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Encyclopedia > Quebec French
Canadian French
Français canadien
Spoken in: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland,
New Hampshire, small minority in California
Total speakers: 5.9 million
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Western
     Gallo-Iberian
      Gallo-Romance
       Gallo-Rhaetian
        Oïl
         French
          Canadian French 
Official status
Official language of: none (Quebec uses Standard French as the official form of French)
Regulated by:
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: fre

Quebec French (le français québécois, le français du Québec), or less often Québécois French, is the dominant and most prevalent regional variety of the French language, in its formal and informal registers, found in Canada. This article is about the use of the term. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ...


Canadian French is a frequently used umbrella term for Quebec French and varieties found in Ontario and Western Canada, but not Acadian French. The latter is a distinct dialect of French spoken in Atlantic Canada. Thus, the term Canadian French is usually understood to exclude Acadian French, and generally refers to the varieties of French used in Quebec and all provinces west of Quebec as well as in some New England communities. The term joual is occasionally used to describe the basilect working-class slang of Montreal.[1] Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ...


As the area (and peoples) to which "Canada" refers has changed, so too has Quebec French sprachraum. Whereas the majority of those who speak Canadian French live in the province of Quebec, Canadian French is also used by sizable francophone minorities in northern, eastern and southern Ontario, as well as by smaller French-speaking communities in the Canadian Prairies and in northern New England. Jack Kerouac for example spoke Canadian French as his first language. There are also scattered speakers in significant numbers throughout Canada. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Quebec French

Canadian French is not derived, as is sometimes misstated, from Old French – a much earlier ancestor that spanned the 11th to 14th centuries and, in many ways, resembled Latin. The origins of Canadian French actually lie in the 17th and 18th century regional varieties of early Modern French, also known as Classical French, and of other Oïl languages (Norman, Picard, etc.) that French colonists brought to New France. Canadian French evolved from this language base and was shaped by the following influences (arranged according to historical period): Quebec French is substantially different in pronunciation and vocabulary to the French of Europe and that of Frances Second Empire colonies in Africa and Asia. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


New France

Unlike the language of France in the 17th and 18th centuries, French in New France was fairly unified (see Barbeau's book below). It also began to borrow words, especially place names such as "Québec", "Canada" and "Hochelaga", and words to describe the flora and fauna such as "atoca" and "achigan" from Amerindian languages due to contacts with First Nations peoples. In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Hochelega was an Iroquois village in northeastern North America. ... Amerindian languages are the native languages of the Americas. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ...


The importance of the rivers and ocean as the main routes of transportation also left its imprint on Canadian French. Whereas standard French uses the verbs "monter" and "descendre" to get in and out of an automobile, Canadians tend to use "embarquer" and "débarquer", relics from their maritime heritage.


British rule

With the onset of British rule in 1760, Quebec French became isolated from European French. This led to a retention of older prononciations, such as "moé" for "moi" and expressions that later died out in France.In 1774, the Quebec Act guaranteed French settlers as British subjects rights to French law, the Roman Catholic faith, and the French language. Such early yet difficult success was followed by a socio-cultural retreat, if not repression, that would later help ensure the survival of French in Canada. The Articles of Capitulation of Montreal were agreed upon between the Governor General of New France, Pierre de Cavagnal, Marquis de Vaudreuil, and Major-General Jeffrey Amherst on behalf of the French and British crowns. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... // The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ... The Civil Code of Québec (Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the province of Quebec, Canada. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... French is the mother tongue of about 6. ...


Late 19th century

After Canadian Confederation, Quebec started to become industrialized and thus experienced increased contact between French and English speakers. Quebec business, especially with the rest of Canada and with the United States, was conducted in English. Also, communications to and within the Canadian federal government were conducted almost exclusively in English. This period included as well a sharp rise in the number of English-speaking immigrants from what are now the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. This was particularly noticeable in Montreal, which looked like a majority anglophone city (English publicity, stores) but wasn't one. As a result, Quebec French began to borrow massively from both American and Canadian English to fill lexical gaps in the fields of government, law, manufacturing, business and trade. A great number of French Canadians went to the US to seek employment. When they returned, they brought with them new words taken from their experiences in the New England textile mills and the northern lumber camps. We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... Look up lacuna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


20th century to 1959

During World War I, a majority of Quebec's population lived in urban areas for the first time. From the time of the war to the death of Maurice Duplessis in 1959, the province experienced massive modernization. It is during this period that French-language radio and television broadcasting, albeit with a façade of European pronunciation, began in Canada. While Canadian French borrowed many English-language brand names during this time, Quebec's first modern terminological efforts bore a French lexicon for (ice) hockey, one of the national sports of Canada. Following WWII, Quebec began to receive large waves of allophone immigrants who would acquire French or English, but most commonly the latter. These immigrants would enrich the French language with their cuisine by giving us words such as "bagel" and "pizza". “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In Quebec, an allophone is someone whose first language or language of use is neither English nor French. ...


1959 to 1982

From the Quiet Revolution to the passing of Bill 101, French in Quebec saw a period of validation in its varieties associated with the working class while the percentage of literate and university educated francophones grew. Laws concerning the status of French were passed both on the federal and provincial levels. The Office québécois de la langue française was established to play an essential role of support in language planning. In Ontario, the first French-language public secondary schools were built in the 1960s, but not without confrontations. Sturgeon Falls, Penetanguishene and Windsor each had its own school crisis. The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101) is a framework law in the province of Quebec, Canada, defining the linguistic rights of all Quebecers and making French, the language of the majority, the sole official language of Quebec. ... The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ... Language planning refers to deliberate efforts to influence the behaviour of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of language. ...


