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Encyclopedia > Quechua language
Quechua (Runa Simi) 
Pronunciation: IPA: ['ɾu.nɐ 'si.mi]
Spoken in: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru 
Region: Andes
Total speakers: 10,000,000 
Ranking: 83
Language family: Quechuan 
Official status
Official language of: Bolivia and Peru
Regulated by: Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua
Language codes
ISO 639-1: qu
ISO 639-2: que
ISO/DIS 639-3: que — Quechua (generic)
many varieties of Quechua have their own codes. 

Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, "human" + Simi, "speech", literally "mouth"; i.e. popular speech) is a Native American language of South America. It was the language of the Inca Empire, and is today spoken in various dialects by some 10 million people throughout South America, including modern southern Colombia and Ecuador, throughout Peru and Bolivia, north-western Argentina and northern Chile. It is the most widely spoken of all American Indian languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The Andes between Chile and Argentina Computer generated image of the Andes, made from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 arcseconds The Andes is a vast mountain range forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. ... This is a list of languages ordered by number of first-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A view of Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas, now an archaeological site. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...


Quechua is a very regular language, but a large number of infixes and suffixes change both the overall significance of words and their subtle shades of meaning, allowing great expressiveness. It includes grammatical features such as bipersonal conjugation and conjugation dependent on mental state and veracity of knowledge, spatial and temporal relationships, and many cultural factors.

Contents


History

Today's theories about Quechua's origin put its initial territorial domain in modern Peru's Central Coast, possibly in the ancient city of Caral, around 2600 BC. Inca kings of Cuzco made Quechua their official language and, with Inca conquest in the 14th century, the Empire's language became Ancient Peru's lingua franca. By the time of the Spanish conquest, in the 16th century, the language had already spread throughout the Andean region. The Caral pyramids in the arid Supe Valley, some 20 km from the Pacific coast. ... (Redirected from 2600 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Quechua has often been grouped with Aymara as a larger Quechumaran linguistic stock, largely because about a third of its vocabulary is shared with Aymara. This proposal is controversial, however: the cognates are close, often closer than intra-Quechua cognates, and there is little relationship in the affixal system. The similarities may be due to long time contact rather than from common origins. The language was further extended beyond the limits of the Inca empire by the Catholic Church, which chose it to preach to Indians in the Andes area. Help wikipedia by translating Spanish article into this article. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Andes between Chile and Argentina Computer generated image of the Andes, made from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 arcseconds The Andes is a vast mountain range forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. ...


Today, it has the status of an official language in both Peru and Bolivia, along with Spanish and Aymara. Before the arrival of the Spaniards and the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Quechua had no written alphabet. The Incas kept track of numerical data through a system of khipu-strings. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Representation of a khipu Khipu, or quipu, were recording devices used during the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. ...


Currently, the major obstacle to the diffusion of the usage and teaching of Quechua is the lack of written material in the Quechua language, namely books, newspapers, software, magazines, etc. Significantly, most of the native speakers of Quechua are illiterate. Thus, Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, remains essentially an oral language.


Geographic distribution

There are two main dialect groups.


Quechua I or Waywash is spoken in Peru's central highlands. It is the most archaic and diverse branch of Quechua, such that its dialects have been often considered a different tongue.


Quechua II or Wanp'una (Traveler) is divided into three branches: Yunkay Quechua is spoken sporadically in Peru's occidental highlands; Northern Quechua (also known as Quichua or Runashimi) is mainly spoken in Colombia and Ecuador; Southern Quechua, spoken in Peru's southern highlands, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, is today's most important branch because it has the largest number of speakers and because of its cultural and literary legacy.


Vocabulary

A number of Quechua loanwords have entered English via Spanish, including coca, condor, guano, jerky, llama, pampa, puma, quinine, quinoa, vicuña and possibly gaucho. The word lagniappe comes from the Quechua word yapay ("to increase; to add") with the article la in front of it, la yapa, in Spanish. A loanword is a word directly taken into by one language from another with little or no translation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Binomial name Erythroxylum coca Lam. ... Binomial name Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758 Gymnogyps californianus (Shaw, 1797) Condor is the name for two species of bird in one of the vulture families. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... Modern beef jerky is essentially beef that has been cut into strips with the fat trimmed off, then marinated, and dried with low heat, usually under 160°F (70°C). ... Binomial name Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a large camelid that originated in North America and then later on moved on to South America. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Quinine, C20H24N2O2, is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial and analgesic properties and a bitter taste. ... Binomial name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ... Binomial name Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of two wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which lives in the high Andes. ... Gauchos fight dramatization A gaucho is a South American cattle herder — the equivalent to the North American cowboy — on the pampas, chacos or Patagonian grasslands found in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Chile and southern Brazil (spelt gaúcho in Portuguese). ... Lagniappe means a little something extra. ...


Sounds

The description below applies to Cusco dialect; there are significant differences in other varieties of Quechua.


