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Encyclopedia > Quebec sovereignty movement
The province of Quebec shown in red.
The province of Quebec shown in red.

The Quebec sovereignty movement (French: Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


In lay terms, separatism, independence and sovereignty all refer to the same goal of having the province of Quebec leave Canada to become a country on its own, with future possibilities of various collaborations with Canada. However, sovereignty is the term most commonly employed.


While the most apparent reason for separatism is Quebec having a Francophone or predominantly French-speaking (French-Canadian or Québécois) majority, as compared to the rest of Canada which consists of all but two English-dominant provinces (New Brunswick often is considered as essentially having a bilingual population), the origins and evolution of the movement are actually fairly complex. Some scholars may point to historical events as framing the cause for ongoing support for sovereignty in Quebec, while more contemporary pundits and political actors may point to the aftermath of more recent developments like the Meech Lake Accord or the Charlottetown Accord. Since polling has begun, support for sovereignty in Quebec has traditionally rested between 40% and 56%[citation needed]. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... This article is about the use of the term. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ...

Contents

Overview

With a sovereign state, Quebec sovereignists believe that the people of Quebec will be better equipped to foster their own economic, social, and cultural development. Sovereignists are opposed to the present federal system in Canada and do not believe it can be reformed in a way that could satisfy what they see as the desire of Quebecers to govern themselves apart from the rest of Canada in all respects.


The idea of sovereignty for Quebec is based, according to its proponents, on historical and sociological evidence that Quebecers are a people and a political nation—see Identity Politics. However, in recent polling, only Francophone Quebecers responded to questions implying they believe they belong to a Quebec nation, and non-Francophone Quebecers reject this idea.[1] Still, vocal elements of the francophone Quebecer political class feel that they have democratic control over a state of their own, but that inside the Canadian federation as it currently stands, this state does not have the constitutional powers which the Quebec government needs to be the effective national government of Quebecers. For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ...


Several attempts at reforming the federal system of Canada have thus far failed because of, particularly, the conflicting interests between sovereignists' representatives and the other provincial governments' representatives (see Constitutional debate of Canada). There is also a degree of resistance throughout Quebec and the rest of Canada to re-open constitutional debate for a number of reasons, in part, because of the nature of these failures—not all of which were the result simply of separatists and federalists not getting along. To cite one case, in a recent round of constitutional reform (see the Meech Lake Accord), an aboriginal leader from Manitoba was able to prevent ratification of the agreement in the provincial legislature because the interests of Canada's aboriginal population were not addressed. The Constitutional debate of Canada is an ongoing debate covering various political issues regarding the fundamental law of the country. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...


Contemporary politics

Perhaps the most significant basis of support for Quebec's sovereignty movement lay in more recent political events. For practical purposes, many political pundits use the political career and efforts of René Lévesque as a marker for the beginnings of what is now considered the contemporary movement, although more broadly-accepted consensus appears on the contemporary movement finding its origins in a period called "The Quiet Revolution" (see more on the Quiet Revolution below). René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ...


René Lévesque, architect of the first sovereignty vote, claimed a willingness to work for change in the Canadian framework after the federalist victory in the referendum of 1980. This approach was dubbed le beau risque ("the beautiful risk"). The 1982 repatriation of the Canadian Constitution did not solve the issue in the point of view of the majority of sovereigntist Quebecers. The constitutional amendment of 1982 was agreed to by representatives from 9 of the 10 provinces (i.e., in the absence of Quebec representatives). It has still not been symbolically endorsed by Quebec as of 2007. See Patriation for further details. Look up Patriation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The constitutional promises to Quebec by the federal government and Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau were made before the 1980 Quebec referendum. “Trudeau” redirects here. ... The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ...


While it is suggested that there existed a belief amongst the people of Quebec that a harmonizing constitution geared to recognize the people of Quebec would be signed in 1982[citation needed], there are unquestionably numerous other possible reasons the 'Yes' campaign went down to defeat. The economy of Quebec suffered measurably following the election of the separatist Parti Québécois and continued to during the course of the campaign. The Canadian dollar lost much of its value and, during coverage of the dollar's recovery against U.S. currency, there were repeated citations of the referendum and political instability caused by it cited as cause for the fall. Some have also suggested that faith in a promised constitutional agreement with the rest of Canada is widely acknowledged to be the cause of the failure of the Yes vote of the first referendum.[citation needed] But others suggest there were promises of constitutional reform to address outstanding political issues between the province and the federal government both before and since without any sign of particularly greater expectation those promises would be filled to any greater or lesser degree. There remains no conclusive evidence that the sovereignty movement derives significant support today because of anything that was promised back in the 1970s. The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ...


It is sometimes suggested by proponents of the sovereignty movement that many people in Quebec feel "had" for believing the constitutional promises that the federal government and Pierre Trudeau made just before the 1980 Quebec referendum.[citation needed] The constitutional reform promises made by Trudeau and the federal government were not delivered on paper or agreed upon in principle by the federal government or the other provincial governments. But one conclusion that appears to be universal is that one event in particular – dubbed "the night of the long knives" – energized the separatist movement during the 1980s. This event involved a "back-room" deal, struck between Trudeau, representing the federal government, and all of the other provinces, save Quebec. It was here that Trudeau was able to gain agreement on the content of the new constitution, while the separatist premier René Lévesque was simply left out. And it may well be that a certain number of Quebecers did and may even now feel "had" both about the nature of that deal and how Trudeau (a Quebecer himself) went about reaching it. “Trudeau” redirects here. ...


Regardless of Quebec government's refusal to approve the 1982 constitutional amendment because the promised reforms were not implemented (along with other numerous items[citation needed] within the constitution which infuriated Quebec politicians), the amendment went into effect. To many in Quebec, the 1982 constitutional amendment without Quebec's approval is still viewed as a historic political wound. The debate still occasionally rages within the province about the best way to heal the rift – and the sovereignty movement certainly derives some degree of support from a belief that healing should take the form of separation from Canada.


"I also criticized the unilateral repatriation of 1982, concluding that 'even in their moments of greatest mistrust, the Québécois never imagined that the pact of 1867 could ever be changed without their consent. Hence the impression they had in 1982 of a breach of trust, of a violation of the national bond's integrity. The descendants of George-Étienne Cartier did not expect this from the descendants of John A. Macdonald. Perceived as trickery in Quebec, the repatriation of 1982 has placed a time bomb in the political dynamics of this country' ". (p. 224, On the Record, Lucien Bouchard, former leader of the separatist party, the Bloc Québécois.)


The failure of the Meech Lake Accord—an abortive attempt to redress the constitutional problems brought on by the adoption of the 1982 amendment without the Quebec government's approval—strengthened the conviction of most sovereigntist politicians and led many federalist ones to place little hope in the prospect of a federal constitutional reform that would satisfy Quebec's purported historical demands (according to proponents of the sovereignty movement). These include a constitutional recognition that Quebecers constitute a distinct society, as well as a larger degree of independence of the province towards federal policy. The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...


