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Encyclopedia > Quattro
Audi A6 quattro system
Audi A6 quattro system

quattro is a permanent all wheel drive system used on Audi brand automobiles. The quattro system was first introduced in 1980 on the Audi Quattro and has since been deployed to most of the models that Audi sells. The name is also a registered trademark of Audi AG. Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... This article refers to the car named the Audi Quattro. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Quattro Pro is a spreadsheet program, from Borland, currently sold by Corel, most often as part of WordPerfect Office. ... Image File history File links Audi_A6_quattro. ... Image File history File links Audi_A6_quattro. ... Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... Audi is a German automobile maker with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... Car redirects here. ... This article refers to the car named the Audi Quattro. ... The Bass Red Triangle, was the first trademark registered in Britain in 1876. ...


In the original quattro system, where the engine and transmission are situated in a longitudinal position, power is sent from the transmission to a mechanical center differential which splits it between the front and rear axles. After 1987, the inclusion of a Torsen (torque-sensing) center differential, instead of a manually-locking one, allowed engine power to be redirected to individual axles as driving conditions warranted. Under ideal conditions power is split 50/50 front to rear. The 50/50 split helps prevent wheel slip from starting, which is better than systems that can only react after wheel slip starts. In extreme cases, a maximum of 66-80% of the engine's power can be directed to a single axle. The power split between left and right wheels has progressed through open, lockable and eventually limited slip differentials with electronic control. An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... In mechanics, a transmission or gearbox is the gear and/or hydraulic system that transmits mechanical power from a prime mover (which can be an engine or electric motor), to some form of useful output device. ... The term, longitudinal means front-to-back or top-to-bottom as opposed to transverse which means side-to-side. In automotive engineering, the term, longitudinal refers to an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented along the long axis of the vehicle, front to back. ... In mechanics, a transmission or gearbox is the gear and/or hydraulic system that transmits mechanical power from a prime mover (which can be an engine or electric motor), to some form of useful output device. ... Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ...


In some recent Audi models using a transverse engine and transmission positioning, power is sent primarily to the front axle and the vehicle does not use a permanent all wheel drive system. An electrohydraulic center Haldex limited slip coupler, however, may divert up to 50% of the power to the rear axle as conditions warrant. The power split between left and right wheels is achieved through limited slip differentials with electronic control. This system is also available in most Volkswagen vehicles, such as the Golf R32, under the name 4motion. The exception among Volkswagen models would be the B5 Passat, which uses the aforementioned Torsen-based system. Audi is a German automobile maker with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... A transverse engine is an engine in which the crankshaft is oriented side-to-side relative to the wheels of the vehicle. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... In mechanics, a transmission or gearbox is the gear and/or hydraulic system that transmits mechanical power from a prime mover (which can be an engine or electric motor), to some form of useful output device. ... Haldex is a Limited Slip Coupling used in vehicles with automatic all wheel system to engage and disengage secondary axle when needed. ... Volkswagen (pronounced folksvagen; meaning: peoples car; also known as VW) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany in the State of Lower Saxony. ... The Volkswagen Golf (Mk I and Mk V badged as Volkswagen Rabbit in the U.S. and Canada) is a compact car / small family car manufactured by Volkswagen. ... Quattro is a permanent all wheel drive system used on Audi brand automobiles. ... The Volkswagen Passat is a midsized car built by Volkswagen AG. It falls between the VW Golf/Jetta and VW Phaeton in the current VW production line-up. ...


A limitation of the quattro system is its inherent 50:50 front:rear torque split. This has been difficult to overcome given quattro's mechanical nature. It has also required that the vehicle's engine is mounted in front of the front axle, leading to a common criticism of Audi vehicles: being nose-heavy (a similar limitation applies to Audi's multitronic continuously-variable transmission). Developments in the quattro drivetrain have seen the possibility of a 40:60 front:rear split, allowing more rear-wheel-drive-like handling characteristics. This new-generation quattro was first introduced in the 2006-model RS4 and shortly thereafter in the Q7 SUV. It is planned to be incorporated in all future quattro-equipped cars which use longtitudinal-mount engines.