1982 to present

The post-Bill 101 period is marked by an explosion in information and communications technologies in the 1980s and 1990s and an increased use of English by Quebec residents on both North American and global scales[citation needed]. Nonetheless, in Quebec the rate of assimilation towards English was virtually eliminated. This period also marks the beginning of sizable exports of Quebec-French cultural products and Quebec-French terminology work particularly in technical fields. The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101) is a framework law in the province of Quebec, Canada, defining the linguistic rights of all Quebecers and making French, the language of the majority, the sole official language of Quebec. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ...


Social perception and language policy

Standardization

Although Quebec French constitutes a coherent and standard system, it has no objective norm since the very organization mandated to establish it, the Office québécois de la langue française, believes that objectively standardizing Quebec French would lead to reduced interintelligibility with other French communities around the world, linguistically isolating Quebeckers and possibly causing the extinction of the French language in the Americas. The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ...


This governmental institution has nonetheless published many dictionaries and terminological guidelines since the 1960s, effectively allowing many "canadianismes" or québécismes (French words local to Canada or Quebec) that either describe specifically North American realities or were in use before the Conquest. It also creates new, morphologically well-formed words to describe technological evolutions to which the Académie française, the equivalent body governing French language in France, is extremely slow to react. An example is the word courriel (a contraction of courrier électronique), the Canadian French term for e-mail, which is now widely used in France. The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ...


The resulting effect, other historical factors helping, is a negative perception of Quebec French traits by some of the Quebeckers themselves, coupled with a desire to improve their language by conforming it to the Metropolitan French norm. This explains why most of the differences between Quebec French and Metropolitan French documented in this article are marked as "informal" or "colloquial". Those differences that are unmarked are most likely so just because they go unnoticed by most speakers. Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...


Interintelligibility with other variations of French

Interintelligibility of formally and informally spoken Quebec French with Metropolitan French is a matter of heated debates between linguists. If a comparison can be made, the differences between both dialects are probably larger than those between American and British English, but not as large as those between standard German and Swiss German. Francophone Canadians abroad have to modify their accent somewhat in order to be easily understood, but very few francophone Canadians are unable to communicate readily with European francophones. European pronunciation is not at all difficult for Canadians to understand; only differences in vocabulary present any problems. Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ...


Television shows and movies from Quebec often must be subtitled for international audiences, which some Quebeckers perceive as offensive, although they themselves sometimes can hardly understand European slang. Recent increases in reciprocal exposure are slowly improving interintelligibility though, and even slang expressions have been crossing the ocean in both directions. In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ...


In general, European French speakers have no problems understanding newscasts or other moderately formal speech. However, they may have great difficulty understanding for example a sitcom dialogue. This is due more to idioms, slang, and vocabulary than to accent or pronunciation. European French users will also have difficulty with colloquial speech of Quebeckers, for sitcom dialogue reflects everyday speech. However, when speaking to a European French speaker, a French speaker from Quebec is capable of shifting to a slightly more formal, "international" type of speech. This article is about a genre of comedy. ...


Quebec's culture has only recently gained exposure in Europe, especially since the Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille), and the difference in dialects and culture is large enough that Quebec French speakers overwhelmingly prefer their own "home grown" television dramas or sitcoms to shows from Europe. The number of such TV shows from France shown on Quebec television is about the same as the number of British TV shows on American television: outside of obscure cable channels - essentially none at all. The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ...


Canadian French was once stigmatized, among Quebecers themselves as well as among Continental French and foreigners, as a low-class dialect, sometimes due to its use of anglicisms, sometimes simply due to its differences from "standard" European French. Another potential factor is that in Canadian French, curse words are mostly of religious (specifically Roman Catholic) origin, whereas in Metropolitan French, the words are more harmless; ex:French Canadians will say câlisse ('chalice') where the French would say merde ('shit'). Until 1968, it was unheard of for Canadian French vocabulary to be used in plays in the theatre. In that year the huge success of Michel Tremblay's play Les Belles-Sœurs proved to be a turning point. Today, francophones in Quebec have much more freedom to choose a "register" in speaking, and television characters speak "real" everyday language rather than "normative" French. An anglicism, as most often defined, is a word borrowed from English into another language. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michel Tremblay (born June 25, 1942) is an important Quebec novelist and playwright. ...


Regional variation

In the informal registers of Quebec French, regional variation lies in pronunciation and lexis (vocabulary). The regions most commonly associated with such variation are Montreal (esp. the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve Borough), the Beauce region, the Gaspé Peninsula, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region, and Quebec City. It should be noted, however, that residing or having been raised in a region is not a guarantee on how a speaker of Quebec French will sound. There are many social and individual variables that also influence a person’s speech. Nonetheless, one can say that with the rise in mass media, communications, higher education levels plus increased travel and relocation among the population, instances of regional variation are on the decline. Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Hochelaga-Maisonneuve is a district of Montreal, Quebec, situated on the eastern half of the island, generally to the south and south-west of the citys Olympic Stadium. ... Beauce is a major geographic region located south of Quebec City in the province of Quebec. ... NASA satellite image of the Gaspé Peninsula. ... Map of Quebec showing Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region in Quebec, Canada is distinguished by its physical beauty, especially the Fjord du Saguenay, the estuary of the Saguenay River, stretching through much of the region. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


See Quebec French pronunciation and Quebec French lexicon for examples and further information. Quebec French has more phonemes than Metropolitan French, as and , and , and and are still clearly opposed whereas the latter of each pair has disappeared at least in several parts of France. ... There are various lexical differences between Quebec French and Metropolitan French in France. ...