"In Montreal, June 25, I walked along rue Sherbrooke to Olympic Stadium, submerged in the immense river of white and blue that seemed unstoppable on its march to sovereignty. Three days earlier, Bourassa, former minister of federalism, had hurriedly changed his tune: 'English Canada must understand that . . . Quebec is, today and forever, a distinct society, free and able to assume its destiny and its development.'" (p. 251, 'On the Record', Lucien Bouchard) is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The contemporary sovereignty movement is thought to have originated from the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, although the desire for an independent or autonomous French-Canadian state has periodically arisen throughout Quebec's history, notably during the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion. Part of Quebec's continued historical desire for sovereignty is caused by Quebecers' perception of a singular English-speaking voice and identity that is dominant within the parameters of Canadian identity, with no incorporation of the Francophone identity.[citation needed] (This is a point contested in other parts of Canada – particularly in places like Manitoba which has a significant French-speaking population, and where in the 1990s that population tried to assert francophone language rights in schools. The separatist Parti Québécois-led government of Quebec offered up comment actually taking the side of the Manitoba government, which was opposing granting those rights. Speculation persists that the Quebec government opposed this assertion of francophone identity outside of the province because of the impact it would have on the assertion of anglophone language rights within its own borders.) The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838 The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. ...


For a majority of Quebec politicians, whether separatist or not, the problem of Quebec's political status is considered unresolved to this day. Although Quebec independence is a political question, cultural concerns are also at the root of the desire for independence. The central cultural argument of the sovereigntists is that only sovereignty can adequately ensure the survival of the French language in North America, allowing Quebecers to establish their nationality, preserve their cultural identity, and keep their collective memory alive (see Language demographics of Quebec). French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as he is influenced by his belonging to a group or culture. ... Collective memory is a term coined by Maurice Halbwachs, separating the notion from the individual memory. ... This article presents the current language demographics of the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


Quebec feels a lack of recognition has been given to them both domestically and on the international scene.[citation needed] In addition, the large Francophone population within New Brunswick and other areas of Canada often feel their culture is diminishing within Canada. The diminishing use of French outside Quebec is attributed to inadequate public infrastructures such as schools and "social integration" within a dominant English-speaking society.


"At the same time, a brutal gesture by the Saskatchewan legislature brought the first language crises to my doorstep. The legislature precipitously abrogated the only law guaranteeing linguistic rights to the French population. It was revenge for a recent Supreme Court decision that had confirmed the constraining power of the law requiring all provincial laws to be available in French. To avoid having to translate all their laws, Grant Devine's government moved to repeal the act. The French community reacted with indignation and asked for federal intervention". (p. 186, On the Record, Lucien Bouchard)


The threat to the French language outside of Quebec is a small contribution to the feelings of Quebec sovereigntists and separatists to form a fully independent Quebec nation free of any bonds to an English-speaking dominated federal government. Not every Quebec nationalist sees confederation as posing a threat to the status of the French language however, especially when the shrinking percentage of English-speaking Quebecers and the province's strict language laws are taken into account[citation needed]. This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ...


Arguments against sovereignty

Critics have variously claimed that the arguments for sovereignty are overoptimistic, naive, or lacking in realism and/or rigour.[citation needed] Throughout the 1990s, in a series of letters then-federal Intergovernmental Affairs Minister Stéphane Dion laid out an intellectual argument against sovereignty.[1] Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ...


It has also been argued by prominent Quebecers (sovereigntists and ex-sovereigntists, including former Quebec premier Lucien Bouchard) that sovereignty politics has distracted Quebecers from the real economic problems of Quebec, and that sovereignty cannot solve those problems. In 2005 they published their position statement, "Pour un Québec lucide," ("For a clear vision of Quebec") which details the problems facing Quebec.[2] Lucien Bouchard, PC, B.Sc, LL.B (born December 22, 1938) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... Pour un Québec lucide is a manifesto signed by 12 prominent Quebecers, including former premier Lucien Bouchard. ...


Many federalists oppose the Quebec Sovereignty movement for economic and political reasons, however many also oppose sovereignty on other grounds, seeing it, for example, as a hypocritical expression of ethnic nationalism. Support for separation has routinely been the weakest amongst non-Francophones (in particular, Anglophones, First Nations, allophones and immigrants.) Those who support multiculturalism as opposed to Quebec nationalism are more likely to support federalism. However, the Sovereignty movement is by no means exclusively ethnic French in terms of membership, and the PQ in particular has attempted to embrace the multicultural reality of Montreal and increasingly other cities in Quebec. Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... An anglophone is someone who speaks English natively or by adoption. ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ... In Quebec, an allophone is someone whose first language or language of use is neither English nor French. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ...


Sovereignty-association

Main article: Mouvement Souveraineté-Association

The history of the relations between French and English descendants in Canada is one filled with a lot of rocky moments. After "discovering" Canada and establishing some outposts and cities, the French lost it to Great Britain in 1759. The conquered French lost almost all their political and economical powers to the English. From that point on, at different moments in Canada's and Quebec's history, some leaders and groups have risen to reclaim what was lost. The use of the word "sovereignty" and many of the ideas of this movement originated in the 1967 Mouvement Souveraineté-Association of René Lévesque. This movement ultimately gave birth to the Parti Québécois in 1968. The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, or Movement for Sovereignty-Association) was formed on November 19, 1967 by René Lévesque to promote the concept of sovereignty-association between Quebec and the rest of Canada. ... The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, or Movement for Sovereignty-Association) was formed on November 19, 1967 by René Lévesque to promote the concept of sovereignty-association between Quebec and the rest of Canada. ... The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ...


Sovereignty-association (French: Souveraineté-Association) is the combination of two concepts:

  1. The achievement of sovereignty for the Quebec state.
  2. The creation of a political and economic association between this new independent state and Canada.

It was first presented in Lévesque's political manifesto, Option Québec. Option Québec is a political manifesto written by René Lévesque, a cabinet minister in the government of Quebec, Canada, in 1968. ...


The Parti Québécois defines sovereignty as the power for a state to levy all its taxes, vote on all its laws, and sign all its treaties (as mentioned in the 1980 referendum question). The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ...


The type of association between an independent Quebec and the rest of Canada was described as a monetary and customs union as well as joint political institutions to administer the relations between the two countries. The main inspiration for this project was the then-emerging European Community. This belief continues to this day such a relationship can work, despite the fact that the European union while highly successful in some respects, has in other respects proven to detract many stronger nations and create some financial and political tension throughout Europe[citation needed]. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The hyphen between the words "sovereignty" and "association" was often stressed by Lévesque and other PQ members, to make it clear that both were inseparable. The reason stated was that if Canada decided to boycott Quebec exports after voting for independence, the new country would have to go through difficult economic times, as the barriers to trade between Canada and the United States were then very high. Quebec would have been a nation of 7 million people stuck between two impenetrable protectionist countries. In the event of having to compete against Quebec, rather than support it, Canada could easily maintain its well-established links with the United States to prosper in foreign trade.