Contents


Quattro Generations

This article describes quattro all wheel drive systems used in mass production V.A.G. vehicles since 1981. Four wheel drive or 4x4, is a type of four wheeled vehicle drivetrain configuration that enables all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously in order to provide maximum traction. ... Volkswagen AG (DE0007664005) (TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer. ...


Quattro generation I

Where: Used from 1981 to 1987 in Audi Quattro turbo coupe, Audi 80 B2 platform (1978-1987), Audi 100 C3 platform (1983-1992), Audi 4000, Audi 5000 on American market. This article refers to the car named the Audi Quattro. ... The Audi 80 was an Audi automobile produced from 1972 to 1995. ... Audi 100 Avant 1994 The Audi 100 was a mid-sized automobile from Audi that was made between 1968 and 1994. ... The Audi 80 was an automobile from Audi produced between 1972 and 1995 and initially shared its platform with the Volkswagen Passat. ... Audi 100 in California The Audi 100 was a mid-sized automobile from Audi that was made between 1968 and 1994. ...


What: Permanent all wheel drive.


Open center differential, manually lockable via switch on center console. ¹ Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ...


Open rear differential, manually lockable via switch on center console. ¹ Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ...


Open front differential, no lock... Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ...


¹ - ABS disabled when locked. ABS is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings: Able-bodied Seaman / Able-bodied Seamen — (the original term was Able Seaman, abbreviated AB) ABS, a popular clothing brand by Allen B. Schwartz Always Better Service, the brand name of a computer manufacturing company. ...


How: When two differentials are locked, up to 100% of torque can be transferred to either axle. The car will not move if one front wheel and both rear wheels lose traction. In physics, torque can be thought of informally as rotational force. Torque is commonly measured in units of newton metres; although, centiNewton Meters (cNm), Foot Pounds (Lb-Ft), Inch Pounds (Lb-In) and Inch Ounces (Oz-In) are also frequently used expressions of torque. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ...


Pros: A true solid 4x4, very good for off-road. The term off-road refers to a driving surface which is not conventionally paved. ...


Cons: not good for everyday use, needs driver intervention.


Quattro generation II

Where: Starting from 1988 on older generation Audi C3 platform and Audi Quattro turbo coupe until the end of their production and on new generation B3 platform (1989-1992) Audi 80/90 Quattro, B4 platform (1992-1995) Audi 80, Coupe Quattro, Audi S2, Audi RS2, C4 platform (1991-1997) Audi 100 Quattro, Audi S4, earlier C4 platform (1995-1998) Audi A6/S6. Audi 100 Avant 1994 The Audi 100 was a mid-sized automobile from Audi that was made between 1968 and 1994. ... The Audi 80 was an Audi automobile produced from 1972 to 1995. ... The Audi 80 was an Audi automobile produced from 1972 to 1995. ... The Audi 80 was an Audi automobile produced from 1972 to 1995. ... The Audi 80 was an Audi automobile produced from 1972 to 1995. ... Audi 100 Avant 1994 The Audi 100 was a mid-sized automobile from Audi that was made between 1968 and 1994. ... The Audi S4 is a high performance sport version of the popular Audi A4. ... It has been suggested that Audi Allroad Quattro be merged into this article or section. ...


What: Permanent all wheel drive.


Torsen center differential, 50/50 split, automatically locking with up to 80% of torque transfer to either axle. The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ... Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ... In physics, torque can be thought of informally as rotational force. Torque is commonly measured in units of newton metres; although, centiNewton Meters (cNm), Foot Pounds (Lb-Ft), Inch Pounds (Lb-In) and Inch Ounces (Oz-In) are also frequently used expressions of torque. ...


Open rear differential, manually lockable via switch on center console located next to handbrake. ¹ Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ...


Open front differential, no lock. Input torque is applied to the ring gear, which turns the entire carrier (all blue), providing torque to both side gears (red and yellow), which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. ...


¹ - ABS disabled when locked, automatically unlocks if speed exceeds 25 km/h (15mph) ABS is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings: Able-bodied Seaman / Able-bodied Seamen — (the original term was Able Seaman, abbreviated AB) ABS, a popular clothing brand by Allen B. Schwartz Always Better Service, the brand name of a computer manufacturing company. ...


How: When rear differential is manually locked the car will not move if one front wheel and both rear wheels lose traction, but this is valid if all wheels are on the ground. Note that due to the constructive feature of the Torsen (TORque SENsing) differential if no torque is sensed on one axle the Torsen works as open differential e.g. if one front wheel is raised in the air the Torsen differential will not lock, all power is transferred to the wheel in the air and the car will not move. The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ...


