FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Quechua" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Quechua
Quechua
Qhichwa Simi / Runa Shimi / Runa Simi 
Pronunciation: ['qʰeʃ.wa 'si.mi] ['χetʃ.wa 'ʃi.mi] [kitʃ.wa 'ʃi.mi] [ʔitʃ.wa 'ʃi.mi] ['ɾu.nɑ 'si.mi]
Spoken in: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru
Region: Andes
Total speakers: 10 million 
Ranking: 65
Language family: Quechuan 
Writing system: Latin alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.
Regulated by: none
Language codes
ISO 639-1: qu
ISO 639-2: que
ISO 639-3: que — Quechua (generic)
many varieties of Quechua have their own codes. 
Map of the Quechuaphone world,
with major to minor Quechua-speaking regions.

Quechua (Runa Simi; Kichwa in Ecuador) is a Native American language of South America. It was the language of the Inca Empire, and is today spoken in various dialects by some 10 million people (Quechuas) throughout South America, including Peru, South-western Bolivia, southern Colombia and Ecuador, north-western Argentina and northern Chile. It is the most widely spoken of all the languages of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... This is a list of languages placed in order by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x631, 47 KB) Azul: Minoría importante mas no oficial Celeste: pequeña minoría y no oficial. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language including all Quechua varieties spoken in Ecuador and Colombia (Inga) by approximately 2,500,000 people. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ...


Quechua is a very regular agglutinative language, with a normal sentence order of SOV (subject-object-verb). Its large number of suffixes changes both the overall significance of words and their subtle shades of meaning. Notable grammatical features include bipersonal conjugation (verbs agree with both subject and object), evidentiality (indication of the source and veracity of knowledge), a topic particle, and suffixes indicating who benefits from an action and the speaker's attitude toward it. An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ... In linguistics, evidentiality is a modality that allows (or requires) speakers to specify why they believe a given statement—i. ... Look up topic, topicality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

Inca kings of Cusco made Quechua their official language and, with Inca conquest in the 15th century, the Empire's language became pre-Columbian Peru's lingua franca. By the time of the Spanish conquest, in the 16th century, the language had already spread throughout the Andean region. For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in Peru Coordinates: , Country Peru Region Cusco Province Cusco Founded 1100 A.D. 1st Government  - Type Democracy  - Mayor Carlos Valencia Miranda Elevation 3,310 m (10,859. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


The oldest records of the language are those of Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás, who arrived in Peru in 1538 and learned the language from 1540, publishing his Gramática o Arte de la Lengua General de los Incas o los Reyes del Perú in 1560. Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás (born 1499, died 28 February 1570 in Lima) was a Spanish Dominican and grammarian who compiled the first Quechua grammar. ...


Quechua has often been grouped with Aymara as a larger Quechumaran linguistic stock, largely because about a third of its vocabulary is shared with Aymara. This proposal is controversial, however, as the cognates are close, often closer than intra-Quechua cognates, and there is little relationship in the affixal system. The similarities may be due to long-term contact rather than from common origin. The language was further extended beyond the limits of the Inca empire by the Roman Catholic Church, which chose it to preach to Indians in the Andes. Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ...


Today, it has the status of an official language in both Peru and Bolivia, along with Spanish and Aymara. Before the arrival of the Spaniards and the introduction of the Latin alphabet, Quechua had no written alphabet. The Incas kept track of numerical data through a system of quipu-strings. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Representation of a quipu Quipu or khipu were recording devices used in the Inca Empire and its predecessor societies in the Andean region. ...


Currently, the major obstacle to the diffusion of the usage and teaching of Quechua is the lack of written material in the Quechua language, namely books, newspapers, software, magazines, etc. Thus, Quechua, along with Aymara and the minor indigenous languages, remains essentially an oral language.


Geographic distribution

There are four main dialect groups. Image File history File links Quechua_(subgrupos). ... Image File history File links Quechua_(subgrupos). ...


Quechua I or Waywash is spoken in Peru's central highlands. It is the most conservative and diverse branch of Quechua, such that its dialects have often been considered different languages. The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ...


