Gavriel Kay, who would later become a noted fantasy fiction writer. ...


Quenya used by fans for post-Tolkien composition of poems and texts, phrases and names, is usually nicknamed neo-Quenya, or Quenya Vinyacarmë (Q. for "neologism") by scholars. Since Tolkien's own ideas were rather fluid, any attempt to actually use the language must involve a number of "editing decisions" by the post-Tolkien author. See Neo-Eldarin. A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Neo-Eldarin is a term that may be employed to describe the language of texts attempting to actually use the Elven tongues invented by British author and philologist J.R.R. Tolkien for his Middle-earth legendarium. ...


Quenya was made more popular in 2001 when the first installment of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy was released in theaters. The Lord of the Rings film trilogy comprises three live action fantasy epic films; The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). ...


Phonology

Vowels

Quenya has 10 basic vowels arranged in pairs of short and long.

  • a : [a]
  • á : [aː]
  • e : [e]
  • é : [e˔ː]
  • i : [i]
  • í : [iː]
  • o : [o]
  • ó : [o˔ː]
  • u : [u]
  • ú : [uː]


Tolkien cited that long /é, ó/, when correctly pronounced, were "tenser and 'closer' " than their short counterparts, thus approaching [i, u]. However, Eldarin was known to have lacked [ɔ], though Valarin and early stages of Sindarin were cited to have possessed it. In phonetics, a raised sound is articulated with the tongue or lip raised higher than some reference point. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Common Eldarin is the primordial tongue of the Eldar, those Elves who left for Valinor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens fictional universe of Middle-earth, Valarin is the tongue of the Ainur. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Diphthongs

  • ai : [ai̯]
  • oi : [oi̯]
  • ui : [ui̯]
  • au : [au̯]
  • eu : [eu̯]
  • iu : [iu̯]


All of the diphthongs were originally falling diphthongs, but by the Third Age /iu/ had become a rising diphthong [i̯u] similar to the beginning of English yule [juːɫ]. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... For other uses, see The Third Age. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Consonants

Most of the consonants are fairly straightforward, except :

  • h : [h], [x], [ç]
  • r : [r]
  • qu : [kʷ]
  • nw : [nʷ]
  • ng or ñ : [ŋ]
  • ngw or ñw : [ŋʷ]
  • hy : [ç]
  • hw : [ʍ]
  • ty : [c]
  • ly : [ʎ]
  • ny : [ɲ]


/h/ was originally [x] in all positions, but later softened to [h] initially. It retains the pronunciation [x] intervocalically, as in aha [axa] "rage," and between the back vowels /a, o, u/ and /t/, as in ohtar [oxtar] "warrior." Between the front vowels /e, i/ and /t/, /h/ is palatalized to /ç/, as in nehta [neçta] "spearhead."


The pronunciation of /hy/, originally written as a single letter, weakened to [h] by the Third Age, and so the sequence /h/ + following /y/ was then used to express [ç].


Tolkien vacillated between /ng/ and /ñ/ in writing Quenya's velar nasal, but is said to have favored the latter in late writings up until his death. By the Third Age, initial [ŋ]'s pronunciation had weakened to [n]. The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Grammar

Nouns

Nouns are declined for (up to) ten cases (some of which are short variants of uncertain significance). These include the four primary cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, and instrumental; the three adverbial cases: allative (of which the dative is a shortened form), locative (also with a shortened form, of uncertain significance), and ablative; and an adjectival case. In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... In linguistics, ablative case (also called the sixth case) (abbreviated ABL) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ. ...


Primary cases:

  • The nominative is used mainly to mark the subject of a verb. In Spoken Quenya it also functions as the accusative (see below). It is also used with some prepositions.
  • The accusative marks the direct object of a verb. It is not used in Spoken Quenya, having merged with the nominative, but appears as a distinct case in "Classical" or Book Quenya.
  • The genitive is mainly used to mark origin (e.g. the best painters of France). Its usage sometimes overlaps the ablative, sometimes the adjectival/possessive.
  • The instrumental marks a noun as a means or instrument.