Sovereignty-association as originally proposed would have meant that Quebec would become a politically independent state, but would maintain a formal association with Canada — especially regarding economic affairs. It was part of the 1976 separatist platform which swept the Parti Québécois into power in that year's provincial elections – and included a promise to hold a referendum on sovereignty-association. René Lévesque developed the idea of sovereignty-association to reduce the fear that an independent Quebec would face tough economic times. In fact, this proposal did result in an increase in support for a sovereign Quebec: polls at the time showed that people were more likely to support independence if Quebec maintained an economic partnership with Canada. This line of politics led the out-spoken Yvon DesChamps to proclaim that what Quebecers want is an independent Quebec inside a strong Canada, thereby comparing the sovereignist movement to a spoiled child that has everything it could desire and still wants more. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In 1979 the PQ began an aggressive effort to promote sovereignty-association by providing details of how the economic relations with the rest of Canada would include free trade between Canada and Quebec, common tariffs against imports, and a common currency. In addition, joint political institutions would be established to administer these economic arrangements. But the separatist cause was hurt as many politicians (most notably the premiers of several of the other provinces) publicly refused to negotiate an economic association with an independent Quebec, contributing to the Yes side losing by a vote of 60 percent to 40 percent. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


This loss laid the groundwork for the 1995 referendum, which stated that Quebec should offer a new economic and political partnership to Canada before declaring independence. An English translation of part of the Sovereignty Bill reads, "We, the people of Quebec, declare it our own will to be in full possession of all the powers of a state; to levy all our taxes, to vote on all our laws, to sign all our treaties and to exercise the highest power of all, conceiving, and controlling, by ourselves, our fundamental law." Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Sovereignty Bill, or Bill 1: An Act Respecting the Future of Québec, was a motion in the Quebec National Assembly that declared the Canadian province of Quebecs independence from Canada and its federal government. ...


And in this case, the rest of Canada's acceptance would not be a requirement for sovereignty. This time, the separatists lost in a very close vote: 50.6 percent to 49.4 percent, or only 53,498 votes out of more than 4,700,000 votes cast. However, after the vote many within the separatist camp were very upset that the vote broke down heavily along language lines. Approximately 90 percent of English speakers and allophones (mostly immigrants and first-generations Quebecers whose native language is neither French or English) Quebecers voted against the referendum, while almost 60 percent of Francophones voted Yes, and 82 percent of Quebecers are French-speaking. Quebec premier Jacques Parizeau, whose government supported sovereignty, attributed the defeat of the resolution to money and the ethnic vote. This citation made on the spur of the moment caused an outcry among English speaking Quebecers. But time would reveal this to be true. An inquiry by Le directeur général des élections concluded in 2007 that at least $500,000 was spent by the federalist camp in violation of Quebec's election laws. This law imposes a limit on campaign spending by both option camps. Parizeau's statement was also an admission of failure by the Yes camp in getting the newly arrived Quebecers to adhere to their political option. In Quebec, an allophone is someone whose first language or language of use is neither English nor French. ... The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Jacques Parizeau, (born August 9, 1930) is an economist and noted Quebec sovereigntist who served as Premier of Quebec, Canada, from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996. ... After the narrow 50. ...


While opponents of sovereignty were pleased with the defeat of the referendum, most recognized that there were still deep divides within Quebec and problems with the relationship between Quebec and the rest of the country.


After the signing of the free trade agreement between Canada and the United States, supporters of sovereignty-association revisited their options, and the need for an association with the rest of Canada was made optional[citation needed]. That is, an association with Canada is still wished for, but were it to fail, sovereignty would be economically viable because of the belief that Quebec could freely export to the U.S. market due to Canada's membership in NAFTA. Some observers believe that Quebec's participation in NAFTA would be contingent upon the unanimous approval of the three original signatories. Currently, PQ members and outside supporters will often speak of 'sovereignty' alone, insisting on the idea that a sovereign Quebec would be legally capable of entering into international agreements it would deem suitable. In realistic terms, Quebec would be forced to enter the NAFTA agreement to ensure its sovereign survival. Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Those in favour of independence vacillate between terming it "sovereignty" and "independence," but the two terms are considered to be synonymous. A small group of people prefer "independence" over the other term. The use of the term "sovereignty-association" is much less frequent, but is still heard (refer to the Modernization section below). Federalists almost always refer to sovereigntists as "séparatistes" a more negative, contemptuous term.


History

Main article: History of the Quebec independence movement

The History of the Quebec sovereignty movement began in the late 1967, when René Lévesque formed the Mouvement Souveraineté-Association, or MSA. Origins Main article: Quebec nationalism Sovereigntism and sovereignty are terms that refer to the modern movement in favour of the political independence of Quebec. ...

Precursor ideas and events

Further information: Quebec nationalism

Sovereigntism and sovereignty are terms that refer to the modern movement in favour of the political independence of Quebec. However, the roots of Quebec's desire for self-determination can be traced back as far as the Patriotes Rebellion, the Alliance Laurentienne of 1957, the writings of Lionel Groulx in the 1920s, the Francoeur Motion of 1917, and Honoré Mercier's flirtation with this idea (especially in his historic speech of 1893.) Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Flag used by the Patriotes between 1832 and 1838 The Lower Canada Rebellion is the name given to the armed conflict between the rebels of Lower Canada (now Quebec) and the British colonial power of that province. ... The Alliance laurentienne was a political organization founded by Raymond Barbeau on January 25, 1957. ... Lionel-Adolphe Groulx photo from ca. ... The FrancÅ“ur Motion, prepared in 1918 by Liberal Member of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec Joseph-Napoléon FrancÅ“ur, declared that Quebec was disposed to leave the Canadian federation if English Canadians felt the presence of Quebec was a nuisance to Canada. ... Honoré-Mercier is the name of a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada. ...


Emergence

The Quiet Revolution in Quebec brought widespread change in the 1960s. Among other changes, support for Quebec independence began to form and grow in some circles. The first organization dedicated to the independence of Quebec was the Alliance Laurentienne, founded by Raymond Barbeau on January 25, 1957. Raymond Barbeau (June 27, 1930–March 5, 1992) was an teacher, essayist, literary critic, political figure and naturopath. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


On September 10, 1960 the Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale (RIN) was founded, with Pierre Bourgault quickly becoming its leader. On August 9 of the same year, the Action socialiste pour l'indépendance du Québec (ASIQ) was formed by Raoul Roy. The "independence + socialism" project of the ASIQ was a source of political ideas for the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ). is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pierre Bourgault speaks as leader of the Rassemblement pour lIndépendance Nationale. ... Pierre Bourgault (January 23, 1934-June 15, 2003) was a Quebec politician and essayist and public speaker who advocated Quebec sovereignty. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, and sometimes referred to as Front de libération Québécois was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five...