Quechua II or Wanp'una (Traveler) is divided into three branches: The Quechuan languages are a family of related languages in South America. ...

  • II-A: Yunkay Quechua is spoken sporadically in Peru's occidental highlands;
  • II-B: Northern Quechua (also known as Runashimi or, especially in Ecuador, Kichwa) is mainly spoken in Colombia and Ecuador. It is also spoken in the Amazonian lowlands in Ecuador and Peru;
  • II-C: Southern Quechua, spoken in Peru's southern highlands, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, is today's most important branch because it has the largest number of speakers and because of its cultural and literary legacy.

This is, at least, the traditional classification, and is still a helpful guide, though it has come to be increasingly challenged in recent years, since a number of regional varieties of Quechua seem to be intermediate between the two branches. Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language including all Quechua varieties spoken in Ecuador and Colombia (Inga) by approximately 2,500,000 people. ... Southern Quechua (Spanish: Quechua sureño, Southern Quechua: Chanka Qusqu Qullaw allin qillqay Qhichwa or HananRuna Simi) is an indigenous literary language and literary norm of the Quechua language for its southern varieties, respectively, in Peru and Bolivia. ...


Number of speakers

The number of speakers given varies widely according to the sources. The most reliable figures are to be found in the census results of Peru (1993) and Bolivia (2001), though they are probably altogether too low due to underreporting. The 2001 Ecuador census seems to be a prominent example of underreporting, as it comes up with only 499,292 speakers of the two varieties Quichua and Kichwa combined, where other sources estimate between 1.5 and 2.2 million speakers.

  • Argentina: 100,000
  • Bolivia: 2,100,000 (2001 census)
  • Brazil: unknown
  • Chile: very few, spoken in pockets in the Chilean Altiplano (Ethnologue)
  • Colombia: 9,000 (Ethnologue)
  • Ecuador: 500,000 to 2,200,000
  • Peru: 3,200,000 (1993 census)

Additionally, there may be hundreds of thousands of speakers outside the traditionally Quechua speaking territories.[citation needed]


Vocabulary

A number of Quechua loanwords have entered English via Spanish, including coca, cóndor, guano, jerky, llama, pampa, puma, quinine, quinoa, vicuña and possibly gaucho. The word lagniappe comes from the Quechua word yapay ("to increase; to add") with the Spanish article la in front of it, la yapa or la ñapa, in Spanish. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Template:For the American comedian Binomial name Erythroxylum coca Lam. ... Genera Vultur Gymnogyps Condor is the name for two species of New World vultures, each in a monotypic genus. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... Jerky is meat which has been cut into strips with the fat trimmed off, marinated in a spiced, salty or sweet liquid for a desired flavor, then dried with low heat (usually under 160°F or 70°C). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ... Species P. concolor P. yagouaroundi Puma is a Felidae genus that contains the Cougar (also known as the Puma, among other names) and the Jaguarundi. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Binomial name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ... Binomial name Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782) The Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which lives in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... Gauchos taming horses in Corrientes Province, Argentina. ... Lagniappe means a little something extra. ...


Quechua has borrowed a large number of Spanish words, such as pero (from pero, but), bwenu (from bueno, good), and burru (from burro, donkey).


Phonology

The description below applies to Cusco dialect; there are significant differences in other varieties of Quechua. Qusqu-Qullaw (Spanish also Cusco-Collao) is a variety of the Quechua language, spoken throughout southern Peru (departments of Cusco and Puno), Bolivia, and northern Argentina. ...


Vowels

Quechua uses only three vowels: /a/ /i/ and /u/, just as in Classical Arabic and Aymara (including Jaqaru). Monolingual speakers pronounce these as [æ] [ɪ] and [ʊ] respectively, though the Spanish vowels /a/ /i/ and /u/ may also be used. When the vowels appear adjacent to the uvular consonants /q/, /qʼ/, and /qʰ/, they are rendered more like [ɑ], [ɛ] and [ɔ] respectively. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Consonants

labial alveolar postalveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
plosive / affricate p t k q
aspirated plosive or affricate tʃʰ
ejective p’ t’ tʃ’ k’ q’
fricative s h
nasal m n ɲ
lateral approximant l ʎ
flap ɾ
central approximant j w

None of the plosives or fricatives is voiced; voicing is not phonemic in the Quechua native vocabulary of the modern Cusco variety. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...