Adverbial cases:

  • The allative expresses motion towards the noun.
  • The dative marks the indirect object of a verb.
  • The locative expresses location or position at the noun.
  • The ablative expresses motion away from the noun.

Adjectival case:

  • The adjectival case describes qualities. It is also used to indicate possession or ownership by the noun. This usage sometimes overlaps with the genitive.

There are four numbers: the singular, general plural, partitive plural, and dual. In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Partitive plural is a grammatical number that may have been invented by J.R.R. Tolkien for his fictional language, Quenya. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ...


Noun declension

The declension of the noun in Late Quenya is found in the so-called "Plotz Declension" that Tolkien provided in a letter to Dick Plotz in 1967.[2] This gives the "Classical" or Book Quenya declension of (only) the two vocalic-stem nouns cirya 'ship' and lassë 'leaf', in four numbers: singular, pl. 1, pl. 2, and dual. The forms of pl. 1 appear to correspond to the general plural, and those of pl. 2 to the partitive plural of Late Quenya. The declension has eight chief cases in three groups that Tolkien labeled a, b, and c. Of these cases, Tolkien named only a) the primary cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, and instrumental; and b) the adverbial cases: allative, locative, and ablative. The allative and locative in turn have (unnamed) short forms (except in the loc. dual), of which the short allative form appears to correspond to the dative case of Late Quenya. The third group, c, has only one member (and only in the sg. and in pl. 2), which appears to correspond to the adjectival case as described in the c. 1960 essay "Quendi and Eldar".


The declension of nouns as given below has been modified from the form given in the Plotz Declension to reflect the forms of Spoken Quenya (in accordance with Tolkien's own description of the differences between "Classical" or Book Quenya and Spoken Quenya that accompanies the Plotz Declension). The declensions of meldo 'friend', elen 'star', and nat 'thing' given here are conjectural examples of the declension of other stem types.

Singular cirya lassë meldo elen nat
Nominative cirya lassë meldo elen nat
Accusative cirya lassë meldo elen nat
Genitive ciryo lassëo meldo eleno nato
Instrumental ciryanen lassenen meldonen elennen natenen
Allative ciryanna lassenna meldonna elenenna natenna
Dative ciryan lassen meldon elenen naten
Locative ciryassë lassessë meldossë elenessë natessë
Short Locative ciryas lasses meldos elenes nates
Ablative ciryallo lassello meldollo elenello natello
Adjectival ciryava lasseva meldova elenwa nateva
Plural cirya lassë meldo elen nat
Nominative ciryar lassi meldor eleni nati
Accusative ciryar lassi meldor eleni nati
Genitive ciryaron lassion meldoron elenion nation
Instrumental ciryainen lassínen meldoinen eleninen natinen
Allative ciryannar lassennar meldonnar eleninnar natinnar
Dative ciryain lassin meldoin elenin natin
Locative ciryassen lassessen meldossen elenissen natissen
Short Locative ciryais lassis meldois elenis natis
Ablative ciryallon lassellon meldollon elenillon natillon
Partitive plural cirya lassë meldo elen nat
Nominative ciryali lasseli meldoli eleneli nateli
Accusative ciryali lasseli meldoli eleneli nateli
Genitive ciryalion lasselion meldolion elenelion natelion
Instrumental ciryalínen lasselínen meldolínen elenelínen natelínen
Allative ciryalinna(r) lasselinna(r) meldolinna(r) elenelinna(r) natelinna(r)
Dative ciryalin lasselin meldolin elenelin natelin
Locative ciryalisse(n) lasselisse(n) meldolisse(n) elenelisse(n) natelisse(n)
Short Locative ciryalis lasselis meldolis elenelis natelis
Ablative ciryalillo(n) lasselillo(n) meldolillo elenelillo natelillo
Adjectival ciryalíva lasselíva meldolíva elenelíva natelíva
Dual cirya lassë meldo elen nat
Nominative ciryat lasset meldu elenet natu
Accusative ciryat lasset meldu elenet natu
Genitive ciryato lasseto melduo eleneto natuo
Instrumental ciryanten lassenten meldunen elenenten natunen
Allative ciryanta lassenta meldunna elenenta natunna
Dative ciryant lassent meldun elenent natun
Locative ciryatsë lassetsë meldussë elenetsë natussë
Ablative ciryalto lasselto meldullo elenelto natullo

