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Encyclopedia > Quality standard

In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. These systems are often developed in conjunction with other business and engineering disciplines using a cross-functional approach. Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. ...

Contents

History

Though terms like 'quality engineering' and 'quality assurance' are relatively new, the ideas have existed just as long as the very art of tool manufacture. Simple tools made of rock or bone were subject to familiar modes of failure. They could be fragile, dull where they should be sharp, sharp where they should be dull, etc. When the first specialized craftsmen arose, manufacturing tools for others, the principle of quality control was simple: "let the buyer beware" (caveat emptor). This article is about a tool used as a piece of equipment. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... A craft is a skill, especially involving practical arts. ... It has been suggested that caveat venditor be merged into this article or section. ...


The first civil engineering projects, however, needed to be built to specifications. For instance, the four sides of the Great Pyramid of Giza are perpendicular to within 3.5 arcseconds. The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... In engineering and manufacturing, the term specification has the following meanings: Technical requirement A specification is a set of requirements. ... The Great Pyramid is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ...


Craft and tradespersons

During the Middle Ages, guilds took the responsibility of quality control upon themselves. All practitioners of a particular trade living in a certain area were required to join the corresponding guild, and the guild instituted punishments for members who turned out shoddy products. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Royal governments purchasing material were interested in quality control as customers. For instance, King John of England appointed a certain William Wrotham to supervise the construction and repair of ships. Some centuries later, but also in England, Samuel Pepys, Secretary to the Admiralty, appointed multiple such overseers. Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, famous chiefly for his comprehensive diary. ... Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


Prior to the extensive division of labor and mechanization resulting from the Industrial Revolution, it was possible for a workman to control the quality of his own product. Working conditions then were more conducive to professional pride. Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... A Watt steam engine. ...


The Industrial Revolution led to a system in which large groups of men performing a similar type of work were grouped together under the supervision of a foreman who also took on the responsibility to control the quality of work manufactured.


Quality Assurance has developed a good deal during the last 80-90 years (in about 20 year intervals) from its inception to the current state of the art.


Wartime production

During World War I, the manufacturing process became more complex, and the introduction of large numbers of workers being supervised by a foreman designated to ensure the quality of the work, which was being produced. This period also introduced mass production and piecework, which created quality problems as workmen could now earn more money by the production of extra products, which in turn led to bad workmanship being passed on to the assembly lines. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Foreman is the surname of: Dave Foreman Gordy Foreman Deborah Foreman Kevin Foreman George Foreman - a boxer Carl Foreman Freeda Foreman Tim Foreman Richard Foreman David Foreman Jon Foreman Susan Foreman Joseph Foreman Jack Foreman Mantle it may refer also to: Foreman, Arkansas Foreman of Signals George Foreman Grill Stanley... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... It has been suggested that piece rate be merged into this article or section. ... 1913 Ford Model T assembly line. ...


Due to the large amount of bad workmanship being produced, the first full time inspectors were introduced into the large-scale modern factory. These full time inspectors were the real beginning of inspection quality control, and this was the beginning the large inspection organizations of the 1920’s and 1930’s, which were separately organised from production and big enough to be headed by superintendents. Inspector is a rank in many police forces. ... A factory worker in 1940s Fort Worth, Texas. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Superintendent may refer to: Superintendent (education), an education executive or administrator Superintendent (police), a police rank Superintendent (United States Air Force), a United States Air Force position In buildings, a manager, a maintenance or repair person, a custodian or janitor. ...


The systematic approach to quality started in industrial manufacture during the 1930’s, mostly in the USA, when some attention was given to the cost of scrap and rework. With the impact of mass production, which was required during the Second World War, it became necessary to introduce a more stringent form of quality control which can be identified as Statistical Quality Control, or SQC. Some the initial work for SQC is credited to Walter A. Shewhart of Bell Labs. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wrecking yard. ... Rework is a term used in several contexts. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The application of statistical techniques (SPC and Statistical Sampling) to control a product characteristic to ensure it meets product specifications or the engineering design specifications. ... Walter Andrew Shewhart (March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was a physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ...


This system came about with the realisation that quality cannot be inspected into an item. By extending the inspection phase and making inspection organizations more efficient, it provides inspectors with control tools such as sampling and control charts. Theoretical sampling is a term coined by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss in 1967 in the context of social research to describe the process of choosing new research sites or research cases to compare with one that has already been studied. ... Look up Control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... plotting redirects here. ...