Overview of the relation to European French

Not simply slang or an archaic dialect, Canadian French resemble all other regional varieties of French in two basic respects. First, as with any regional variety, Canadian French shows a range of internal variation according to register and other social factors. Second, although all registers of Canadian French exhibit marked lexical and phonetic differences with respect to European French, formal Canadian French uses essentially the same orthography and grammar as Standard French, with few exceptions.[2] Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ...


Despite the high degree of similarity in the spelling and grammar of their formal varieties, Quebec French and French French have their own regionalisms, pronunciations and sets of sociolects or slangs (joual in east-end Montreal; verlan, Javanais, Louchebem, etc. in Paris). French is a Romance language spoken originally in France, Belgium, and Switzerland, and today by about 130 million people around the world as a mother tongue or fluent second language, with significant populations in 54 countries. ... In linguistics, a sociolect is the language spoken by a social group, social class or subculture. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... In the French language, verlan is the inversion of syllables in a word which is found in slang and youth language. ... Javanais is an element of French slang where the extra syllable av is placed inside a word (an infix) rendering it more incomprehensible. ... Louchébem or loucherbem is Parisian and Lyonnaise butchers ( Fr. ...


Historically speaking, the closest relative of Canadian French is the 17th century koiné of Paris.[3] This article is about the capital of France. ...


Spelling and grammar

Formal language

A notable difference in grammar which received considerable attention in France during the 1990s is the feminine form of many professions, which traditionally did not have a feminine form.[4] In Quebec, one writes nearly universally une chercheure "a researcher", whereas in France, un chercheur and, more recently, une chercheur and une chercheuse, are used.


There are other, sporadic spelling differences. For example, the Office québécois de la langue française recommends the spelling tofou for what is in France tofu "tofu". In grammar, the adjective inuit "Inuit" is invariable in France but, according to official recommendations in Quebec, has regular feminine and plural forms.[5] The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ...


Informal language

Grammatical differences between informal spoken Quebec French and the formal language abound. Some of these, such as omission of the negative particle ne, are present in the informal language of speakers of standard European French, while other features, such as use of the interrogative particle -tu, are either peculiar to Quebec or Canadian French or restricted to nonstandard varieties of European French. For further information, see the sections "Syntax", "Pronouns" and "Verbs" below.


Sociolects

Quebec and European accents are readily distinguishable. Over time, European French has exerted a strong influence on Quebec French and the phonological features traditionally distinguishing informal Quebec French and formal European French have acquired varying sociolinguistic status.


Sociolinguistic studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s showed that Quebeckers generally rated speakers of European French heard in recordings higher than speakers of Quebec French in many positive traits, including expected intelligence, education, ambition, friendliness and physical strength.[6] The researchers were surprised by the greater friendliness rating for Europeans,[7] since one of the primary reasons usually advanced to explain the retention of low-status language varieties is social solidarity with members of one's linguistic group. François Labelle cites the efforts at that time by the Office de la langue française "to impose as French a standard as possible"[8] as one of the reasons for the negative view Quebeckers had of their language variety.


Since the 1970s, the official position on Quebec French has shifted dramatically. An oft-cited turning point was the 1977 declaration of the Association québécoise des professeurs et professeurs de français defining thus the language to be taught in classrooms: "Standard Quebec French [le français standard d'ici, literally, 'the Standard French of here'] is the socially favoured variety of French which the majority of Francophone Quebecers tend to use in situations of formal communication."[9] According to Ostiguy and Tousignant, it is doubtful that Quebecers would today still have the same negative attitudes towards their own variety of French that they did in the 1970s. They argue that negative social attitudes have focused instead on a subset of the characteristics of Quebec French relative to European French, and particularly some traits of informal Quebec French.[10] Some characteristics of European French are even judged negatively when imitated by Quebecers.[11]


Thus, the various phonological features traditionally distinguishing informal Quebec French from formal European French have acquired differing sociolinguistic status. For examples, see the section "Sociolinguistic status of selected phonological traits" below.


Lexis

Words inherited from France, now rare or no longer in use there

Quebec French lexical innovations

Anglicisms

One characteristic of major sociological importance distinguishing Quebec French from European French is the relatively greater number of borrowings from English, especially in the informal spoken language.[12] However, Quebecers show a stronger aversion to the use of anglicisms in formal contexts than do European francophones, largely because of what the influence of English on their language is held to reveal about the historically superior position of anglophones in Canadian society.[13] According to Cajolet-Laganière and Martel,[14] out of 4,216 "criticized borrowings from English" in Quebec French that they were able to identify, some 93% have "extremely low frequency" and 60% are obsolete. However, the prevalence of anglicisms in Quebec French has often been exaggerated. French spoken with a number of anglicisms viewed as excessive may be disparagingly termed franglais. According to Chantal Bouchard,"While the language spoken in Quebec did indeed gradually accumulate borrowings from English [between 1850 and 1960], it did not change to such an extent as to justify the extraordinarily negative discourse about it between 1940 and 1960. It is instead in the loss of social position suffered by a large proportion of Francophones since the end of the 19th century that one must seek the principal source of this degrading perception."[15] Franglais (slang), a portmanteau combining the words français (French) and anglais (English), also called Frenglish, is a slang term for types of speech, although the word has different overtones in French and English. ...


