The PQ won re-election despite having lost the 1980 Quebec referendum on sovereignty. To some extent, they were helped by Claude Ryan's old-fashioned campaign style (he refused to tailor sound bites for the evening news and ran a generally TV-unfriendly campaign).
The Union Nationale, which had won 11 seats in a modest comeback in the 1976 general election, was wiped off the map in this election, and never won another seat in any subsequent election (it is now disbanded). They were not helped by the fact that their leader in the 1976 election, Rodrigue Biron, had in the meantime resigned and defected to the Parti Québécois.
Quebec is bounded on the N by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, on the E by the Labrador area of Newfoundland and Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the S by New Brunswick and the United States, and on the W by Ontario, James Bay, and Hudson Bay.
Quebec is also the sole territory north of the Caribbean Sea â€“ aside from France itself, and the thinly populated archipelago of St-Pierre and Miquelon â€“ where French is spoken by a majority of the population.
In mid-2001, 13.0% of the resident population in Quebec City was of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.2% in Canada; therefore, the average age is 39.5 years of age compared to 37.6 years of age for Canada as a whole.
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