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Encyclopedia > Queer theory
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Queer theory is a field of Gender Studies that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of gay/lesbian studies and feminist studies. Heavily influenced by the work of Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, and other deconstructionists, queer theory builds both upon the feminist challenge to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies' close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities. Whereas gay/lesbian studies focused its inquiries into "natural" and "unnatural" behavior with respect homosexual behavior, queer theory expands its focus to encompass any kind of sexual activity or identity that falls into normative and deviant categories. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... A transgender person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. ... This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980). ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The idea of a gay community is complex reflecting the diverse nature of the individuals who make up that community. ... Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ... Gay slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ... A gay village (also gay ghetto or gayborhood) is usually an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual people live. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual, but it is also currently often used in reference to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and asexual communities. ... Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning his or her sexual identity or sexual orientation. ... World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to homosexual and bisexual orientations. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...

Contents

Queer theory

"In the late 1960s, closets opened, and gay and lesbian scholars who had up till then remained silent regarding their sexuality or the presence of homosexual themes in literature began to speak."[1]

Although many people believe that queer theory is only about homosexual representations in literature, it also explores the categories of gender and race, as well as sexuality. However, queer theory is a by-product of third-wave feminism.


Queer theory's main project is exploring the contestations of the categorization of gender and sexuality. Queer theory embraces the notion of identity – what is culturally seen as normal versus subversive. Theorists claim that identities are not fixed – they cannot be categorized and labeled – because identities consist of many varied components and that to categorize by one characteristic is wrong. For example, a woman can be a woman without being labeled a lesbian or feminist, and she may have a different race to the dominant culture. She should, queer theorists argue, be classed as an individual identity and not put in the collective basket of feminists or of color or the like. However, Queer Theory is more akin to a personal philosophy as it is unsubstantiated with regards to what would per se constitute a theory.


Overview

Queer theorists analyze texts to expose underlying meanings within and to challenge the notions of ‘straight’ ideology. Most queer theory developed as a response to the AIDS crisis of the 1980’s, which promoted a renewal of radical activism, and the growing homophobia triggered by the public's response to AIDS. Queer theory became occupied, in part, with what effects necessitated and nurtured new forms of political organization, education and theorizing in 'queer'.


Queer theory, unlike most feminist theories and studies, includes a wide array of previously considered 'non-normative' sexualities and sexual practices in its 'list' of identities and not all of these are heterosexual. Because queer theory is grounded in gender and sexuality, there is debate as to whether sexual orientation is natural or essential, or if it is merely a construction and subject to change. The focus of theorists is the problem of classifying every individual by gender; therefore queer is less an identity than a critique of identity.


The term 'queer theory' was introduced in 1990, but queer theory itself is a by-product of third-wave feminism from the 1970’s. The existence of queer language and terms is believed to have evolved from the imposing of structures and labels from an external mainstream culture and created by the 'queer society' as a means of communication.


History

Teresa de Lauretis is the person credited with coining the phrase “Queer Theory”. It was at a working conference on theorizing lesbian and gay sexualities that was held at the University of California, Santa Cruz in February 1990 that de Lauretis first made mention of the phrase.[2] Barely three years later, she abandoned the phrase on the grounds that it had been taken over by mainstream forces, and institutions it was originally coined to resist[3]. Judith Butler's Gender Trouble, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's Epistemology of the Closet, and David Halperin's One Hundred Years of Homosexuality inspired countless others' work. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 6. ... Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (b. ... Teresa de Lauretis is an Italian born author and Professor of the History of Consciousness at the University of California, Santa Cruz. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Santa Cruz, Spanish and Portuguese for Holy Cross, is the name of several cities, regions, and other geographical features around the world: Argentina Puerto Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz province Santa Cruz Province, Argentina Bolivia Santa Cruz de la Sierra Santa Cruz Department Brazil Santa Cruz, Espírito Santo Santa Cruz... Image:J Butler. ... Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (b. ... David Halperin (born April 2, 1952) is an American theorist in the fields of gender studies, queer theory, critical theory, material culture and visual culture. ...