On October 31, 1962, the Comité de libération nationale and, in November of the same year, the Réseau de résistance were set up. These two groups were formed by RIN members to organize non-violent but illegal actions, such as vandalism and civil disobedience. The most extremist individuals of these groups left to form the FLQ, which, unlike all the other groups, had made the decision to resort to violence in order to reach its goal of independence for Quebec. Shortly after the November 14, 1962, Quebec general election, RIN member Marcel Chaput founded the short-lived Parti républicain du Québec. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Quebec general election on November 14, 1962, the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Jean Lesage won re-election, defeating the Union Nationale under Daniel Johnson, Sr. ... Marcel Chaput (October 14, 1918 - January 19, 1991) was one of the early leaders of the Quebec sovereignist movement. ... The Parti républicain du Québec or PRQ (in English: Quebec Republicain Party) was a political party that advocated the independence of Quebec from Canada. ...


In February 1963, the FLQ was founded by three Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale members who had met each other as part of the Réseau de résistance. They were Georges Schoeters, Raymond Villeneuve, and Gabriel Hudon. Pierre Bourgault speaks as leader of the Rassemblement pour lIndépendance Nationale. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Raymond Villeneuve (born September 11, 1943) was a founding member of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ). ...


In 1964, the RIN became a provincial political party. In 1965, the more conservative Ralliement national (RN) also became a party. The Ralliement national was political party that advocated the political independence of Quebec from Canada in the 1960s. ...


The historical context of the time was a period when many former European colonies, such as Cameroon, Congo, Senegal, Algeria, and Jamaica, were becoming independent. Some advocates of Quebec independence saw Quebec's situation in a similar light; numerous activists were influenced by the writings of Frantz Fanon, Albert Memmi, and Karl Marx. Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Albert Memmi (born December 15, 1920) is a Tunisian-born French writer and essayist. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


In June 1967, French president Charles de Gaulle, who had granted independence to Algeria, shouted Vive le Québec libre! during a speech from the balcony of Montreal's city hall during a state visit to Canada. In doing so, he deeply offended the federal government, and many Canadians felt he had demonstrated contempt for the sacrifice of Canadian soldiers who died on the battlefields of France in two world wars. The visit was cut short and De Gaulle left the country. Many Canadians also saw his comments as being hypocritical given the historic and present intolerant policies towards minority languages and cultures (such as the Breton language, Basque language and Corsican language) by French governments, in contrast to Canada's policy of bilingualism.[citation needed] For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Charles De Gaulle delivering the famous speech upon the Montreal city hall balcony. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... This is an article about language policy in France. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Corsican (Corsu or Lingua Corsa) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Corsica (France), alongside French, which is the official language. ...


Finally, in October 1967, former Liberal cabinet minister René Lévesque left that party when it refused to discuss sovereignty at a party convention. Lévesque formed the Mouvement souveraineté-association and set about uniting pro-sovereignty forces. The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, or Movement for Sovereignty-Association) was formed on November 19, 1967 by René Lévesque to promote the concept of sovereignty-association between Quebec and the rest of Canada. ...


He achieved that goal in October 1968 when the MSA held its first (and last) national congress in Quebec City. The RN and MSA agreed to merge to form the Parti Québécois (PQ), and later that month Pierre Bourgault, leader of the RIN, dissolved his party and invited its members to join the PQ. Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... Pierre Bourgault (January 23, 1934-June 15, 2003) was a Quebec politician and essayist and public speaker who advocated Quebec sovereignty. ...


The early years of the PQ

Jacques Parizeau joined the party on September 19, 1969, and Jérôme Proulx of the Union Nationale joined on November 11 of the same year. Jacques Parizeau, (born August 9, 1930) is an economist and noted Quebec sovereigntist who served as Premier of Quebec, Canada, from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1970 provincial election, the PQ won its first seven seats in the National Assembly. René Lévesque was defeated in Mont-Royal by the Liberal André Marchand. The Quebec general election of 1970 was held on April 29, 1970 to elect members of the National Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... André Marchand started to play piano at age of three and grew up as a member of Dresdner Kreuzchor. ...


In the 1973 election, the PQ won six seats, a net loss of one. However, its share of the popular vote had significantly increased.[citation needed] In the Quebec general election on October 29, 1973, the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Robert Bourassa won re-election, defeating the Parti Québécois under René Lévesque and the Union Nationale. ...


The referendum of 1980

In the 1976 election, the PQ won 71 seats — a majority in the National Assembly — to the general astonishment of all Quebec and the rest of Canada. With one of the highest voting turnouts in Quebec history, 41.4 percent of the electorate voted for the PQ. The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... The Quebec general election of 1976 was held on November 15, 1976 to elect members to National Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ...


On August 26, 1977, the PQ passed two important laws: first, the law on the financing of political parties, which prohibits contributions by corporations and unions and set a limit on individual donations, and second, the Charter of the French Language. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101 and Loi 101) is a law in the province of Quebec, Canada defining French as the only official language of Quebec. ...


On May 17 PQ Member of the National Assembly Robert Burns resigned, telling the press he was convinced that the PQ was going to lose its referendum and fail to be re-elected afterwards. is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ...


At its seventh national convention from June 1 to 3, 1979, the sovereigntists adopted their strategy for the coming referendum. The PQ then began an aggressive effort to promote sovereignty-association by providing details of how the economic relations with the rest of Canada would include free trade between Canada and Quebec, common tariffs against imports, and a common currency. In addition, joint political institutions would be established to administer these economic arrangements.


Sovereignty-association was proposed to the population of Quebec in the 1980 Quebec referendum. The proposal was rejected by 60 per cent of the Quebec electorate. The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ...


In September, the PQ created a national committee of Anglophones and a liaison committee with ethnic minorities.


Despite having lost the referendum, the PQ was returned to power in the 1981 election with a stronger majority than in 1976, obtaining 49.2 per cent of the vote and winning 80 seats. However, they did not hold a referendum in their second term, and put sovereignty on the back burner, concentrating on their stated goal of "good government". In the Quebec general election on April 13, 1981, the incumbent Parti Québécois under René Lévesque won re-election, defeating the Quebec Liberal Party under Claude Ryan. ...


René Lévesque retired in 1985 (and died in 1987). In the 1985 election under his successor Pierre-Marc Johnson, the PQ was defeated by the Liberal Party. In the Quebec general election on December 2, 1985, the Quebec Liberal Party under Robert Bourassa defeated the incumbent Parti Québécois under Pierre-Marc Johnson. ... Pierre-Marc Johnson (born July 5, 1946) is a Quebec lawyer, physician and politician. ...


Repatriation, Meech, Charlottetown

The economic "association" part of the Sovereignty-Association concept was in some ways a forerunner of the later Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement of 1987 and the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was a trade agreement reached by Canada and the United States in October of 1987. ... NAFTA redirects here. ...