Pros: All weather all wheel drive with automatic torque distribution front/rear, manual locking of rear differential is required only in very severe conditions. In physics, torque can be thought of informally as rotational force. Torque is commonly measured in units of newton metres; although, centiNewton Meters (cNm), Foot Pounds (Lb-Ft), Inch Pounds (Lb-In) and Inch Ounces (Oz-In) are also frequently used expressions of torque. ...


Cons: If one front wheel happens to be in the air spinning freely, the all wheel drive will not work.


Quattro generation III

Where: Used on Audi V8 starting from 1990 The Audi V8 was a large luxury sedan built by Audi AG of Germany from 1989 to 1994 as the companys range-topping model and was the first Audi to use its namesake engine configuration. ...


What: Permanent all wheel drive


V8 with automatic transmission:


Planetary gear center with electronically-controlled multi-plate locking clutch Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ...


Torsen differential rear. The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ...


Open differential front.


V8 with manual transmission:


Torsen differential middle. The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ...


Torsen differential rear.


Open differential front.


How: The car will not be able to move if one front and both rear wheels lose traction. The Torsen effect with a front wheel raised in the air will not happen on V8 with automatic transmission. If front axle loses traction the multi-plate clutch is automatically locked transferring up to 100% of torque to the rear axle.(?)


Pros: All weather full-time all wheel drive, no driver intervention.


Cons: no major flaws apart from the extra weight of the quattro system.


Quattro generation IV

Where: Starting from 1998 on Audi A4/S4, Audi A6/S6, Audi A8/S8 with both manual and automatic transmissions. Also on VW Passat B5 4motion. Manually locking rear differential replaced by Electronic Differential Lock (Difflock imitation, detects wheelspin via ABS sensors and applies brakes to spinning wheels thus transferring torque via open differential to another wheel which has more traction). EDL works at speeds up to 40kph (25mph), on more powerful versions such as S4/S6/S8 - up to 80kph (50mph). In addition to EDL, Audi A8/S8 limits engine rpm when excessive wheelspin occurs. The Audi A4 is a mid-size luxury car made by Audi. ... It has been suggested that Audi Allroad Quattro be merged into this article or section. ... The Audi A8 is a large luxury automobile built by Audi to replace the V8 model as their flagship offering. ... The Volkswagen Passat is a mid-size car / large family car built by Volkswagen AG, produced in various forms since 1973. ... Traction control and Vehicle Stability Control systems, on current production vehicles, are typically (but not necessarily) electro-hydraulic systems designed to prevent loss of control when excessive throttle or steering is applied by the driver. ...


What: Permanent all wheel drive.


Torsen center differential, 50/50 split, automatically locking with up to 80% of torque transfer to either axle. The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ...


Open rear differential, Electronic Differential Lock.


Open front differential, Electronic Differential Lock.


How: This is a superb all wheel drive system for on-road car. In on-road conditions the car will not move if all four wheels lose traction. Torsen effect with one wheel in the air will not happen on Quattro IV because Electronic Differential Lock will apply brakes to spinning wheel and Torsen differential will transfer torque to rear axle.


In off-road conditions (wheels in the air and an obstacle restricting the vehicle from moving forward) the car will not move further when one front and one rear wheels loose traction. The reason of this behavior is that Electronic Differential Lock is not a replacement for mechanical differential lock and it is not able to transfer enough torque to another wheel. The car will end up spinning one front and one rear wheel with crackling EDL trying to stop them from spinning.


Pros: Superb all weather full-time all wheel drive, no driver intervention.


Cons: no major flaws apart from the extra weight of the quattro system.


Quattro which isn’t Quattro any more. Haldex AWD.