About 30% of the modern Quechua vocabulary is borrowed from Spanish, and some Spanish sounds (e.g. f, b, d, g) may have become phonemic, even among monolingual Quechua speakers. Qu-pata phata pata. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ...


Writing system

Quechua has been written using the Roman alphabet since the Spanish conquest of Peru. However, written Quechua is not utilized by the Quechua-speaking people at large due to the lack of printed referential material in Quechua. There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ...


Until the 20th century, Quechua was written with a Spanish-based orthography. Examples: Inca, Huayna Cápac, Collasuyo, Mama Ocllo, Viracocha, quipu, tambo, condor. This orthography is the most familiar to Spanish speakers, and as a corollary, has been used for most borrowings into English. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ...


In 1975, the Peruvian government of Juan Velasco adopted a new orthography for Quechua. This is the writing system preferred by the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua. Examples: Inka, Wayna Qapaq, Qollasuyu, Mama Oqllo, Wiraqocha, khipu, tampu, kuntur. This orthography Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (1910–1977) was a leftist colonel who took power in Peru on October 3, 1968 in a military coup. ... The Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua (Spanish; English: Highest Academy of the Quechua Language, Quechua: Qheswa simi hamutana kuraq suntur) AMLQ in Cusco is a private institution, founded in 1990, concerned with the purity of the Quechua language. ...

  • uses w instead of hu for the /w/ sound.
  • distinguishes velar k from uvular q, where both were spelled c or qu in the traditional system.
  • distinguishes simple, ejective, and aspirated stops in dialects (such as that of Cuzco) which have them-- thus khipu above.
  • continues to use the Spanish five-vowel system.

In 1985, a variation of this system was adopted by the Peruvian government; it uses the Quechua three-vowel system. Examples: Inka, Wayna Qapaq, Qullasuyu, Mama Uqllu, Wiraqucha, khipu, tampu, kuntur. See other Peruvian regions President Carlos R. Cuaresma Capital Cusco Area 71,986. ...


The different orthographies are still highly controversial in Peru. Advocates of the traditional system believe that the new orthographies look too foreign, and suggest that it makes Quechua harder to learn for people who have first been exposed to written Spanish. Those who prefer the new system maintain that it better matches the phonology of Quechua, and point to studies showing that teaching the five-vowel system to children causes reading difficulties in Spanish later on.


For more on this, see Quechuan and Aymaran spelling shift. In recent years, the spelling of place names in Peru and Bolivia has been revised among Quechua and Aymara speakers. ...


Writers differ in the treatment of Spanish loanwords. Sometimes these are adapted to the modern orthography, sometimes they are left in Spanish. For instance, "I am Robert" could be written Robertom kani or Ruwirtum kani. (The -m is not part of the name; it is an evidential suffix.)


Peruvian linguist Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino has proposed an orthographic norm for all Quechua, called Southern Quechua. This norm, el Quechua estándar or Hanan Runasimi, which is accepted by many institutions in Peru, has been made by combining conservative features of two most common dialects: Ayacucho Quechua and Qusqu-Qullaw Quechua (spoken in Cusco, Puno, Bolivia, and Argentina). For instance: Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino (* in Huancayo, Peru) is a Peruvian linguist who has crucially contributed to investigation and development of the Quechua language. ... Southern Quechua (Spanish: Quechua sureño, Southern Quechua: Chanka Qusqu Qullaw allin qillqay Qhichwa or HananRuna Simi) is an indigenous literary language and literary norm of the Quechua language for its southern varieties, respectively, in Peru and Bolivia. ... Ayacucho is one dialect of the Quechua language. ... Qusqu-Qullaw (Spanish also Cusco-Collao) is a variety of the Quechua language, spoken throughout southern Peru (departments of Cusco and Puno), Bolivia, and northern Argentina. ...