Borrowings from Aboriginal languages

Linguistic structure

Phonology

For phonological comparisons of Quebec French, Belgian French, Meridional French, and Metropolitain French, see French phonology. Quebec French has differs from more phonemes than Metropolitan French, as it retains phonemic distinctions between and , and , and and whereas the latter of each pair has disappeared in Paris and several other parts of France. ... Belgian French is primarily spoken in the French Community of Belgium, highlighted in red. ... Meridional French (French: Français Méridional) is a regional variant of the French language. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Vowels

Systematic, i.e. in all unmonitored speech: Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

  • /œ̃/ and /ɑ/ as phonemes distinct from /ɛ̃/ and from /a/ respectively
  • [ɪ], [ʏ], [ʊ] are lax allophones of /i/, /y/, /u/ in closed syllables
  • Under certain conditions, long vowels in final (stressed) syllables
  • Drop of schwa /ə/

Observable in some but not all unmonitored speech: Tenseness is a term used in phonology to describe a particular vowel quality that is phonemically contrastive in many languages, including English. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...

  • Variants for /ɛ̃/ are closed to [ẽ] or [ĩ] and [ɑ̃] is fronted into [ã]
  • Diphthongs as variants to long vowels
  • Standard French [wɑ] (spelled "oi") as [wa], or as [we] (spelled "oé")

In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...

Consonants

Systematic: In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...

  • /t/ and /d/ affricated to [ts] and [dz] before /i/, /y/, and their allophones [ɪ], [ʏ]
  • Drop of liquids /l/ and (written as "l" and "r") in unstressed position with schwa or unstressed Intervocalic position

Observable in some but not all unmonitored speech: An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...

  • Trilled "r" - [r] (a disappearing phenomenon)

For detailed information on other topics in phonology in Quebec French, such as prosody, see Quebec French pronunciation. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... Quebec French has more phonemes than Metropolitan French, as and , and , and and are still clearly opposed whereas the latter of each pair has disappeared at least in several parts of France. ...


Sociolinguistic status of selected phonological traits

The examples below are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to illustrate the complex influence European French has had on Quebec French pronunciation, and the range of sociolinguistic statuses that individual phonetic variables can possess. For the specific technical description of the features in question, see the phonology sections above or the article Quebec French phonology. Quebec French has differs from more phonemes than Metropolitan French, as it retains phonemic distinctions between and , and , and and whereas the latter of each pair has disappeared in Paris and several other parts of France. ...

  • The most entrenched features of Quebec pronunciation are such that their absence, even in the most formal registers, is considered an indication of foreign origin of the speaker. This is the case, for example, for the affrication of /t/ and /d/ before /i/ and /y/.[16] (This particular feature of Quebec French is, however, sometimes avoided when singing, though not always.)[17]
  • The use of the lax Quebec allophones of /i/, /y/, /u/ (in the appropriate phonetic contexts) is compulsory in all but highly formal styles, and even there their use predominates. Use of the tense allophones where the lax ones would be expected can be perceived as "pedantic".[18]
  • The predominant Quebec variants [ã], [ẽ] and [ɔ̃] corresponding to the European [ɑ̃], [æ̃] (conventionally transcribed [ɛ̃]) and [õ] (conventionally transcribed [ɔ̃]) are not subject to a significant negative sociolinguistic evaluation, and are used by a majority of speakers and of educated speakers in all circumstances. However, the European variants also appear occasionally in formal speech among a minority of speakers.[19] (The preceding discussion applies to stressed syllables. For reasons unrelated to their social standing, some allophones close to the European variants appear frequently in unstressed syllables.)
  • The Quebec variant [ɔː] of [ɑː] in such words as espace clearly predominates in informal speech, and, according to Ostiguy and Tousignant, is likely not perceived negatively in informal situations. However, sociolinguistic research has shown that this is not the case in formal speech, where the traditional European standard [ɑː] is more common. Despite this, many speakers use [ɔː] systematically in all situations, and Ostiguy and Tousignant hypothesize that these speakers tend to be less educated.[20] It must be mentioned that a third vowel [a], though infrequent, also occurs. This is the vowel which has emerged as a new European standard in the last several decades for words in this category.[21] According to Ostiguy and Tousignant, this pronunciation is seen as "affected",[22] and Dumas writes that speakers using this pronunciation "run the risk of being accused of snobbery".[23] Entirely analogous considerations apply to the three pronunciations of such words as chat, which can be pronounced [ʃɔ], [ʃɑ] or [ʃa].[24]
  • The diphthonged variants of such words as père (e.g., [paeʀ] instead of [pɜːʀ], much closer to the Parisian norm) are not used by most speakers in formal situations. They have been explicitly and extensively stigmatized, and were, according to the official Quebec educational curricula of 1959 and 1969, among those pronunciation habits to be "corrected" in pupils. In informal situations, most speakers use these forms to some extent. However, they are viewed negatively, and their frequency is higher among uneducated speakers.[25]
  • Traditional pronunciations such as [pwɛl] for poil (also [pwal], as in France; words in this category include avoine, (ils) reçoivent, noirci, etc. ) and [mwe] for moi (now usually [mwa], as in France; this category consists of moi, toi, and verb forms such as (je) bois, (on) reçoit, but excludes québécois, toit, etc. which have only ever had the pronunciation [wa]) are no longer used by many speakers, and are virtually absent from formal speech.[26] They have long been the object of condemnation.[27] Dumas writes that the [we] pronunciations of words in the moi category have "even become the symbol and the scapegoat of bad taste, lack of education, vulgarity, etc., no doubt because they differ quite a bit from the accepted pronunciation, which ends in [wa], [...]"[28] On the other hand, writing in 1987, he considers [wɛ] in words in the poil group "the most common pronunciation".
  • No doubt one of the most striking changes having affected Quebec French in recent decades is the displacement of the trilled r [r] by the uvular r [ʀ], originally from northern France, and similar acoustically to the Parisian velar r [ʁ]. Historically, the trilled r predominated in western Quebec, including Montreal, and the uvular r in eastern Quebec, including Quebec City, with an isogloss near Trois-Rivières. Elocution teachers and the clergy traditionally favoured the trilled r, which was nearly universal in Montreal until the 1950s and was perceived positively. But massive immigration from eastern Quebec beginning in the 1930s with the Great Depression, participation of soldiers in the Second World War, travel to Europe after the war, and especially use of the uvular r in radio and then television broadcasts, quickly reversed perceptions and favoured the spread of the uvular r. Trilled r is today in rapid decline. According to Ostiguy and Tousignant, this change has occurred within a single generation.[29] The Parisian uvular r is also present in Quebec, and its use is positively correlated with socio-economic status.[30]