The referendum of 1995

The PQ returned to power in the 1994 election under Jacques Parizeau, this time with 44.75% of the popular vote. In the intervening years, the failures of the Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Accord had revived support for sovereignty, which had been written off as a dead issue for much of the 1980s. Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... Categories: Stub | Quebec general elections ... Jacques Parizeau, (born August 9, 1930) is an economist and noted Quebec sovereigntist who served as Premier of Quebec, Canada, from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Another consequence of the failure of the Meech Lake Accord was the formation of the Bloc Québécois (BQ), a sovereigntist federal political party, under the leadership of the charismatic former Progressive Conservative federal cabinet minister Lucien Bouchard. Several PC and Liberal members of the federal parliament left their parties to form the BQ. For the first time, the PQ supported pro-sovereigntist forces running in federal elections; during his lifetime Lévesque had always opposed such a move. The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC, B.Sc, LL.B (born December 22, 1938) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ...


The Union Populaire had nominated candidates in the 1979 and 1980 federal elections, and the Parti nationaliste du Québec had nominated candidates in the 1984 election, but neither of these parties enjoyed the official support of the PQ; nor did they enjoy significant public support among Quebecers. The Union populaire was a federal political party in Canada that nominated candidates in the 1979 and 1980 federal elections. ... The House of Commons after the 1979 election The Canadian federal election of 1979 was held on May 22, 1979 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The House of Commons after the 1980 election The 1980 Canadian federal election was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. ... The Parti nationaliste du Québec was a minor political party in Canada. ... The Canadian federal election of 1984 was called on July 4, 1984, and held on September 4 of that year. ...


In the 1993 federal election, which featured the collapse of Progressive Conservative Party support, the BQ won enough seats in Parliament to become Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition in the House of Commons. Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois...


Parizeau promptly called a new referendum. The 1995 referendum question differed from the 1980 question in that the negotiation of an association with Canada was now optional. Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ...


The "No" camp again won, but only by a very small margin — 50.6% to 49.4%.[2] As in the previous referendum, the English-speaking (anglophone) minority in Quebec overwhelmingly (about 90%) rejected sovereignty, support for sovereignty was also weak among allophones in immigrant communities and first-generation descendants. The lowest support for Yes side came from First Nations and Inuit voters in Quebec, First Nations chiefs asserted their right to self determination with the Cree being particularly vocal in their right to stay territories within Canada. More than 96% of the Inuit and Cree voted No in the referendum. Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Quebec, an allophone is someone whose first language or language of use is neither English nor French. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ...


By contrast almost 60 per cent of francophones of all origins voted "Yes". (82 per cent of Quebecers are Francophone.) Later inquiries into irregularities determined that some "No" ballots had been rejected without valid reasons, and also that the 27 October "No" rally had evaded spending limitations because of out-of-province participation[3]. An enquiery by "Le Directeur Général des Élections" concluded in 2007 that the No camp had exceded the campaign spending limits by $500,000. Additionally, up to 100,000 non-existing voters were found on electoral lists, in ridings that voted predominantly "No". This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ...


On referendum night, Premier Jacques Parizeau attributed the defeat of the resolution to "money and [some of the] ethnic votes". Most sovereigntists politicians condemned the declaration[citation needed], which eventually lead to Parizeau's resignation from his position as chief of the PQ[citation needed], announced on October 31, the day following the referendum. The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the end of the 20th century

The Parti Québécois won re-election in the 1998 election despite losing the popular vote to Jean Charest and the Quebec Liberals. In the number of seats won by both sides, the election was almost a clone of the previous 1994 election. However, public support for sovereignty remained too low for the PQ to consider holding a second referendum during their second term. Meanwhile, the federal government passed the Clarity Act to govern the wording of any future referendum questions and the conditions under which a vote for sovereignty would be recognized as legitimate. Federal liberal politicians stated that the ambiguous wording of the 1995 referendum question was the primary impetus in the bill's drafting. Categories: Stub | Quebec general elections ... Categories: Stub | Quebec general elections ... The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation of Canadas federal parliament that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. ...


In the 2003 election, the PQ lost power to the Liberal Party. However, in early 2004, the Liberal government of Jean Charest had proved to be unpopular, and that, combined with the federal Liberal Party sponsorship scandal, contributed to a resurgence of the BQ. In the 2004 federal elections, the Bloc Québécois won 54 of Quebec's 75 seats in the House of Commons, compared to 33 previously. Map of Quebecs ridings and how they voted by percentage. ... The sponsorship scandal is an ongoing scandal that has affected the government of Canada, and particularly the ruling Liberal Party of Canada for a number of years, but rose to especially great prominence in 2004. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


While opponents of sovereignty were pleased with their referendum victories, most recognized that there are still deep divides within Quebec and problems with the relationship between Quebec and the rest of Canada.


The Clarity Act

In 1999, the Parliament of Canada, inspired by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, passed the Clarity Act, a law that, amongst other things, set out the conditions under which the federal government would recognize a vote by any province to leave Canada. Controversially, the act gave the House of Commons the power to decide whether a proposed referendum question was considered clear, and allowed it to decide whether a clear majority has expressed itself in any referendum. It is widely considered by sovereigntists as an illegitimate piece of legislation. Indeed, a contradictory Act respecting the exercise of the fundamental rights and prerogatives of the Québec people and the Québec State (Bill 99) was introduced in the National Assembly of Quebec only two days after the Clarity Act had been introduced in the House of Commons. This was purely a symbolic gesture, as, unlike the Clarity Act, it had no effect on the law. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation of Canadas federal parliament that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. ... An Act respecting the exercise of the fundamental rights and prerogatives of the Québec people and the Québec State (R.S.Q., c. ...


Former Prime Minister Chrétien, under whom the Clarity Act was passed, considered the legislation among his most significant accomplishments.


Present

Modernization

"Sovereignty-Association" is nowadays more often referred to simply as "sovereignty". However, in the 1995 Quebec referendum, in which the sovereignty option was narrowly rejected, the notion of some form of economic association with the rest of Canada was still envisaged (continuing use of the Canadian dollar and military, for example) and was referred to as "Sovereignty-Partnership" (in French Souveraineté-Partenariat). It remains a part of the PQ program and is tied to national independence in the minds of most Quebecers. This part of the PQ program has always been controversial, especially since Canadian federal politicians usually refuse the concept. This article is about the use of the term. ...


In 2003, the PQ launched the Saison des idées ("Season of ideas") which is a public consultation aiming to gather the opinions of Quebecers on its sovereignty project. The new program and the revised sovereignty project was adopted at the 2005 Congress.