Ayacucho Cusco Southern Quechua Translation
upyay uhyay upyay "to drink"
utqa usqha utqha "fast"
llamkay llank'ay llamk'ay "to work"
ñuqanchik nuqanchis ñuqanchik "we (inclusive)"
-chka- -sha- -chka- (progressive suffix)
punchaw p'unchay p'unchaw "day"

To listen to recordings of these and many other words as pronounced in many different Quechua-speaking regions, see the external website The Sounds of the Andean Languages. There is also a full section on the new Quechua and Aymara Spelling.


Grammar

Pronouns

Number
Singular Plural
Person First Ñuqa Ñuqanchik (inclusive)

Ñuqayku (exclusive)

Second Qam Qamkuna
Third Pay Paykuna

In Quechua, there are seven pronouns. Quechua also has two first person plural pronouns ("we", in English). One is called the inclusive, which is used when the speaker wishes to include in "we" the person to whom he or she is speaking ("we and you"). The other form is called the exclusive, which is used when the addressee is excluded. ("we without you"). Quechua also adds the suffix -kuna to the second and third person singular pronouns qam and pay to create the plural forms qam-kuna and pay-kuna. In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun phrase. ... Inclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to the exclusive we that excludes the addressee. ... Exclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker and perhaps other people, but excludes the addressee, as opposed to the inclusive we that includes the addressee. ... In linguistics, an addressee is an intended direct recipient of the speakers communication. ...


Adjectives

Adjectives in Quechua are always placed before nouns. They lack gender and number, and are not declined to agree with substantives. talea harris and sophie king are sluts In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject, giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ...


Numbers

    • Cardinal numbers. ch'usaq (0), huk (1), iskay (2), kimsa (3), tawa (4), pichqa (5), suqta (6), qanchis (7), pusaq (8), isqun (9), chunka (10), chunka hukniyuq (11), chunka iskayniyuq (12), iskay chunka (20), pachak (100), waranqa (1,000), hunu (1,000,000), lluna (1,000,000,000,000).
    • Ordinal numbers. To form ordinal numbers, the word ñiqin is put after the appropriate cardinal number (e.g., iskay ñiqin = "second"). The only exception is that, in addition to huk ñiqin ("first"), the phrase ñawpaq is also used in the somewhat more restricted sense of "the initial, primordial, the oldest".

Aleph-0, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalized kind of number used to denote the size of a set. ...

Adverbs

Adverbs can be formed by adding -ta or, in some cases, -lla to an adjective: allin - allinta ("good - well"), utqay - utqaylla ("quick - quickly"). They are also formed by adding suffixes to demonstratives: chay ("that") - chaypi ("there"), kay ("this") - kayman ("hither"). An adverb is a part of speech. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ...


There are several original adverbs. For Europeans, it is striking that the adverb qhipa means both "behind" and "future", whereas ñawpa means "ahead, in front" and "past". This means that local and temporal concepts of adverbs in Quechua (as well as in Aymara) are associated to each other reversely compared to European languages. For the speakers of Quechua, we are moving backwards into the future (we cannot see it - ie. it is unknown), facing the past (we can see it - ie. we remember it). Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ...


Verbs

The infinitive forms (unconjugated) have the suffix -y (much'a= "kiss"; much'a-y = "to kiss"). The endings for the indicative are:

Present Past Future Pluperfect
Ñuqa -ni -rqa-ni -saq -sqa-ni
Qam -nki -rqa-nki -nki -sqa-nki
Pay -n -rqa-n -nqa -sqa
Ñuqanchik -nchik -rqa-nchik -su-nchik -sqa-nchik
Ñuqayku -yku -rqa-yku -saq-ku -sqa-yku
Qamkuna -nki-chik -rqa-nki-chik -nki-chik -sqa-nki-chik
Paykuna -n-ku -rqa-nku -nqa-ku -sqa-ku

To these are added various suffixes to change the meaning. For example, -ku, is added to make the actor the recipient of the action (example: wañuy = "to die"; wañukuy = "to commit suicide"); -naku, when the action is mutual (example: marq'ay= "to hug"; marq'anakuy= "to hug each other"), and -chka, when the condition is continuing (e.g., mikhuy = "to eat"; mikhuchkay = "to be eating").