Syntax

Main article: Quebec French syntax

There are increasing differences between the syntax used in spoken Quebec French from the syntax of other regional dialects of French.[31] In French-speaking Canada, however, the characteristic differences of Quebec French syntax are not considered standard despite their high-frequency in everyday, relaxed speech. In Quebec, it is common to say Fais-toi-z-en pas rather than (ne) ten fais pas (dont worry, dont get upset). ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Dialects of the French language are dialects of the French language, which is one of the Oïl languages. ...


One far-reaching difference is the weakening of the syntaxic role of the specifiers (both verbal and nominal), which results in many syntaxic changes: In X-bar theory in linguistics, specifiers, head words, and complements together form phrases. ...

  • Positioning of the subject in an isolated phrase at the beginning or end of a sentence, with pronouns often in apposition to the noun:
Mon frère, il est dans la police. (Mon frère est dans la police.) My brother works for the police.
Il a l'air fâché, le chien. (Le chien a l'air fâché.) The dog looks angry.
Mon rêve, c'est de partir en Afrique. (Mon rêve est de partir en Afrique.) My dream is to go to Africa.
(1) J'ai trouvé le document que j'ai besoin. (J'ai trouvé le document dont j'ai besoin.) I found / I've found the document I need.
(2) Je comprends qu'est-ce que tu veux dire. (Je comprends ce que tu veux dire.) I understand what you mean.
  • Omission of the prepositions that collocate with certain verbs:
J'ai un enfant à m'occuper. (Standard French: s'occuper de; Je dois m'occuper d'un enfant.) I have a child (I need) to take care of.
Ça débouche (Standard French: déboucher sur; Ça débouche sur une rue.)
  • Plural conditioned by semantics:
La plupart du monde sont tannés des taxes. (La plupart du monde est tannée des taxes.) Most people are fed up with taxes.
  • A phenomenon throughout the Francophonie, dropping the "ne" of the double negative is accompanied, in Quebec French, by a change in word order (1), and (2) postcliticisation of direct pronouns (3) along with non-standard liaisons to avoid vowel hiatus:
(1) Donne-moi-le pas maintenant. (Ne me le donne pas maintenant.) Don't give it to me now.
(2) Dis-moi pas de m'en aller! (Ne me dis pas de m'en aller) Don't tell me I have to go.
(3) Donne-moi-z-en pas ! (Ne m'en donne pas!) Don't give me any!

Other notable syntactic changes in Quebec French include the following: Apposition is a figure of speech, in which two elements are placed side by side, with the second element serving to define or modify the first (ex: My wife, a nurse by training. ... A complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (subordinating clause). ... An independent clause (or main clause, or coordinate clause) can stand by itself as a grammatically viable simple sentence. ... A dependent clause (or subordinate clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. ... Demonstratives are words that indicate which objects a sentence is referring to. ... A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. ... A poprelative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. ... An interrogative pronoun (also known simply as an interrogative) is a pronoun used in asking questions. ... A poprelative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français neutre or even le français international) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language. ... Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français neutre or even le français international) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ... This article should be translated from material at fr:Liaison. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ...

J'étais pour te le dire. (J'allais te le dire. / J'étais sur le point de te dire.) I was going/about to tell you about it.
Avoir su, j'aurais... (Si j'avais su, j'aurais...) Had I known, I would have...
J'étais après travailler quand ils sont arrivés. (J'étais en train de travailler quand ils sont arrivés.) I'd been working when they came.
M'as le faire. (Je vais le faire. / Je le ferai.); akin to "ahma" /?m?/ in Southern American English - I'm a do it. (I'm going to do it.)
  • Particle -tu used (1) to form tag questions, (2) sometimes to express exclamatative sentences) and (3) on other times it's used with excess, simply for its sound:
C'est-tu prêt? (Est-ce prêt? / C'est prêt? / Est-ce que c'est prêt?) Is it ready?
On a-tu bien mangé! (Qu'est-ce qu'on a bien mangé!) We ate well, didn't we?
T'as-tu pris tes pillules? (Est-ce que tu as pris tes médicaments?) Have you taken your medications?
This particle is -ti in most varieties of North American French outside Quebec as well as in European varieties of français populaire as already noted by Gaston Paris.[32] It is also found in the none-creole speech on the island of Saint-Barthelemy in the Caribbean.
C'est pas chaud! (C'est frais!) It's not all too warm out!
C'est pas laid pantoute! (Ce n'est pas laid du tout!) Isn't this nice! (literally: This is not ugly at all).