Background Concepts

In many respects, Queer theory is grounded in gender and sexuality. Due to this association, a debate emerges as to whether sexual orientation is natural or essential to the person, as an essentialist believes, or if sexuality is merely a construction and subject to change.[4]


The essentialist theory was introduced to Queer Criticism as a by-product of feminism when the criticism was known by most as Lesbian/Gay Criticism. The feminists believed that both genders "have an essential nature (eg. nurturing and caring versus being aggressive and selfish), as opposed to differing by a variety of accidental or contingent features brought about by social forces"[5]. Due to this belief in the essential nature of a person, it is also natural to assume that a person’s sexual preference would be natural and essential to a person’s personality, who they are.


The Constructivists counter, that there is no natural, that all meaning is constructed through discourse and there is no other subject other than the creation of meaning for social theory. In a Constructivist perspective, it is not proper to take gay or lesbian as subjects with objective reality; but rather they must be understood in terms of their social context, in how genealogy creates these terms through history.


For example, as Foucault explains in his The History of Sexuality, 200 years ago there was no linguistic category for gay male. Instead, the term applied to sex between two men was sodomy. Over time, the homosexual was created through the discourses of medicine and especially psychiatry. What is conventionally understood to be the same practice was gradually transformed from a sinful lifestyle into an issue of sexual orientation. Foucault argues that prior to this discursive creation there was no such thing as a person who could think of himself as essentially gay.


Identity Politics

“Queer theory” was originally associated with radical gay politics of ACT UP, Outrage! and other groups which embraced "queer" as an identity label that pointed to a separatist, non-assimilationist politics[6]. Queer theory developed out of unexamined constraints in the traditional identity politics of recognition and self-identity. Queer identity, unlike the other categories labeled lesbian or gay, has no interest in consolidating or stabilizing itself. It maintains its critique of identity-focus by understanding the formation of its own coalition; this may result in exclusionary effects in excess of those intended. ACT-UP, or the Aids Coalition to Unleash Power, is a diverse, non-partisan group of individuals . ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence OutRage! is a direct action campaigning group in the United Kingdom which was formed to fight for the rights of lesbian, gay and bisexual people. ...


Acknowledging the inevitable violence of identity politics, and having no stake in its own ideology, queer is less an identity than a critique of identity. However, it is in no position to imagine itself outside the circuit of problems energized by identity politics. Instead of defending itself against those criticisms that its operations attract, queer allows those criticisms to shape its - for now unimaginable – future directions. "The term", writes Butler, "will be revised, dispelled, rendered obsolete to the extent that it yields to the demands which resist the term precisely because of the exclusions by which it is mobilized.". The mobilization of queer foregrounds the conditions of political representation, its intentions and effects, its resistance to and recovery by the existing networks of power.[7]


The role of biology

Queer theorists focus on problems in classifying every individual as either male or female, even on a strictly biological basis. For example, the sex chromosomes (X and Y) may exist in atypical combinations (as in Klinefelter's syndrome [XXY]). This complicates the use of genotype as a means to define exactly two distinct genders. Intersexed individuals may for many different biological reasons have ambiguous sexual characteristics. Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Not to be confused with XYY syndrome or XXX syndrome. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An intersexual or intersex person (or animal of any unisexual species) is one who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... Sexual characteristics are those characteristics in a human or animal which are used to determine its physical sex. ...


Scientists who have written on the conceptual significance of intersexual individuals include Anne Fausto-Sterling, Ruth Hubbard and Carol Tavris. Anne Fausto-Sterling, Ph. ... Ruth Hubbard Ph. ... Carol Tavris is an American social psychologist and author. ...


Some key experts in the study of culture, such as Barbara Rogoff, believe that the traditional distinction between biology and culture is a false dichotomy since biology and culture are closely related and have a significant influence on each other. [citation needed] A teacher educator whose interests lie in understanding and communicating the different learning thrusts between cultures, especially within her book The Cultural Nature of Human Development (2003). ... The logical fallacy of false dilemma, also known as fallacy of the excluded middle, false dichotomy, either/or dilemma or bifurcation, is to set up two alternative points of view as if they were the only options, when they are not. ...


In Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality, Anne Fausto-Sterling challenges many of the biological facts surrounding how we constitute gender and sexuality. From genitalia to brain composition, "hormones and gender chemistry," "toward a theory of human sexuality." A feminist biologist, Fausto-Sterling navigates the scientific underpinnings of sex. However, some queer theorists are beginning to acknowledge that the sexing of the body occurs as both a combination of social construction and the objective reality that biology studies. Anne Fausto-Sterling, Ph. ...