The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... Dative has several meanings. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... Dative has several meanings. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... Dative has several meanings. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... Dative has several meanings. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... In linguistics, the ablative case is a noun case found in several languages, including Latin, Sanskrit and in the Finno_Ugric languages. ...

Verbs

There are two main types of verbs: basic (or primary) verbs, those which are formed from the basic verbal base, such as tirë (tiri-) "to watch" from stem tir-, and derivative (or A-stem) verbs, whose stems end in -a and are formed either by putting verbal suffixes to a base like tulta- "summon", from *TUL "come", or derived from non-verbal bases like kúna- "bend", originally an adjective "bent".


These conjugations were not written by Tolkien, but represent one possible reconstruction using information derived and inferred from a number of sources of various periods. These forms will be relatively uncontroversial among researchers:

Derivative verbs Basic verbs
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Infinitive tulta tirë
Aorist/Simple present tulta tultar tirë (tiri-) tirir
Present continuative tultëa tultëar tíra tírar
Past tultanë tultaner tirnë tirner
Future tultuva tultuvar tiruva tiruvar
Perfect utultië utultiër itírië itíriër

Pronouns

Pronouns are seen as both independent words, and enclitics which resemble synthetic verb endings. The rules for this are not completely understood, although evidence suggests that independent forms are more emphatic in nature, while enclitics are the forms in use normally. The effect of having both pseudo-synthetic (with enclitics) and analytic (with independent pronoun) verbs gives Quenya a system strongly resembling that of Irish Gaelic (see Irish verbs). What is known is that for intransitive verbs, the pronoun can appear as either an independent word or an enclitic, with the enclitic form often coming in two different forms, long and short. In the third person, the short form is used for direct objects rather than subjects. In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ... Irish verb forms are constructed either synthetically or analytically. ...


As with all parts of Quenya grammar, the pronominal system was subject to constant revision throughout Tolkien's life. The following table is adapted primarily from two sources of c. 1968-9, [3] and does not reflect the pronominal system as it stood before that time. Unattested forms are omitted, but *-inca and *-inqua are plausible possessive forms of -ince and -inque, respectively.

Form Long form Short Form Independent Possessive
1st pers. sg. -nye -n -(i)nya
2nd pers. sg. intimate/familiar -tye -- tyé -tya
2nd pers. sg. formal/polite -lye -l lyé -lya
3rd pers. sg. -se (rarely) -s sé/sá (neuter) -rya
Impers. sg. -- -- -- -ya
1st pers. pl. incl. -lve/-lwe -- (< ) -lva/-lwa
1st pers. pl. excl. -lme -- -lma
2nd pers. pl. -lde -- -lda
3rd pers. pl. -lte/-nte -- -lta/-ntya
Impers. pl. -r -- -- -rya
1st pers. dual incl. -ngwe/-ince/-inque -- wet -ngwa
1st pers. dual excl. -mme -- met -mma
2nd pers. dual -ste -- tyet/let -sta
3rd pers. dual -ste/-tte -t (pers. and neuter) -sta
Impers. dual -t -- -- -twa

Corpus

The poem Namárië is the longest piece (80 words) of Quenya found in the The Lord of the Rings, which has several further Quenya fragments, such as Elendil's words upon reaching Middle-earth (Et Eärello Endorenna utúlien. Sinome maruvan ar Hildinyar tenn' Ambar-metta!) or Treebeard's greeting to Celeborn and Galadriel (A vanimar, vanimálion nostari). Other Quenya texts published by Tolkien during his lifetime include Oilima Markirya ("The Last Ark"), Nieninque, and Earendel contained in the lecture A Secret Vice (re-published in 1982 in Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics). A fragment of the poem Narqelion was published by Humphrey Carpenter in his Biography. Oilima Markirya with 90 words is the longest known Quenya text. The full poem of Namárië, in the original Quenya, written in Tengwar script. ... A Secret Vice is the title of a lecture held by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1930 at an Esperanto congress. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ...