However, these features are common to all the basilectal varieties of français populaire descended from the 17th century koiné of Paris. Periphrasis, like its Latin counterpart circumlocution, is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is indirectly expressed through several or many words. ... Southern American English as defined by the monophthongization of to before obstruents (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006:126). ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages French Government  - President of France Jacques Chirac  - President of the Territorial Council none yet Overseas Collectivity of France   - French colony 1648   - Sold to Sweden 1785   - Sold to France 16 March 1878   - as separate Overseas Collectivity 22 February 2007  Area  - Total... “West Indian” redirects here. ... In rhetoric, litotes is a figure of speech in which a speaker, rather than making a certain claim, denies its opposite; for example, rather than call a person attractive, one might say shes not too bad to look at. Litotes can be used to weaken a statement — Its...


Pronouns

In daily use, Quebec French speakers usually use a substantially different set of subjective pronouns in the nominative case than those traditionally used in standardized French: The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ...

je/ tu/ y [i], a/ on/ vous/ y [i] (instead of je/ tu/ il, elle/ nous/ vous/ il(s), elle(s))
with [a] --> [?] when used with the verb and copula être
  • In common with the rest of the Francophonie, there is a shift from nous to on in all registers. In post-Quiet Revolution Quebec, the use of informal tu has become widespread in many situations that normally call for semantically singular vous. While some schools are trying to re-introduce this use of vous, which is absent from most youths' speech, the shift from nous to on goes relatively unnoticed.
  • The traditional use of on, in turn, is usually replaced by different use of pronouns or paraphrases, like in the rest of the Francophonie. The second person (tu, té) is usually used by speakers when referring to experiences that can happen in one's life:
Quand té ben tranquille chez vous, à te mêler de tes affaires ...
Other paraphrases using le monde, les gens are more employed when referring to overgeneralisations:
Le monde aime pas voyager dans un autobus plein.
  • As in the rest of la Francophonie, the sound [l] is disappearing in il, ils among informal registers and rapid speech. More particular to Quebec is the transformation of elle to [a] and less often [?] written a and è or 'est in eye dialect. See more in Quebec French pronunciation.
  • Absence of elles - For a majority of Quebec French speakers, elles is not used for the 3rd person plural pronoun, at least in the nominative case; it is replaced with the subject pronoun ils[i] or the stress/tonic pronoun eux(-autres). However, elles is still used in other cases (ce sont elles qui vont payer le prix).
  • -autres In informal registers, the stress/tonic pronouns for the plural subject pronouns have the suffix –autres, pronounced /o:t/ and written –aut’ in eye dialect. Nous-autres, vous-autres, and eux-autres are comparable to the Spanish forms nos(otros/as) and vos(otros/as), yet the usage and meanings are different. Note that elles-autres does not exist.

Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... Motto Égalité, Complémentarité, Solidarité Members and participants of La Francophonie. ... In orthography, eye dialect is the use of non-standard spellings (spellings considered incorrect) to create the effect of a dialectal, foreign, or uneducated speaker. ... Quebec French has more phonemes than Metropolitan French, as and , and , and and are still clearly opposed whereas the latter of each pair has disappeared at least in several parts of France. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... In orthography, eye dialect is the use of non-standard spellings (spellings considered incorrect) to create the effect of a dialectal, foreign, or uneducated speaker. ...

Verbs

In their syntax and morphology, Quebec French verbs differ very little from the verbs of other regional dialects of French, both formal and informal. The distinctive characteristics of Quebec French verbs are restricted mainly to: For other uses, see Morphology. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...

  • Regularization
1. In the present indicative, the forms of aller (to go) are regularized as /v?/ in all singular persons: je vas, tu vas, il/elle va. Note that in 17th century French, what is today's international standard /v?/ in je vais was considered substandard while je vas was the prestige form.
2. In the present subjunctive of aller, the root is regularized as all- /al/ for all persons. Examples: que j'alle, que tu alles, qu'ils allent, etc. The majority of French verbs, regardless of dialect or standardization, display the same regularization. They therefore use the same root for both the imperfect and the present subjunctive: que je finisse vs. je finissais.
3. Colloquially, in haïr (to hate), in the present indicative singular forms, the hiatus is found between two different vowels instead of at the onset of the verb's first syllable. This results in the forms: j'haïs, tu haïs, il/elle haït, written with a diaeresis and all pronounced with two syllables: /a.i/. The "h" in these forms is silent and does not indicate a hiatus; as a result, je elides with haïs forming j'haïs. All the other forms, tenses, and moods of haïr contain the same hiatus regardless of register. However, in Metropolitan French and in more formal Quebec French, especially in the media, the present indicative singular forms are pronounced as one syllable /.?/ and written without a diaresis: je hais, tu hais, il/elle hait.
  • Differentiation
1. In the present indicative of both formal and informal Quebec French, (s')asseoir (to sit/seat) only uses the vowel /wa/ in stressed roots and /e/ in unstressed roots: je m'assois, tu t'assois, il s'assoit, ils s'assoient but nous nous asseyons, vous vous asseyez. In Metropolitain French, stressed /wa/ and /je/ are in free variation as are unstressed /wa/ and /e/. Note that in informal Quebec French, (s')asseoir is often said as (s')assire.
2. Quebec French has retained the /?/ ending for je/tu/il-elle/ils in the imperfect (the ending is written as -ais, -ait, -aient). In most other dialects, the ending is pronounced, instead, as a neutralized sound between /e/ and /?/.
3. Informal ils jousent (they play) is often heard for ils jouent and is most likely due to an old anology with ils cousent (they sew).