HIV/AIDS Discourse

Much of queer theory developed out of a response to the AIDS crisis, which promoted a renewal of radical activism, and the growing homophobia brought about by public responses to AIDS. Queer theory became occupied in part with what effects – put into circulation around the AIDS epidemic – necessitated and nurtured new forms of political organization, education and theorizing in ‘queer’.


To examine the effects that HIV/AIDS has on queer theory is to look at the ways in which the status of the subject or individual is treated in the biomedical discourses that construct them[8].

  1. The shift, affected by same sex education in emphasizing sexual practices over sexual identities[9].
  2. The persistent misrecognition of HIV/AIDS as a “gay” disease[10].
  3. Homosexuality as a kind of fatality[11].
  4. The coalition politics of much HIV/AIDS activism that rethinks identity in terms of affinity rather than essence[12] and therefore includes not only lesbians and gay men but also bi-sexuals, trans-sexuals, sex workers, people with AIDS, health workers, and parents and friends of gays; the pressing recognition that discourse is not a separate or second-order ‘reality’[13].
  5. The constant emphasis on contestation in resisting dominant depictions of HIV and AIDS and representing them otherwise[14].

The rethinking of traditional understandings of the workings of power in cross-hatched struggles over epidemiology, scientific research, public health and immigration policy[15].


The material effects of AIDS contested many cultural assumptions about identity, justice, desire and knowledge, which some scholars felt challenged the entire system of Western thought[16], believing it maintained the health and immunity of epistemology: “the psychic presence of AIDS signifies a collapse of identity and difference that refuses to be abjected from the systems of self-knowledge[17].” Thus queer theory and AIDS become interconnected because each is articulated through a postmodernist understanding of the death of the subject and both understand identity as an ambivalent site.


Prostitution, Pornography and BDSM

Queer theory, unlike most feminist theory and lesbian and gay studies, includes a wide array of previously considered “non-normative” sexualities and sexual practices in its “list” of identities. Not all of these are non-heterosexual. Sadism and masochism, prostitution, inversion, transgender, bisexuality, intersexuality and many other things are seen by queer theorists as opportunities for more involved investigations into class difference and racial, ethnic and regional particulars allow for a wide ranging field of investigation using non-normative analysis as a tool in reconfiguring the way we understand pleasure and desire. Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Whore redirects here. ... A transgender person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The key element is that as viewing sexuality as constructed through discourse no list or set constituted pre-existing sexuality realities but rather identities constructed through discursive operations. It is important to consider discourse in its broadest sense as shared meaning making, as Foucault and Queer Theory would take the term to mean. In this way sexual activity, having shared rules and symbols would be as much a discourse as a conversation, and sexual practice itself constructs its reality rather than reflecting a proper biological predefined sexuality.


This point of view places these theorists in conflict with some branches of feminism that view prostitution and pornography, for example, as mechanisms for the oppressions of women. Other branches of feminism tend to vocally disagree with this latter interpretation and celebrate pornography as a means of adult sexual representation[18].


The role of language

Queer theory is likened to language because it is never static, but is ever-evolving. Richard Norton suggests that the existence of queer language is believed to have evolved from the imposing of structures and labels from an external mainstream culture.[19]


Early discourse of queer theory involved leading theorists: Michael Foucault, Judith Butler, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and others. This discourse centered on the way that knowledge of sexuality was structured through the use of language. Heteronormativity was the main focus of discourse, where heterosexuality was viewed as normal and any deviations, such as homosexuality as abnormal or "queer".


In later years there was an explosion of discourse on sexuality and sexual orientations with the coming-of-age of the Internet. Prior to this, discourse was controlled by institutional publishing, and with the growth of the internet and its popularity, the community could have its own discussion on what sexuality and sexual orientation was. Homosexual and heterosexual were no longer the main topics of discourse; BDSM, transgender and bisexual became topics of discourse. A collar is a common symbol in BDSM. Female bottom in bondage with leather monoglove BDSM is any of a number of related patterns of human sexual behavior. ...


Derogatory terms, such as dyke, faggot, queer and other terms, were originally coined by the 'queer society' to communicate and relate with each other. It was homophobic and people who turned these words into a slur.