Kosovo

On 17 February 2008, Kosovo, a province of Serbia, declared its independence. Serbian diplomat Vuk Jeremic warned that the declaration of independence could set a precedent elsewhere. Canada argued that Kosovo was a special case unlike that of Quebec. Quebec separatists, both the PQ and BQ, argued that Quebec has the same right to independence as Kosovo. Canada "tiptoed around Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia" for a month before deciding to recognize Kosovo as an independent state.[3] is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement (French: Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


Canada finally recognized Kosovo on 18 March, while claiming that this decision had "no bearing" on independence or sovereignty for Quebec.[4]


Allies and opponents

Provincial

There is a large semantic confusion, sometimes fostered by the Parti Québécois itself[citation needed], between the terms sovereignty, separatism, independentism. These terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but PQ supporters usually prefer the term "sovereignty", considered less radical and emotional than "independentism" (preferred by hard-liners)[citation needed], while "separatism" is usually considered pejorative. The separatist movement draws however above the left and right spectrum, a sizeable minority of more conservative Quebecers supporting the PQ's political agenda because of the sovereignty issue, despite reservations about its social democratic political agenda. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Right and Left must be interpreted within the provincial context; Liberal Party politics generally coincide with those of other liberal parties, while PQ politics are more social democratic in orientation. There is no mass conservative movement in Quebec's political culture on the provincial level, due notably to strong government interventionism and Keynesianism shared by all parties since the 1960s (the so-called "Quebec Consensus" since the Quiet Revolution), and the province's Catholic heritage. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ...


There are, of course, quite a few exceptions. Notable examples include:

Sovereignty has little support among Quebec Anglophones, immigrant communities, and aboriginal First Nations. About 60% of Francophones voted "Yes" in 1995, and with the exception of weak "Yes" support from the Latino and Arab communities, most non-Francophones massively voted "No" (see Demolinguistics of Quebec). The opponents of the sovereignty movement view the project as ethnically exclusive based on its rejection by non-Francophones. This is a position sometimes disputed by the PQ, which attempts to present its project as all-embracing and essentially civic in nature. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a conservative, nationalist and populist provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Quebec federalist ideology. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jean-Louis Roux (born May 18, 1923) is a noted entertainer and playwright, senator, and briefly Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. ... This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Quebec. ... René-Daniel Dubois (born 1955 in Montreal) is a Québécois playwright, best known for his 1985 play Being at Home with Claude, which was adapted into an award-winning film in 1992. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article presents the current demolingistics of the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


Rest of Canada

The other nine provinces of Canada have always been opposed to sovereignty-association. In both referendums, the sovereigntists (especially Jacques Parizeau in 1995) were characterized by many[citation needed] outside Quebec as power-hungry individuals who wanted to rule as an independent nation and yet also enjoy all the existing benefits as a component of Canada[citation needed], while prominent federalist Quebecers (especially Pierre Trudeau) were labelled traitors by the sovereignist camp.


Although the Alberta government had clashed with the federal government in the 1980s over the National Energy Program in what some saw as another challenge to national unity, Premier Peter Lougheed never considered separatism even as a negotiation ploy. British Columbia[citation needed] and Alberta have seen parties promoting secession, such as the Separation Party of Alberta, but these have been marginal. In 1982, Gordon Kesler was elected to the Alberta legislature under the banner of the Western Canada Concept Party, while in British Columbia no separatist party has ever had representatives elected to the provincial legislature. Newfoundland and Labrador (then called simply Newfoundland) joined Confederation in 1949 after the third referendum on the question of joining the Canadian confederation left many with a profound malaise and Newfoundlanders are still the most reluctant to identify themselves as Canadians before being Newfoundlanders.[citation needed] The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada. ... Peter Lougheed, painting by C. Leeper The Honourable Peter Lougheed, PC , CC , QC (born July 26, 1928, in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian lawyer, politician and Canadian Football League player. ... The Separation Party of Alberta, also known as the Alberta Huttonite Brethren is a totallly undemocratic political party that advocates the secession of Alberta from Canada. ... Gordon Kesler was a politician from Alberta, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


The Charter of the French Language and other legislative acts approved by the National Assembly have reinforced the position of French as the primary language in Quebec. Since the enactment of the charter in 1977 French has been the only official language of Quebec. A broad range of services in English are maintained for the English-speaking community, including education and health care. The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101 and Loi 101) is a law in the province of Quebec, Canada defining French as the only official language of Quebec. ...


Reaction in the other nine provinces to the assertion of French-language rights and the strengthening nationalism amongst Francophones in Quebec has been mixed. Under the leadership of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the federal parliament enacted the Official Languages Act, making both French and English official languages throughout Canada, resulting in real efforts to improve accessibility to French services from the federal government. New Brunswick, with a large French-speaking minority, has become officially bilingual. Governments of other provinces, such as Ontario, which has a sizeable Francophone population, have increased the level of government services available to Francophone residents. French language education is now being made available to Francophones in many communities in Canada, and many English-Canadians are taking advantage of French immersion programs to encourage their children to acquire a basic working ability to communicate in French. On the other hand, official bilingualism and the Quebec Charter of the French Language have prompted considerable criticism outside of Quebec, and some official reaction, for example in legislation passed in Manitoba restraining accessibility to French education.[citation needed] “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Official Languages Act can refer to: the Official Languages Act of Canada or the Official Languages Act of Ireland. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Despite attempts by the sovereignists to win their support, a large majority of Quebec non-Francophones (Anglophones and anglicized allophones) oppose the sovereignty movement[citation needed] while a small majority of Quebec Francophones (and 'francophonised' allophones) support it[citation needed]. And a large majority of the non-Francophones of Quebec say they are not members of any Quebec nation[citation needed]. After polling heavily on the subject, Leger president Mark Leger concluded: “These numbers surprise me, they’re so clear across the country... You look at Francophones outside Quebec, it’s the same result... Overall, outside the French in Quebec, all the other groups across the country are against this notion.” The exact question of the November 2006 poll was, "Currently, there is a political debate on recognizing Quebec as a nation. Do you personally consider that Quebecers form a nation or not?" Canadians from every region outside Quebec, non-Francophone Quebecers (62 per cent), Francophone Canadians outside Quebec (77 per cent) all resoundingly rejected the idea.[1]


International

In France, although openness and support is found on both sides of the political spectrum, the French political right has traditionally been warmer to sovereigntists (like President Charles de Gaulle, who shouted his support of independence in Montreal in 1967) than the French left (like President François Mitterrand, who was distrustful of nationalism and notoriously snubbed[citation needed] Lévesque at their first meeting in the 1970s). This "dividing line" is fading, since support towards Quebec sovereignty depends nowadays more on individual positions than on party line as it is in Quebec. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Vive le Québec libre ! (Long live free Quebec!) was a famous and controversial phrase in a speech delivered by French President Charles de Gaulle in Montreal on July 24, 1967. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ...


This used to be a paradoxical phenomenon because of the Parti Québécois and most sovereigntists being to the political left. Michel Rocard (who became Prime Minister of the French Republic) has been one of the French Socialists that broke that so-called rule the most, maintaining a close and warm relationship with Quebec sovereigntists. More recently, Ségolène Royal, leader of the French Socialist party, came out for "Quebec sovereignty" but it was seemingly a reflexive answer to an "out of the blue" question from a Quebec journalist in Paris. On a later visit to Quebec City she gave a more nuanced position, mentioning a Parliamentary motion recognizing Quebec as a "nation", but also describing 400 years of "oppression" and resistance of francophones in Canada. Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Michel Rocard, French politician Michel Rocard (born August 23, 1930) is a French Socialist politician, former French Prime minister, and currently a member of the European Parliament. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


French politicians and the whole population are usually sympathetic to Quebec for cultural, linguistic and historical reasons. There is a cultural attraction in France towards Quebec, just similar to the cultural attraction existing in Britain towards Canada, the United States or Australia, for instance. Since support for sovereignty is around 50% in Quebec (normally within 5%), France is very careful to be neutral on that sensitive question.