Where: Starting from 1998 Quattro has become just a trade mark and it does not indicate that all wheel drive system with Torsen differential is used on the vehicle any more. Vehicles with transverse engine mounting (Audi A3/S3 Quattro, Audi TT Quattro) are equipped with Haldex automatic all wheel drive. The same type of automatic all wheel drive is used on VW Golf/Bora/Jetta 4motion (Mark IV 1998-2005, Mark V 2003-), VW Sharan 4motion (2001-) and other Volkswagen Audi Group vehicles with transverse engine mounting – Seat and Skoda. The Torsen limited slip differential was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. ... The Audi A3 is a compact luxury automobile built by Audi since 1996. ... The Audi TT is an automobile produced by Audi in GyÅ‘r, Hungary. ... Haldex is a Limited Slip Coupling used in vehicles with automatic all wheel system to engage and disengage secondary axle when needed. ... The Volkswagen Golf (Mk I and Mk V badged as Volkswagen Rabbit in the U.S. and Canada) is a compact car / small family car manufactured by Volkswagen. ... VW Sharan The VW Sharan is a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) or people carrier sold by Volkswagen in Europe, in a joint venture with Ford, which sells a version of the same model as the Ford Galaxy. ... Volkswagen AG (DE0007664005) (TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer. ... An old SEAT 600 The 3-door Hatchback SEAT Ibiza. SEAT is a Volkswagen subsidiary and one of the leading car makers in Spain. ... Å koda Auto ( (help· info)) is a Czech automobile manufacturer and one of the four oldest car producers in the world. ...


What: Automatic all wheel drive.


Haldex multiplate clutch with electronic control acting as a center differential. Haldex is a Limited Slip Coupling used in vehicles with automatic all wheel system to engage and disengage secondary axle when needed. ...


Open rear differential, EDL on some models (not proved).


Open front differential, EDL.


How: Normally front wheel drive vehicle. In normal driving conditions 100% of torque transferred to front axle. When slipping occurs, Haldex multiplate clutch locks and up to 100% of torque is automatically transferred to rear axle. Haldex clutch offers instant activation – it locks as soon as one driveshaft travels just 1/8 of a turn further than the other. Front wheels do just 1/4 of a turn before AWD is activated. Accompanied by EDL on front wheels, in on-road conditions the car will not move if both front and one rear wheels lose traction.


Again, due to limitations of Electronic Differential Lock (see Quattro IV description above), if off-road conditions it is enough for one front and one rear wheel to lose traction and the car will not move.


The Haldex system is more reactive than preventative; the Torsen's even power split under non-slipping conditions makes slipping less likely to start, while the Haldex's greater torque split under slipping conditions is helpful for recovery.


Haldex Electronic Control Unit disengages the clutch as soon as brakes are applied to allow ABS work properly; it also disengages the clutch when handbrake is pulled to allow “handbrake turns”. When performing tight low-speed turns (e.g. parking) the clutch is disengaged by Electronic Control Unit to avoid wind-up in transmission. ABS is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings: Able-bodied Seaman / Able-bodied Seamen — (the original term was Able Seaman, abbreviated AB) ABS, a popular clothing brand by Allen B. Schwartz Always Better Service, the brand name of a computer manufacturing company. ...


Pros: Claimed better fuel economy when compared to full-time all wheel drive. Instant activation with no driver intervention.


Cons: Full-time all wheel drive is better. Some say Haldex system has less predictable behavior when cornering in snow than full-time all wheel drive systems. Other say there is nothing wrong with it; it is just a little different.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Orientation-sensitive clock radio and cuddly bear for snoozing (483 words)
Didier Hilhorst and Nicholas Zambetti's Quattro alarm clock is housed in a translucent enclosure without button nor markings.
Its functions depends on its position: orientating it on the side it's a radio, upright it becomes an alarm timer and placed horizontally it's a clock.
As you come nearer to Quattro, it detects your presence and reveals illuminated touch-sensitive controls relevant to its current function.
Soil Restoration and Stabilization | Quattro Environmental, Inc. (639 words)
We are growing soil organisms first and foremost, in order to sustain vegetative cover on site through all stages of plant succession in our efforts to ultimately re-establish climax native plant species.
While initially utilized in both hydroseeding and drill seeding applications to accomplish harsh environment reclamation and erosion control bioengineering objectives, the strategy has now successfully been applied to remedy salt-induced, soil compaction challenges in the golf course/sports field turf arena.
To discuss the benefits of applying the Growing Soil and Holding Soil strategy to your specific site, please call us at Quattro Environmental and we will be happy to give you whatever assistance we can, or give you a referral on to an independent Native Plants Alliance design professional.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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