Vowels

Quechua uses only three vowels: /a/, /i/, and /u/, similar to Classical Arabic. Monolingual speakers pronounce these as [æ ɪ ʊ] respectively, though the Spanish vowels [a i u] may also be used. When the vowels appear adjacent to the uvular consonants /q/, /q'/, and /qh/, they are rendered more like [ɑ], [ɛ] and [ɔ] respectively. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Consonants

labial alveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
plosive p t k q
fricative s h
nasal m n ɲ
lateral l ʎ
trill r
semivowel w j

The language is spelled as the IPA apart from the palatal consonants /tʃ ɲ ʎ j/ which are spelled <ch ñ ll y> respectively. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ...


None of the plosives or fricatives are voiced; voicing is not phonemic in the Quechua native vocabulary. However, in the Cusco dialect, each plosive has three forms: simple, ejective, and aspirated (a feature that is considered to be of Aymara origin). For example: In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ...

 simple ejective aspirated p p′ ph t t′ th tʃ tʃ′ tʃh k k′ kh q q′ qh 

About 30% of the modern Quechua vocabulary is borrowed from Spanish, and some Spanish sounds (e.g. f, b, d, g) may have become phonemic, even among monolingual Quechua speakers. Qu-pata phata pata. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ...


Writing system

Quechua has been written using the Roman alphabet since the Spanish conquest of Peru. However, written Quechua is not utilized by the Quechua-speaking people at large, either because they are part of the illiterate majority, or because Spanish is more useful, due to the lack of printed referential material in Quechua. There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ...


Until the 20th century, Quechua was written with a Spanish-based orthography. Examples: Inca, Huayna Cápac, Collasuyo, Mama Ocllo, Viracocha, quipu, tambo, condor. This orthography is the most familiar to Spanish speakers, and as a corollary, has been used for most borrowings into English.


In 1975, the Peruvian government of Juan Velasco adopted a new orthography for Quechua. This is the writing system preferred by the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua. Examples: Inka, Wayna Qapaq, Qollasuyu, Mama Oqllo, Wiraqocha, khipu, tampu, kuntur. This orthography Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (1910–1977) was a leftist colonel who took power in Peru on October 3, 1968 in a military coup. ...

  • uses w instead of hu for the /w/ sound.
  • distinguishes velar k from uvular q, where both were spelled c or qu in the traditional system.
  • distinguishes simple, ejective, and aspirated stops in dialects (such as that of Cusco) which have them-- thus khipu above.
  • continues to use the Spanish five-vowel system.

In 1985, a variation of this system was adopted by the Peruvian government; it uses the Quechua three-vowel system. Examples: Inka, Wayna Qapaq, Qullasuyu, Mama Uqllu, Wiraqucha, khipu, tampu, kuntur. City nickname: La Ciudad Imperial (The Imperial City) Mayor Carlos Valencia Population  - Total 278 590 (1998 estimate) Time zone UTC-5 Height 3399 m Latitude Longitude 13°3045 S 71°5833 W Official website: www. ...


The different orthographies are still highly controversial in Peru. Advocates of the traditional system believe that the new orthographies look too foreign, and suggest that it makes Quechua harder to learn for people who have first been exposed to written Spanish. Those who prefer the new system maintain that it better matches the phonology of Quechua, and point to studies showing that teaching the five-vowel system to children causes reading difficulties in Spanish later on.


Writers differ in the treatment of Spanish loanwords. Sometimes these are adapted to the modern orthography, sometimes they are left in Spanish. For instance, "I am Robert" could be written Robertom kani or Ruwirtum kani. (The -m is not part of the name; it is an evidential suffix.)


Peruvian linguist Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino has proposed an orthographic norm for all Quechua, called Southern Quechua. This norm, accepted by many institutions in Peru, has been made by combining conservative features of two most common dialects: Ayacucho Quechua and Cusco Quechua (which is also used in Bolivia and Argentina). For instance: Ayacucho is one dialect of the Quechua language. ... Cusco is a dialect of the Quechua language. ...

Ayacucho Cusco Southern Quechua Translation
upyay uhyay upyay "to drink"
utqa usqha utqha "fast"
llamkay llank'ay llamk'ay "to work"
ñuqanchik nuqanchis ñuqanchik "we (inclusive)"
-chka- -sha- -chka- (progressive suffix)
punchaw p'unchay p'unchaw "day"

Grammar

Number
Singular Plural
Person First Ñuqa Ñuqanchik (inclusive)

Ñuqayku (exclusive) In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun phrase. ...

Second Qam Qamkuna
Third Pay Paykuna

In Quechua, there are seven pronouns. Quechua also has two first person plural pronouns ("we", in English). One is called the inclusive, which is used when the speaker wishes to include in "we" the person to whom he or she is speaking ("we and you"). The other form is called the exclusive, which is used when the addressee is excluded. ("we without you"). Quechua also adds the suffix -kuna to the second and third person singular pronouns qam and pay to create the plural forms qam-kuna and pay-kuna. Inclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to the exclusive we that excludes the addressee. ... Exclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker and perhaps other people, but excludes the addressee, as opposed to the inclusive we that includes the addressee. ... In linguistics, an addressee is an intended direct recipient of the speakers communication. ...