“Present” redirects here. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... “Present” redirects here. ... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ... Imperfect has several meanings: The imperfect tense in linguistics an imperfect cadence in music theory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Present” redirects here. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... In phonetics and phonology, a syllable onset is the part of a syllable that precedes the syllable nucleus. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... In music, see elision (music). ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers. ... Imperfect has several meanings: The imperfect tense in linguistics an imperfect cadence in music theory This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Vocabulary (lexis)

See Quebec French lexicon for more examples and further explanation.

The distinctive features of the Quebec French lexis are: There are various lexical differences between Quebec French and Metropolitan French in France. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...

  • many loanwords, calques and other borrowings from English in the 19th and 20th centuries, whether such borrowings are considered standard French or not;
  • starting in the latter half of the 20th century, an enormous store of French neologisms (coinages) and re-introduced words via terminological work by professionals, translators, and the OLF; some of this terminology is "exported" to the rest of la Francophonie;
  • feminized job titles and gender-inclusive language;
1. suffixes: -eux/euse, -age, -able, and -oune
2. reduplication (as in the international French word guéguerre): bibite, cacanne, gogauche, etc.
3. reduplication plus -oune: chouchoune, doudoune, foufounes, gougounes, moumoune, nounoune, poupoune, toutoune.

The lexical items in a language are both the single words (vocabulary) and sets of words organized into groups, units or chunks. Some examples of lexical items from English are cat, traffic light, take care of, by the way, and dont count your chickens before they hatch. The entire... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... The distinction between connotation and denotation is commonly associated with the philosopher John Stuart Mill, though it is much older. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ... Gender-neutral or gender-inclusive language attempts to give equal weight to both genders in contexts where the gender of a person or group of people may be ambiguous. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...

Linguistic relatives and neighbours

Regional varieties of French

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Cajun French (sometimes called Louisiana Regional French [2]) is one of three varieties or dialects of the French language spoken primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...

Mixed languages and creoles formed from French (N.A. & the Caribbean)

A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many features that are not inherited from any parent. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... Chiac is an Acadian French vernacular mixed with English, spoken in the south-east Canada, especially among youth near Moncton, Memramcook and Shediac. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Michif is the indigenous language of the Métis people of Canada. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: The Strength of Many Peoples) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area  Ranked... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Antillean Creole is a French-lexified creole language spoken primarily in the Lesser Antilles. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... Under the 1946 Constitution of the Fourth Republic, the French colonies of Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana in the Caribbean and Réunion in the Indian Ocean became départements doutre-mer (Overseas departments) or DOMs. ... Louisiana Creole (Créole Louisiane and Kourí-Viní, as it is known in and near St. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Henri Wittmann, «Le joual c'est-tu un créole?» La Linguistique 1973, 9:2.83-93.[1]
  2. ^ Martel, p. 99
  3. ^ Henri Wittmannn, "Le français de Paris dans le français des Amériques." Proceedings of the International Congress of Linguists 16.0416 (Paris, 20-25 juillet 1997). Oxford: Pergamon (CD edition). [2]
  4. ^ The Académie française has taken strong positions opposing the officialization of feminine forms in these cases. See Martel, p.109. Lionel Jospin's female cabinet ministers were the first to be referred to as "Madame la ministre" instead of "Madame le ministre", whereas this had been common practice in Canada for decades.
  5. ^ Martel, pp. 97,99
  6. ^ Ostiguy, p.27
  7. ^ L'attitude linguistique
  8. ^ L'attitude linguistique
  9. ^ Martel, p. 77. Original text: "Le français standard d'ici est la variété de français socialement valorisée que la majorité des Québécois francophones tendent à utiliser dans les situations de communication formelle.
  10. ^ Ostiguy, p. 27.
  11. ^ See for example Ostiguy, p. 68, on the perception as "pedantic" of the use of the tense allophones [i], [y], [u], where [ɪ], [ʏ], [ʊ] would be expected in Quebec French. "En effet, l'utilisation des voyelles tendues peut, à l'oreille d'une majorité de Québécois, avoir allure de pédanterie.
  12. ^ Martel, p. 110.
  13. ^ Martel, p.110.
  14. ^ "Le français au Québec : un standard à décrire et des usages à hierarchiser," p. 386, in Plourde
  15. ^ "Anglicisation et autodépréciation", pp.204,205, in Plourde. Original text: "En effet, si la langue parlée au Québec s'est peu à peu chargée d'emprunts à l'anglais au cours de cette période, elle ne s'est pas transformée au point de justifier le discours extraordinairement négatif qu'on tient à son sujet de 1940 à 1960. C'est bien plutôt dans le déclassement subi par une forte proportion des francophones depuis la fin du XIXe siècle qu'il faut chercher la source de cette perception dépréciative."
  16. ^ Dumas, p. 8
  17. ^ Dumas, p. 9
  18. ^ Ostiguy, p. 68
  19. ^ Ostiguy, pp. 112-114.
  20. ^ Ostiguy, pp. 75-80
  21. ^ For example, while The New Cassell's French dictionary (1962) records espace as [ɛsˈpɑːs], Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993) gives the pronunciation [ɛspas].
  22. ^ Ostiguy, p. 80
  23. ^ Dumas, p. 149.
  24. ^ Ostiguy, pp. 71-75
  25. ^ Ostiguy, pp. 93-95
  26. ^ Ostiguy, p. 102
  27. ^ Ostiguy, p. 102
  28. ^ Dumas, p. 24
  29. ^ Ostiguy, pp. 162, 163
  30. ^ Ostiguy, p. 164
  31. ^ http://www.er.uqam.ca/nobel/r21354/DISSIDENCE.pdf, as found in P.Barbaud, 1998, Dissidence du français québécois et évolution dialectale, in Revue québécoise de linguistique, vol. 26, n 2, pp.107-128.
  32. ^ Gaston Paris, «Ti, signe de l'interrogation.» Romania 1887, 6.438-442.

Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ...

See also

  • Gender-neutral language in French
  • Magoua
  • Gaspésie French

French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... French is a romance language that evolve out of the galloroman dialects spoken in Northern France. ... French is the mother tongue of about 6. ... The dialects of French spoken in Ontario are similar to but distinct from Quebec French. ... There are various lexical differences between Quebec French and Metropolitan French in France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gender-neutral or gender-inclusive language attempts to give equal weight to both genders in contexts where the gender of a person or group of people may be ambiguous. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Magoua is a particular dialect of basilectal Quebec French spoken in the Trois-Rivières area, between Trois-Rivières and Maskinongé. Categories: | | ... Gaspésie French is a particular dialect of Quebec French. ... Saguenay French is a particular dialect of Quebec French. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Accent/Authentic French has a page on the topic of
French accent

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References

  • (French) Denis Dumas (1987). Nos façons de parler. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l'Université du Québec. ISBN 276050445X. 
  • (French) Pierre Martel, Hélène Cajolet-Laganière (1996). Le français québécois : Usages, standard et aménagement. Quebec: Presses de l'Université Laval. ISBN 978-2892242614. 
  • (French) Michel Plourde, ed. (2000). Le français au Québec : 400 ans d'histoire et de vie. Montreal: Éditions Fides/Publications du Québec. ISBN 2762122813. 
  • (French) Robert Fournier & Henri Wittmann, ed. (1995). Le français des Amériques. Trois-Rivières: Presses Universitaires de Trois-Rivières. ISBN 2-9802307-2-3. 
  • (French) Philippe Barbeau (1984). Le Choc des patois en Nouvelle-France: Essai sur l'histoire de la francisation au Canada. Montreal: Presses de l'Université du Québec. ISBN 2-7605-0330-5. : research on the early development of French in New France.
  • (French) Lionel Meney (1999). Dictionnaire Québécois Français. Montreal: Guérin. ISBN 2-7601-5482-3. : a comprehensive reference dictionary defining Québécois French usage for speakers of European French
  • (French) Jean-Marcel Léard (1995). Grammaire québécoise d'aujourd'hui: Comprendre les québécismes. Montreal: Guérin Universitaire. ISBN 2-7601-3930-1. : a detailed analysis of some grammatical differences between France and Quebec French.
  • (French) Raymond Mougeon, Édouard Beniak (1994). Les Origines du français québécois. Québec, Les Presses de l'Université Laval. ISBN 2-7637-7354-0. 
  • (French) Luc Ostiguy, Claude Tousignant (1993). Le français québécois: normes et usages. Montreal: Guérin Universitaire. ISBN 2-7601-3330-3. : Analysis of some particularities of pronunciations in regard to the Quebec and European norms and language registers.
  • Léandre Bergeron, The Québécois Dictionary (Toronto, James Lorimer & Co, 1982)
  • The Alternative Québécois Dictionary

  Results from FactBites:
 
BIGpedia - Quebec French - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (4129 words)
Although Quebec French is sometimes thought of as an almost exclusively non-standard variant, and certain aspects of it are sociolinguistically stigmatized, most aspects of Quebec French that distinguish it from the French of France are found throughout the different registers of speech and writing, including standard and formal usage.
Quebec French is substantially different in pronunciation and vocabulary from the other varieties of French spoken throughout the world, just as the Portuguese, Spanish, and English languages of the Americas differ from the corresponding European dialects.
Quebec French was once stigmatized, among Quebecers themselves as well as among Continental French and foreigners, as a low-class dialect, sometimes due to its use of anglicisms, sometimes simply due to its differences from "standard" European French.
Quebec: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (6112 words)
Quebec is bounded on the N by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, on the E by the Labrador area of Newfoundland and Labrador and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the S by New Brunswick and the United States, and on the W by Ontario, James Bay, and Hudson Bay.
Quebec is also the sole territory north of the Caribbean Sea – aside from France itself, and the thinly populated archipelago of St-Pierre and Miquelon – where French is spoken by a majority of the population.
The avian emblem of Quebec is the snowy owl.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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