The French Foreign Office motto concerning Quebec "national question" is "non-ingérence et non-indifférence" ("no interference and no indifference"), which epitomizes the official position of the French State. In other words, as long as the Quebec people vote to stay within Canada, France will officially support the Canadian Federation the way it is. That is why bilateral relations between both governments (Canada and France) have been so strong for many years. Similarly, Canada supports and even encourages the special institutional ties that exist between Quebec and France (annual meetings of both Heads of governments in either country; very dense university and research co-operation; administrative agreements; etc).


Ambivalence

Quebec federalist nationalists think that the Quebec people should be recognized as a de facto nation by the federal government of Canada (recognition has been recently granted by the House of Commons) and initiate the constitutional reforms that presuppose such a recognition. Their position is often so close to that of some moderate Quebec sovereigntists that many have jumped the fence both ways (former Premier of Quebec Lucien Bouchard and Quebec lawyer Guy Bertrand are well-known examples of this). A great proportion of Quebec sovereigntist politicians were formerly in the reformist camp of the greater liberal family before joining the MSA or later the PQ. Proponents of a strong centralized federal government oppose this due to their vision of a multicultural Canada. A common argument is that if Canada is divisible by language and ethnicity, then so is Quebec with substantial Anglophone, First Nations and immigrant minorities. Indeed, when polled directly, a strong majority of non-Francophone denizens of Quebec rejects the idea that they form part of any Quebec nation.[1] Guy Bertrand is a Canadian civil rights lawyer. ...


Sovereigntist organizations

  • Parti Québécois
  • SPQ Libre
  • Mouvement pour une Élection sur la Souveraineté
  • Mouvement de Libération Nationale du Québec
  • Bloc Québécois
  • Québec Solidaire
  • Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society
  • Conseil de la Souveraineté du Québec
  • Réseau de Résistance du Québécois

The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... Headline of the official Syndicalistes et progressistes pour un Québec libre political club website. ... MLNQ flag The Mouvement de Libération Nationale du Québec (MLNQ) is a secessionist organization in Quebec, Canada, founded (in the wake of the 1995 referendum on Quebec sovereignty) by Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ) founder and convicted murderer Raymond Villeneuve and that acts as a... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... Québec solidaire is a broadly left-wing and sovereignist political party in Quebec, Canada, that was created on February 4, 2006 in Montreal. ... The logo of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society. ...

Sympathetic organizations

The Confédération des syndicats nationaux (CSN) (English: Confederation of National Labour Unions) (CNTU), is the second largest trade union in the Province of Quebec, Canada, by membership. ... The Centrale syndicale du Québec (Quebec House of Labour), or CSQ, is the third most important trade union in Quebec, Canada, according to membership. ... The Union des artistes (UDA) or Artist union is a Quebec-based labour organization representing stage, television, radio and film performers in French-language media in Canada (the English language labour organization is ACTRA). ... Founded in 1947, the Mouvement national des Québécoises et des Québécois (MNQ) is an organization which groups 19 Sociétés nationales des Québécois and Saint-Jean-Baptiste Societies in as many regions of Quebec, Canada. ...

Sovereigntist media

LAction nationale is a monthly published in Quebec, Canada. ... L’aut’journal is a French language newspaper distributed in Quebec freely and through subscription. ... Le Devoir on the 2003 Quebec election. ... Le Jour (French for The Day) was a Quebec independence newspaper. ... Le Québécois logo, as displayed on the March and April edition of 2005. ... Québec-Radio is a radio station broadcast on the internet. ... Vigile. ...

Quebec sovereignty movement in fiction

  • Richard Rohmer's novel Separation (1976) was turned into a TV-movie for CTV Television in 1977. In the movie, the Parti Québécois has formed the government of Quebec but Premier Gaston Belisle has repeatedly put off its promise to hold a referendum. International politics forces Belisle's hand when Saudi Arabia imposes an embargo on oil exports to Britain, beggaring that nation. Britain must unload six million people; the United States and Australia each agree to take two million. Canada is caught in a quandary. If the British do not come, Alberta and B.C. will separate, while if the British do come, Quebec threatens unilateral separation. Meanwhile, French police investigate a terrorist who seems to have no relation at all to anything happening in Canada.
Prime Minister Joseph Roussel suffers a cabinet revolt when the question of the British is put to cabinet; he and several Quebec ministers vote against the British migration, but the resolution passes and the Quebec ministers resign en masse. Roussel's resignation is demanded by an English-Canadian minister, but another Anglophone, with designs on Roussel's job and a sense of good timing, defends Roussel; the vote in Parliament will inevitably parallel the one in cabinet, the government will fall, an election will take place, and Roussel will be out of office.
Roussel meets with Belisle about his threat to unilaterally separate and convinces him to hold a referendum in 60 days, early January. Roussel then convinces Stuart, the Conservative leader, to delay bringing the issue before Parliament, so that an election and a referendum campaign don't take place at the same time. Meanwhile, two negotiating teams meet to determine the terms of separation, with the fiery members of each team clashing.
The terrorist is given her weapon for an assassination, but doesn't know her target yet. Meanwhile, the American president meets with Roussel and offers military aid which Roussel turns down. In addition, the British government falls and its prime minister (Barry Morse) has a brief meeting with Roussel. Roussel is also searching for a safe seat outside Quebec in which to seek re-election, and his efforts are known to his Liberal rivals.
The terms of separation are finally reached in extraordinary time, but the accord is not signed pending the outcome of the referendum. The terrorist is told to assassinate the king of Saudi Arabia; on the king's death, his successor lifts the embargo on Britain. Canada's crisis is resolved, and the referendum is defeated, 67 to 33 percent.
  • In the mid-1980s, a second movie, Quebec-Canada 1995, depicts a meeting between the president of Quebec and the prime minister of Canada to discuss a crisis involving Quebec military occupations of parts of Ontario and New Brunswick. Canada's armed forces are stretched thin with peacekeepers in such varied places as the Falkland Islands (with "Lady Goosegreen" being Margaret Thatcher).
  • William Weintraub's satirical 1979 novel The Underdogs provoked controversy by imagining a future Quebec in which English-speakers were an oppressed minority, complete with a violent resistance movement. One planned stage version was canceled before its premiere.
  • Clive Cussler's 1984 novel Night Probe! is set against a fictional attempt at secession in the late 1980s. Rights to newly discovered oil resources in Ungava Bay, discovered as Quebec moves to secede, clash with the ramifications of a rediscovered secret treaty negotiated between the U.K. and U.S. governments during World War I.
  • David Foster Wallace's novel Infinite Jest includes both real and fictional Québécois separatist movements as integral to the plot. In the story, the United States has merged with Canada and Mexico to form the Organization of North American Nations (O.N.A.N.). Wheelchair-bound Quebec separatists use a video so entertaining it leads to death to accomplish their goals of both Quebec Independence and the end of the O.N.A.N.
  • In DC Comics, the villain (and sometimes hero) Plastique is intially a Québécois freedom fighter, who resorts to acts of terrorism.
  • Margaret Atwood's 1979 novel Life Before Man is set in Toronto in the late 1970s and several characters watch and sometimes comment upon the elections and sovereignist movement in Quebec. The sovereignist movement and its struggles are metaphorically linked to the difficulties the characters in the novel have with separating their own personal relationships.
  • In the roleplaying game Trinity there are references made to a separatist Quebec nation who in return for independence helped the then formed 'Confederated States of America' take control of Canada.