Adjectives in Quechua are always placed before nouns. They lack gender and number, and are not declined to agree with substantives. An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually describing it or making its meaning more specific. ...

  • Numbers.
    • Cardinal numbers. ch'usaq (0), huk (1), iskay (2), kimsa (3), tawa (4), pichqa (5), suqta (6), qanchis (7), pusaq (8), isqun (9), chunka (10), chunka hukniyuq (11), chunka iskayniyuq (12), iskay chunka (20), pachak (100), waranqa (1,000), hunu (1'000,000), lluna (1'000,000'000,000).
    • Ordinal numbers. To form ordinal numbers, the word ñiqin is put after the appropriate cardinal number (e.g., iskay ñiqin = "second"). The only exception is that, in addition to huk ñiqin ("first"), the phrase ñawpaq is also used in the somewhat more restricted sense of "the initial, primordial, the oldest".

The infinitive forms (unconjugated) have the suffix -y (much'a= "kiss"; much'a-y = "to kiss"). The endings for the indicative voice are: A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ...

Present Past Future Pluperfect
Ñuqa -ni -rqa-ni -saq -sqa-ni
Qam -nki -rqa-nki -nki -sqa-nki
Pay -n -rqa-n -nqa -sqa
Ñuqanchik -nchik -rqa-nchik -sun -sqa-nchik
Ñuqayku -yku -rqa-yku -saq-ku -sqa-yku
Qamkuna -nki-chik -rqa-nki-chik -nki-chik -sqa-nki-chik
Paykuna -n-ku -rqa-nku -nqa-ku -sqa-ku

To these are added various interfixes and suffixes to change the meaning. For example, -ku-, is added to make the actor the recipient of the action (example: wañuy = "to die"; wañukuy = "to commit suicide"); -naku-, when the action is mutual (example: marq'ay= "to hug"; marq'anakuy= "to hug each other"), and -chka-, when the condition is continuing (e.g., mikhuy = "to eat"; mikhuchkay = "to be eating").

These are indeclinable words, that is, they do not accept suffixes. They are relatively rare. The most common are arí ("yes") and mana ("no"), although mana can take the suffix -n (manan) to intensify the meaning. Also used are yaw ("hey", "hi"), and certain loan words from Spanish, such as piru (from Spanish pero "but") and sinuqa (from sino "rather"). A particle is Look up Particle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In particle physics, a basic unit of matter or energy. ...

Nearly every Quechua sentence is marked by an evidential suffix, indicating how certain the speaker is about a statement. -mi expresses personal knowledge (Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufirmi, "Mr. Huayllacahua is a driver-- I know it for a fact"); -si expresses hearsay knowledge (Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufirsi, "Mr. Huayllacahua is a driver, or so I've heard"); -cha expresses probability (Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufircha, "Mr. Huayllacahua is a driver, most likely"). These become -m, -s, -ch after a vowel. In linguistics, evidentiality is a modality that allows (or requires) speakers to specify why they believe a given statement—i. ...


Trivia

The fictional Huttese language in the Star Wars movies is largely based upon Quechua. Huttese is the language spoken by the fictional Hutt species of the Star Wars saga. ... The cover of the 2004 DVD widescreen release of the modified original Star Wars Trilogy. ...


The commonly used word for hangover in Ecuador is Quechua: chuchaqui.


The commonly used word for altitude sickness in Bolivia is Quechua: sorojchi.


See also

Help wikipedia by translating Spanish article into this article. ... The Andes between Chile and Argentina Computer generated image of the Andes, made from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 arcseconds The Andes is a vast mountain range forming a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. ... This is a list of English words of Quechuan origin. ... The South Bolivian Quechua language is a Quechua language, more specified a Quechua II language. ... Swadesh list of 207 words in English and Quechua of the Cuzco region. ...

References

  • Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, Lingüística Quechua, Centro de Estudios Rurales Andinos 'Bartolomé de las Casas', 2nd ed. 2003
  • Mannheim, Bruce, The Language of the Inka since the European Invasion, University of Texas Press, 1991, ISBN 0292746636

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
  • Quechua Network's Dictionary a very good one.
  • Quechua lessons in Spanish and English
  • Quechua course in Spanish from the Red Cientifica Peruana
  • Quechua - English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition.
  • Ecuadorian Quechua - English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Quechua language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1530 words)
Quechua is a very regular language, but a large number of infixes and suffixes change both the overall significance of words and their subtle shades of meaning, allowing great expressiveness.
The language was further extended beyond the limits of the Inca empire by the Catholic Church, which chose it to preach to Indians in the Andes area.
Quechua I or Waywash is spoken in Peru's central highlands.
Quechua - Simple English Wikipedia (183 words)
Quechua, sometimes written Quichua or Ketchua, is a language spoken by people in the South American nations of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Chile.
People that speak Quechua as their first language are called Quechua Indians by the Spanish speaking cultures.
The Quechua language has given names to many places in Peru, including the Ancash Region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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