Although homosexuality and queer practices are nothing new, the association between queer practices and deviancy is taking on new meaning in the modern world as queer community and queer culture becomes more apparent. Queer culture is not limited to queer sex. Queer culture, from an ideological standpoint, represents the queer community and its arts, lifestyles, institutions, writings, politics, relationships and everything else encompassed in culture. Two common sects of queer culture are the "flamboyant" and the "closet." The flamboyant side of queer culture originates in “the streets” with butch dykes, clubs, bars and drag queens. The closet side of the queer culture is more secretive with code words, separate social lives and rarely mixes with the flamboyant street culture.[20] Queer culture in general is intertwining with the common "normative" culture, with people being exposed to the ideas of “gay pride” and becoming more educated about queer studies in schools and society.


Media and other creative works

Many queer theorists have created creative works that reflect theoretical perspectives in a wide variety of media. For example, science fiction authors such as Samuel Delany and Octavia Butler feature many values and themes from queer theory in their work. Pat Califia's published fiction also draws heavily on concepts and ideas from queer theory. Some lesbian feminist novels written in the years immediately following Stonewall, such as Lover by Bertha Harris or Les Guérillères by Monique Wittig, can be said to anticipate the terms of later queer theory. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Samuel Ray Chip Delany, Jr. ... Octavia Estelle Butler (June 22, 1947 — February 24, 2006) was an American science fiction writer, one of very few African-American women in the field. ... Patrick Califia (born 1954 near Corpus Christi, Texas) is a writer about womens sexuality and of erotic fiction. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Lover is a lesbian feminist novel by Bertha Harris, published in 1976 by Daughters, Inc. ... Bertha Harris (1939, Fayetteville, North Carolina) is an American born openly lesbian novelist. ... Monique Wittig (July 13, 1935 in Haut-Rhin, France – January 3, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona) was a French author and feminist theorist, particularly interested in overcoming gender. ...


In film, the genre christened by B. Ruby Rich as New Queer Cinema in 1992 continues, as Queer Cinema, to draw heavily on the prevailing critical climate of queer theory; a good early example of this is the Jean Genet-inspired movie Poison by the director Todd Haynes. In fan fiction, the genre known as slash fiction rewrites straight or nonsexual relationships to be homosexual, bisexual, and queer in sort of a campy cultural appropriation. And in music, some Queercore groups and zines could be said to reflect the values of queer theory.[21] Coined by B. Ruby Rich, New Queer Cinema refers to seemingly simultaneous appearance on the independent film circuit of films dealing openly and even aggressively with queer culture, politics, and identity in the early nineties. ... The Living End movie poster New Queer Cinema is the seemingly simultaneous appearance on the independent film circuit of movies dealing openly and even aggressively with queer culture, politics, and identity that began in the early 1990s. ... In 1992, Sight and Sound magazine printed an article by North American Feminist and critic, B. Ruby Rich. ... Poison is a 1991 gay-themed film written and directed by Todd Haynes. ... Maverick, onetime New Queer Cinema director Todd Haynes was born on January 2, 1961, in Encino, California, and has had a controversial career. ... Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ... The symbolic slash, used to separate the two names in a romantic pairing, from which slash fiction takes its name. ... Camp is an aesthetic in which something has appeal because of its bad taste or ironic value. ... Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid 1980s as an offshoot of punk. ... This article or section should be merged with Zine This article needs cleanup. ...


Queer theorists analyze texts and challenge the cultural notions of ‘straight’ ideology; that is, does ‘straight’ imply heterosexuality as normal or is everyone potentially gay? As Ryan states: “It is only the laborious imprinting of heterosexual norms that cuts away those potentials and manufactures heterosexuality as the dominant sexual format."[22] For example, Hollywood pursues the ‘straight’ theme as being the dominant theme to outline what masculine is. This is particularly noticeable in gangster films, action films and westerns, which never have ‘weak’ (read homosexual) men playing the heroes, with the exception of late the film Brokeback Mountain. Queer theory looks at destabilizing and shifting the boundaries of these cultural constructions. Brokeback Mountain is an Academy Award-winning 2005 film that depicts the relationship between two men in the American West from 1963 to 1983. ...


Queer theorists also analyze texts to expose underlying meanings in texts and investigate the discrepancies between homosocial male bonding, homophobia and homosexuality in English literature. King Lear is often used as an example.


Theorists

Leo Bersani is a theorist and Professor Emeritus of French at UC Berkeley. ... Image:J Butler. ... Teresa de Lauretis is an Italian born author and Professor of the History of Consciousness at the University of California, Santa Cruz. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: [1]) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... David Halperin (born April 2, 1952) is an American theorist in the fields of gender studies, queer theory, critical theory, material culture and visual culture. ... Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (b. ...

