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Encyclopedia > Quaternary ammonium compounds
Quaternary ammonium cation. Any or all of the R groups may be the same or different alkyl groups. Also, any of the R groups may be connected.
Quaternary ammonium cation. Any or all of the R groups may be the same or different alkyl groups. Also, any of the R groups may be connected.

Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR4+ with R being alkyl groups. Unlike the ammonium ion NH4+ itself and primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. Quaternary ammonium cations are synthesized by complete alkylation of ammonia or other amines. For possible synthesis route, see amines. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ... A polyatomic ion is an ion consisting of a molecule with covalently bonded atoms or of a metal complex that can be considered as acting as a single unit in the context of acid/base chemistry or in the formation of salts. ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... Fumes from hydrochloric acid and ammonia forming a white cloud of ammonium chloride Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa oasis in western Egypt. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms that normally are electrically neutral and achieve their status as an ion by loss (or addition) of an electron(s). ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... pH is a measure of the acidity of a solution in terms of activity of hydrogen (H+). For dilute solutions, however, it is convenient to substitute the activity of the hydrogen ions with the molarity (mol/L) of the hydrogen ions (however, this is not necessarily accurate at higher concentrations... In chemistry, the phrase chemical synthesis appears to have one of two meanings. ... Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Ammonia Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ...


Quaternary ammonium salts or quaternary ammonium compounds are salts of quaternary ammonium cations with an anion. They are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, antistatic agents (e.g. in shampoo), and phase transfer catalysts. In liquid fabric softeners, the chloride salts are often used. In dryer anticling strips, the sulfate salts are often used. A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) A salt, in chemistry, is any ionic compound composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is neutral (without a net charge). ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... Disinfection The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means Disinfectants are chemical substances used to kill viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi. ... Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... Fabric softener (also called Fabric Conditioner) is used to prevent static cling and makes the fabric softer. ... Antistatic agents are compounds used for treatment of materials or their surfaces in order to reduce or eliminate buildup of static electricity generally caused by the triboelectric effect. ... Several shampoos on a shower window Shampoo (Hindi: शम्पू) is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, environmental pollution and/or other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... A phase transfer catalyst or PTC in chemistry is a type of chemical compound, often a quaternary ammonium salt, which facilitates the migration of a particular chemical component in one phase into a other phase in a heterogeneous system. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... An electric clothes dryer A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a major household appliance that is used to remove the residual moisture from clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing or washing/drying machine. ... Fabric softener (also called Fabric Conditioner) is used to prevent static cling and makes the fabric softer. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ...


The synthesis of this cation from ammonia is referred to as quaternization.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Patent 5240562: Paper products containing a chemical softening composition (11028 words)
Preferably, the mixture of the quaternary ammonium and the polyhydroxy compound is diluted with a liquid carrier to a concentration of from about 0.01% to about 25.0% by weight of the chemical softening composition before being added to the fibrous cellulose material.
The quaternary ammonium compound and polyhydroxy compound melt is then diluted to the desired concentration, and mixed to form an aqueous solution containing a vesicle dispersion of the quaternary ammonium compound/polyhydroxy compound mixture which is then added to the papermaking furnish.
The mixture of the quaternary ammonium compound and the polyhydroxy compound are present as particles dispersed in the liquid carrier.
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