Major-General (Retd) Richard Rohmer OC, CMM, DFC,Knight of the Order of St. ... This article is about the Broadcast Television Network CTV, for the broadcasting television company see CTVglobemedia. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Best known for his long association with Canadas National Film Board, William Weintraub is a Canadian journalist, author, filmmaker and lecturer. ... For the abandonware website, see Home of the Underdogs. ... Clive Eric Cussler (born July 15, 1931 in Aurora, Illinois)[1][2] is an American adventure novelist and successful marine archaeologist. ... Night Probe! is an Adventure novel by Clive Cussler. ... Ungava Bay. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... David Foster Wallace (born February 21, 1962) is an American novelist, essayist, and short story writer, and a professor at Pomona College in Claremont, California. ... Infinite Jest (1996) is a critically acclaimed novel written by David Foster Wallace. ... Timeline-191 is a fan name given to a series of Harry Turtledove alternate history novels. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Plastique (real name Bette Sans Souci) is a DC Comics character who has evolved over the decades from supervillain to superhero, one of a handful of DC characters depicted as Canadian in origin. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... This page relates to the superhero. ... The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, and sometimes referred to as Front de libération Québécois was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five... Trinity is a science fiction roleplaying game published by White Wolf Game Studio in 1997 (and later by the ArtHaus imprint), first in the Trinity Universe series of games (the two others being Aberrant and Adventure!) sharing a common background and developing an alternate history of humanity through two centuries...

See also

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... The term sovereigntist has two meanings in political discourse. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... A number of events and strategies have punctuated the history of the Quebec sovereigntist movement. ... Throughout the history of Canada, there have been movements seeking secession from Canada. ... This is a list of currently active autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. ... Quebec federalism, in regards to the future of the Quebec people, defends the concept of Quebec remaining within Canada as opposed to Quebec sovereigntism, proponent of Quebec independence (most often, but not for all followers, along with an economic union with Canada similar to the European Union). ... Alberta separatism is a fringe movement that advocates the secession of the province of Alberta from Canada either by forming an independent nation or by creating a new federation with one or more of Canadas other four westernmost provinces. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Les Perreaux. "Canadians and Liberals reject Quebec nationhood: poll", Canada.com, November 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  2. ^ http://www.electionsquebec.qc.ca/en/tableaux/Referendum_1995_8481.asp
  3. ^ Ingrid Peritz. Kosovo recognition has no bearing on Quebec, PM says. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.
  4. ^ Harper says recognition of Kosovo has no bearing on Quebec independence. The Canadian Press. Retrieved on 2008-03-20.

CanWest Global Communications Corp. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Globe and Mail is a Canadian English-language nationally distributed newspaper, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Press (CP) is a Canadian news agency established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ... Pierre Duchesne (born 1940) is the current Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec and former secretary general of the National Assembly of Quebec. ... This is a list of viceroys (governors and lieutenant-governors) of the Canadian province of Quebec, before and after Confederation in 1867. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Quebec. ... The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... John James Charest, PC, LL.B., MNA, known as Jean Charest IPA: (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian lawyer and politician from the province of Quebec. ... This is a list of the Premiers of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... The Executive Council of Quebec (informally and more commonly, the Cabinet of Quebec and in French Le Conseil des ministres) is the cabinet of the Canadian province. ... A list of government departments in the province of Quebec: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of the leaders of the Opposition of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... The President of the National Assembly of Quebec is the presiding officer of the legislature of Quebec, Canada, the National Assembly, which is modeled after the Westminster parliamentary system. ... Michel Bissonnet is a politician and the current President of the National Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article lists political parties in Canada. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a conservative, nationalist and populist provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. ... The Parti vert du Québec or PVQ (in English: Green Party of Quebec) is a Quebec political party whose platform is the promotion of green values . ... Québec solidaire is a broadly left-wing and sovereignist political party in Quebec, Canada, that was created on February 4, 2006 in Montreal. ... This is a list of Quebec general elections since Confederation in 1867, when Quebec became a province of the Dominion of Canada. ... Map of Quebecs ridings and how they voted by percentage. ... The new composition of the legislature Map of Quebecs ridings coloured in to indicate ridings won by each party and their popular vote. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... In Quebec, federalists, in regards to the future of the Quebec people, defend the concept of Quebec remaining within Canada, as opposed to Quebec sovereigntists, proponents of Quebec independence (most often, but not for all followers, along with an economic union with Canada similar to the European Union). ... The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. ... Prior to 1903, there were no political parties in British Columbia, Canada, other than at the federal level. ... Albertas first Legislature, Edmonton, 1906 The politics of Alberta are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces. ... Legislative Legislatures Politics of: AB | BC | MB | NB | NL | NT | NS | NU | ON | PE | QC | SK | YT Elections Elections in: AB | BC | MB | NB | NL | NT | NS | NU | ON | PE | QC | SK | YT Federal Politics of Canada General Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Politics... The Canadian province of Manitoba is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, which operates under the Westminster system of government. ... The Province of Ontario is governed by a unicameral legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, which operates in the Westminster system of government. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... New Brunswick has a unicameral legislature with 55 seats. ... Nova Scotia is a parliamentary democracy. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The politics of Prince Edward Island are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces. ... BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador is governed by a unicameral legislature, the House of Assembly, which operates under the Westminster model of government. ... The politics of Northwest Territories have been centered around the struggle for responsible government and provincial rights. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Qwika - Quebec sovereignty movement (1917 words)
Con un sovrano dichiari, i sovereigntists della Quebec credono che la gente della Quebec sia dotata più meglio per promuovere il loro proprio sviluppo economico, sociale e culturale.
Il motivo dichiarato era che se il Canada decidesse boicottare le esportazioni della Quebec dopo il voto per l'indipendenza, il nuovo paese dovrebbe passare con i periodi economici difficili, come gli ostacoli al libero scambio fra il Canada (Quebec compresa) ed unito Dichiara era molto alto.
Forse per questo motivo, la Quebec era una delle poche regioni in Canada in cui entrambi i lati di libero scambio sostenuto spettro politico con unito Dichiara.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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