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The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1.806 million years ago to the present. The Quaternary includes 2 geologic subdivisions -- the Pleistocene and the Holocene Epochs. // For other uses, see time scale. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ...

In a recent revision of the international classification of geological time periods, the Quaternary was subsumed into the Neogene[citation needed]. The move has met with some resistance from geologists. Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... the are cool The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ...



The term Quaternary ("fourth") was proposed by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 to address sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks. The Quaternary Period follows the Tertiary Period and extends to the present. The Quaternary roughly covers the time span of recent glaciations, including the last glacial retreat. An occasional alternative usage places the start of the Quaternary at the onset of North Pole glaciation approximately 3 million years ago and includes portions of the upper Pliocene. Some people do not recognize the Quaternary and consider it an informal term included in the Neogene, as can be seen from the 2003 edition of the International Stratigraphic Chart, published by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Jules Pierre François Stanislaus Desnoyers (October 8, 1800 - 1887) was a French geologist and archaeologist. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Seine (pronounced in French) is a major river of north-western France, and one of its commercial waterways. ... For other uses, see Tertiary (disambiguation). ... In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... A glacier is a large, persistent body of ice, formed largely of compacted layers of snow, that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity. ... Holocene glacial retreat had a profound effect on landscapes in many areas that were covered by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum. ... North Pole Scenery When not otherwise qualified, the term North Pole usually refers to the Geographic North Pole – the northernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earths axis of rotation intersects the Earths surface. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ...

The 1.8-1.6 million years of the Quaternary represents the time during which recognizable humans existed. Over this short a time period, the total amount of continental drift was less than 100 km, which is largely irrelevant to paleontology. Nonetheless, the geological record is preserved in greater detail than that for earlier periods, and is most relatable to the maps of today, revealing in the second half of the twentieth century its own series of extraordinary landform changes. The major geographical changes during this time period included emergence of the Strait of Bosphorus and Skagerrak during glacial epochs, which respectively turned the Black Sea and Baltic Sea into fresh water, followed by their flooding by rising sea level; the periodic filling of the English Channel, forming a land bridge between Britain and Europe; the periodic closing of the Bering Strait, forming the land bridge between Asia and North America; and the periodic flash flooding of Scablands of the American Northwest by glacial water. The Great Lakes and other major lakes of Canada, and Hudson's Bay, are also just the results of the last cycle, and are temporary. Following every other ice age within the Quaternary, there was a different pattern of lakes and bays. Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: (IPA: ), the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait http://209. ... DrumHeller Channels The Channeled Scablands are unique geological erosion features in the U.S. state of Washington. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...

The climate was one of periodic glaciations with continental glaciers moving as far from the poles as 40 degrees latitude. Few major new animals evolved, again presumably because of the short—in geologic terms—duration of the period. There was a major extinction of large mammals in Northern areas at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

Many forms such as saber-toothed cats, mammoths, mastodons, glyptodonts, etc., became extinct worldwide. Others, including horses, camels and cheetahs became extinct in North America. The fossilized skeleton of a sabre-toothed cat The terms saber-toothed cat and saber-toothed tiger describes numerous cat-like species that lived during various parts of the Cenozoic and evolved their saber-toothed characteristics entirely independently. ... Species Mammuthus africanavus African mammoth Mammuthus columbi Columbian mammoth Mammuthus exilis Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus jeffersonii Jeffersonian mammoth Mammuthus trogontherii Steppe mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis Mammuthus subplanifrons South African mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Woolly mammoth Mammuthus lamarmorae Sardinian Dwarf Mammoth A mammoth is any of a number of an extinct genus of proboscidean... Mastodons or Mastodonts (meaning nipple-teeth) are members of the extinct genus Mammut of the order Proboscidea and form the family Mammutidae; they resembled, but were distinct from, the woolly mammoth which belongs to the family Elephantidae. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camelus gigas Camelus hesternus Camelus sivalensis Camels are even-toed ungulates in the genus Camelus. ... Binomial name Acinonyx jubatus (Schreber, 1775) Type species Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 (= Felis jubata, Schreber, 1775) by monotypy The range of the cheetah The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is an atypical member of the cat family (Felidae), a poor climber that hunts by speed rather than by stealth. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...

Glacial period

In 1821, a Swiss engineer, Ignaz Venetz, presented an article in which he suggested the presence of traces of the passage of a glacier at a considerable distance from the Alps. This idea was initially disputed by another Swiss scientist, Louis Agassiz, but when he undertook to disprove it, he ended up affirming his colleague's theory. A year later Agassiz raised the hypothesis of a great glacial period that would have had long-reaching general effects. This idea gained him international fame. The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ignaz Venetz (1788–1859) was a Swiss engineer, naturalist, and glaciologist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

In time, thanks to the refinement of geology, it was verified that there were several periods of forward and backward movement of the glaciers and that past temperatures on Earth were very different from today. In particular, the Milankovitch cycles of Milutin Milankovitch are based on the premise that variations in incoming solar radiation are a fundamental factor controlling Earth's climate. It has been suggested that Orbital forcing be merged into this article or section. ... Milutin Milanković (1879-1958) Milutin Milanković (a. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...

During this time, thick glaciers advanced and retreated over much of North America and Europe, parts of South America and Asia, and all of Antarctica. The Great Lakes form and giant mammals flourish in parts of North America and Eurasia not covered in ice. These mammals became extinct when the Ice Age ended about 10,000 years ago. Modern humans evolved about 100,000 years ago. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


  • The "Quaternary glacial period" section was derived from the article es:Glaciar in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, which was accessed in the version of July 24, [[2005

July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ...

External links

Cenozoic era
Paleogene Neogene Quaternary
Neogene period
Pliocene Pleistocene Holocene
← Neogene | Gelasian Early | Middle | Late  
Physical geography
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Biogeography · Climatology & paleoclimatology · Coastal/Marine studies · Geodesy · Geomorphology · Glaciology · Hydrology & Hydrography · Landscape ecology · Limnology · Oceanography · Palaeogeography · Pedology · Quaternary Studies

  Results from FactBites:
Quaternary Period - ninemsn Encarta (753 words)
Quaternary Period, former division of the geological timescale, spanning the last 1.8 million years of the Earth's history, up to the present day.
The Quaternary is no longer regarded as a formal division of the geological timescale, though the term remains in common informal use.
Temperature fluctuations during the Quaternary appear to show a regular periodicity, which may be caused by cyclical irregularities in the orbit of the Earth around the Sun.
Quaternary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (657 words)
The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1.8-1.6 million years ago to the present.
In a recent revision of the international classification of geological time periods, the Quaternary was subsumed into the Neogene.
The term Quaternary ("fourth") was proposed by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 to address sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.
  More results at FactBites »



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