Further Reading

  • Michael Foucault, La Volente de savoir, 1976.
  • Judith Butler, Gender Trouble, 1990.
  • Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Between Men, 1985.
  • Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Epistemology of the Closet, 1990.
  • Annamarie Jogose, Queer Theory, 1996.

See also

In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Transgender is a very complex topic, where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached. ... ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... In 1992, Sight and Sound magazine printed an article by North American Feminist and critic, B. Ruby Rich. ... // Introduction Queer Pedagogy explores the intersection between queer theory and critical pedagogy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...

References

  1. ^ Ryan, M., 1999. Literary Theory: a practical introduction. Oxford. Blackwell. P. 115
  2. ^ David Halperin. “The Normalizing of Queer Theory.” Journal of Homosexuality v.45, pp. 339-343
  3. ^ Jagose, A 1996, “Queer Theory”.
  4. ^ Barry, P 2002, ‘Lesbian/gay criticism’, in P Barry (eds), Beginning theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory, Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp139-155.
  5. ^ Blackburn, S 1996, “essentialism”, Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, (Oxford Reference Online).
  6. ^ Blackburn, S 1996, “essentialism”, Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, (Oxford Reference Online).
  7. ^ Brooker, P, A Concise Glossary of Cultural theory, 1999
  8. ^ Donna Haraway, “The Biopolitics of Postmodern Bodies,” 1989
  9. ^ Michael Bartos, “Meaning of Sex Between Men,” 1993 and G.W. Dowsett, Men Who Have Sex With Men, 1991.
  10. ^ Richard Meyer, “Rock Hudson’s Body,” 1991
  11. ^ Ellis Hanson, “Unread,” 1991
  12. ^ Catherine Saalfield, “Shocking Pink Praxis,” 1991
  13. ^ Jagose, A 1996, Queer Theory, [1]
  14. ^ Edelman, L 1994, Homographesis, [2] (accessed 19-4-07)
  15. ^ David Halperin, “Homosexuality: A Cultural Construct,” 1990
  16. ^ Thomas Yingling “AIDS in America,” 1991
  17. ^ Thomas Yingling “AIDS in America,” 1991, p. 292
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ Norton, R 2002, “Queer language”, A Critique of Social Construcionism and Postmodern Queer Theory [4]
  20. ^ Wilson, N 1997, “Our families, our values: snapshots of queer kinship” R Goss & A Adams (eds), Strongheart Haworth Press, pp 22.
  21. ^ Matias Viegener, “The only haircut that makes sense anymore,” in Queer Looks: Lesbian & Gay Experimental Media (Routledge, New York: 1993) & “Kinky Escapades, Bedroom Techniques, Unbridled Passion, and Secret Sex Codes,” in Camp Grounds: Gay & Lesbian Style (U Mass, Boston: 1994)
  22. ^ Ryan, M., 1999. Literary Theory: a practical introduction. Oxford. Blackwell, p.117

  Results from FactBites:
 
Queer Theory (1256 words)
Queer theory echoes that "ideas are weapons." Finally, queer theory reinforces the valuable concept that human beings, as "interactive kinds," should be empowered autonomously to re-create and fully realize themselves, if for no other reason than people cannot be prevented from reacting to classification systems through self-reinvention.
Included in these criticisms is that queer theorists, in their radical nominalism, ignore the material world of actual persons and relationships, preferring instead to focus on grammatical and semantic analysis of texts and on conditions of reception-consumption, thereby drawing attention away from economic inequity and actual relations of exploitation.
Queer theory is also faulted for failing to recognize that politics is a part of culture, even popular culture, just as much as performance art and sit-coms.
Queer theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1625 words)
Queer Theory is a pairing of words coined by Teresa de Lauretis during a working conference on theorizing lesbian and gay sexualities that was held at the University of California, Santa Cruz in February 1990
Queer theory, unlike most feminist theory and lesbian and gay studies, includes a wide array of non-normative sexualities and sexual practices in its list of identities.
Ruby Rich as New Queer Cinema in 1992 continues, as Queer Cinema, to draw heavily on the prevailing critical climate of queer theory; a good early example of this is the Jean Genet-inspired movie Poison by the director Todd Haynes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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