Grammatical particles

Particles are indeclinable words, that is, they do not accept suffixes. They are relatively rare. The most common are arí ("yes") and mana ("no"), although mana can take the suffix -n (manan) to intensify the meaning. Also used are yaw ("hey", "hi"), and certain loan words from Spanish, such as piru (from Spanish pero "but") and sinuqa (from sino "rather"). In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...


Evidentiality

Nearly every Quechua sentence is marked by an evidential suffix, indicating how certain the speaker is about a statement. -mi expresses personal knowledge (Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufirmi, "Mr. Huayllacahua is a driver-- I know it for a fact"); -si expresses hearsay knowledge (Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufirsi, "Mr. Huayllacahua is a driver, or so I've heard"); -cha expresses probability (Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufircha, "Mr. Huayllacahua is a driver, most likely"). These become -m, -s, -ch after a vowel.


Trivia

  • The fictional Huttese language in the Star Wars movies is largely based upon Quechua. According to Jim Wilce, Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Northern Arizona University, George Lucas contacted a colleague of his, Allen Sonafrank, to record the dialogue. Wilce and Sonafrank discussed the matter, and felt it might be demeaning to have an alien represent Quechuans, especially in light of Erich von Daniken's popular but implicitly racist publications that claimed Inca monuments were created by aliens because "primitives" like the Incas could never have produced them. Sonafrank declined, but a grad student, who could pronounce but did not speak Quechua, recorded Greedo's dialogue. There are reports that the dialogue was played backwards or remixed, possibly to avoid offending Quechuans.
  • The commonly used word for hangover in Ecuador is Quechua: chuchaqui.

Huttese is the language spoken by the fictional Hutt species of the Star Wars saga. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university in Flagstaff, Arizona in the United States. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Erich von Däniken (born April 14, 1935 in Zofingen, Switzerland) is a controversial Swiss author who is best known for his theories about extraterrestrial influence on human culture since prehistoric times, known as paleocontact and ancient astronaut theory. ... This article is about minor characters in the fictional Star Wars universe. ... Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS) or altitude illness is a pathological condition that is caused by acute exposure to high altitudes. ... Rafael Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian economist, former finance minister, and current president-elect. ...

Popular culture

Sid Meiers Civilization IV is a turn-based strategy computer game. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. ...

See also

Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... This is a list of English words of Quechuan origin. ... The South Bolivian Quechua language is a Quechua language, more specified a Quechua II language. ...

References

  • Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino, Lingüística Quechua, Centro de Estudios Rurales Andinos 'Bartolomé de las Casas', 2nd ed. 2003
  • Mannheim, Bruce, The Language of the Inka since the European Invasion, University of Texas Press, 1991, ISBN 0-292-74663-6
  • Cusihuamán, Antonio, Diccionario Quechua Cuzco-Collao, Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos "Bartolomé de Las Casas", 2001, ISBN 9972-691-36-5
  • Cusihuamán, Antonio, Gramática Quechua Cuzco-Collao, Centro de Estudios Regionales Andinos "Bartolomé de Las Casas", 2001, ISBN 9972-691-37-3
  • Rodríguez Champi, Albino. (2006). Quechua de Cusco. Ilustraciones fonéticas de lenguas amerindias, ed. Stephen A. Marlett. Lima: SIL International y Universidad Ricardo Palma. [1]

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikipedia
Quechua edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Wiktionary
Quechua edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus


  Results from FactBites:
 
Quechua - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1666 words)
Quechua has often been grouped with Aymara as a larger Quechumaran linguistic stock, largely because about a third of its vocabulary is shared with Aymara.
Quechua I or Waywash is spoken in Peru's central highlands.
None of the plosives or fricatives are voiced; voicing is not phonemic in the Quechua native vocabulary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m