Other Quenya texts by Tolkien were edited posthumously: [4]

  • Ataremma versions (Quenya Pater Noster) versions I-VI, VT 43, 4–26, TT 18
  • Aia María (Ave Maria) versions I–IV, VT 43, 26–36, TT 18
  • Litany of Loreto, VT 44, p. 11–20
  • Ortírielyanna (Sub tuum praesidium) VT 4, p. 5–11
  • Alcar i Ataren (Gloria Patri) VT 43, p. 36–38
  • Alcar mi tarmenel na Erun (Gloria in Excelsis Deo) VT 44, p. 31–38
  • The "Oath of Cirion", Unfinished Tales, pp. 305, 317.
  • Early Qenya Fragments, edited Wynne and Gilson, PE 14 (2003)
  • "Sí Qente Feanor and Other Elvish Writings", ed. Smith, Gilson, Wynne, and Welden, PE 15 (2004)
  • The "Koivienéni" sentence, VT 14 (1991)
  • The "Two Trees" sentence, VT 27 (1993).
  • Fíriel's Song, LR p. 72 and "Alboin Errol's Fragments", LR p. 47.
  • Various versions of the "Ambidexters Sentence" composed c. 1968-1969, VT 49 (2007).

Carl F. Hostetter (born 1965) is a computer scientist at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, and the key figure of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Vinyar Tengwar is a linguistic journal published by the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, dedicated to the scholarly study of the invented languages of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Hail... Loreto is a hilltown and comune of the Italian province of Ancona, in the Marche. ... Sub tuum praesidium or, in English, Under your protection is the oldest anthem to the Blessed Virgin Mary from the see of Alexandria in the third century. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, Cirion, son of Boromir I, was the twelfth ruling Steward of Gondor. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The Lost Road and Other Writings is the fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth, a series of compilations of drafts and essays written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...

References

  1. ^ This is in striking parallel to the "Sun Language Theory" of Turkish nationalism, which posits that the first word was Aa "Sun", coined in the same fashion.
  2. ^ First published in [[Beyond Bree]], March 1989, edited by Nancy Martsch.
  3. ^ "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings", edited by Patrick H. Wynne; and "Quenya Pronominal Elements", edited by Carl F. Hostetter; both in Vinyar Tengwar 49 (2007).
  4. ^ see also Douglas A. Anderson, Carl F. Hostetter: A Checklist, Tolkien Studies 4 (2007).

The Sun Language Theory is a linguistic theory proposing that all human languages are descendents of one Central Asian primal language. ... Carl F. Hostetter (born 1965) is a computer scientist at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, and the key figure of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship. ... Vinyar Tengwar is a linguistic journal published by the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, dedicated to the scholarly study of the invented languages of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Douglas A(llen) Anderson (1959 - ) is an author and editor on the subjects of fantasy and medieval literature, specializing in textual analysis of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Tolkien Studies: An Annual Scholarly Review is an academic journal, ISSN 1547-3155, containing papers on the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, edited by Douglas A. Anderson, Michael D. C. Drout, and Verlyn Flieger. ...

See also

For a list of words in Quenya, see the Quenya language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Calendar of Imladris is a calendar used in J.R.R. Tolkiens fictional Middle-earth by the Elves of Rivendell. ... The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ... The Languages of Tolkiens Middle-earth is a reference book on the languages of Middle-earth by Ruth S. Noel. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sarati is an artificial script which was created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Neo-Eldarin is a term that may be employed to describe the language of texts attempting to actually use the Elven tongues invented by British author and philologist J.R.R. Tolkien for his Middle-earth legendarium. ...

External links

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Quenya

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