SQC had a significant contribution in that it provided a sampling inspection system rather than a 100 per cent inspection. This type of inspection however did lead to a lack of realisation to the importance of the engineering of product quality.


For example, if you have a basic sampling scheme with an acceptance level of 4%, what happens is you have a ratio of 96% products released onto the market with 4% defective items – this obviously is a fair risk for any company/customer – unless you happen to be one of the unfortunate buyers of a defective item. A ratio is a dimensionless, or unitless, quantity denoting an amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ... A customer is someone who makes use of or receives the products or services of an individual or organization. ...


Postwar

After World War II, the United States continued to apply the concepts of inspection and sampling to remove defective product from production lines. However, there were many individuals trying to lead U.S. industries towards a more collabrative approach to quality. Excluding the U.S., many countries' manufacturing capabilities were destroyed during the war. This placed American business in a position where advances in the collabrative approaches to quality were essentially ignored.


After World War II, the U.S. sent General Douglas MacArthur to oversee the re-building of Japan. During this time, General MacArthur invited two key individuals in the development of modern quality concepts: W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. Both individuals promoted the collabrative concepts of quality to Japanese business and technical groups, and these groups utilized these concepts in the redevelopment of the Japanese economy. MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... William Edwards Deming was an American statistician, college professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. ... Dr. Joseph Moses Juran, industrial engineer and philanthropist was born in 1904 in Braila, Romania and later lived in Gura Humorului. ...


Quality assurance

Quality Assurance covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing and documentation, this introduced the rules: "fit for purpose" and "do it right the first time". It includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes. For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ...


One of the most widely used paradigms for QA management is the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) approach, also known as the Shewhart cycle. PDCA (aka the Shewhart Cycle or the Deming Wheel) is an iterative four-step quality control strategy. ... It has been suggested that PDCA be merged into this article or section. ...


Failure testing

A valuable process to perform on a whole consumer product is failure testing, the operation of a product until it fails, often under stresses such as increasing vibration, temperature and humidity. This exposes many unanticipated weaknesses in a product, and the data is used to drive engineering and manufacturing process improvements. Often quite simple changes can dramatically improve product service, such as changing to mould-resistant paint or adding lock-washer placement to the training for new assembly personnel. This article is about consumers in economics. ... Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fig. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Weakness can mean: The opposite of strength Weakness (medical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Process Improvement Process Improvement is a series of actions taken to identify, analyze and improve existing processes within an organization to meet new goals and objectives. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. ...


Statistical control

Many organizations use statistical process control to bring the organization to Six Sigma levels of quality, in other words, so that the likelihood of an unexpected failure is confined to six standard deviations on the normal distribution. This probability is less than four one-millionths. Items controlled often include clerical tasks such as order-entry as well as conventional manufacturing tasks. Process control is an engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process. ... An organization or organisation (read more about -ize vs -ise) is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. ... The normal distribution, also called Gaussian distribution by scientists (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss due to his rigorous application of the distribution to astronomical data (Havil, 2003)) is a probability distribution of great importance in many fields. ... (Redirected from 1 E-6) This list compares various sizes of positive numbers, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities. ...


Traditional statistical process controls in manufacturing operations usually proceed by randomly sampling and testing a fraction of the output. Variances of critical tolerances are continuously tracked, and manufacturing processes are corrected before bad parts can be produced.


Company quality

During the 1980’s, the concept of “company quality” with the focus on management and people came to the fore. It was realised that, if all departments approached quality with an open mind, success was possible if the management led the quality improvement process. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The term management characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, capital, natural, intellectual or intangible). ... A department is a part of a larger organization with a specific responsibility. ...


The company-wide quality approach places an emphasis on three aspects :-

  1. Elements such as controls, job management, adequate processes, performance and integrity criteria and identification of records
  2. Competence such as knowledge, skills, experience, qualifications
  3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organisational culture, motivation, team spirit and quality relationships.

The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects are deficient in any way. Look up integrity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Confidence is trust or faith that a person or thing is capable. ... Organizational culture comprises the attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and customs of an organization. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The approach to quality management given here is therefore not limited to the manufacturing theatre only but can be applied to any business activity:

  • Design work
  • Administrative services
  • Consulting
  • Banking
  • Insurance
  • Computer software
  • Retailing
  • Transportation...

It comprises a quality improvement process, which is generic in the sense it can be applied to any of these activities and it establishes a behaviour pattern, which supports the achievement of quality.


This in turn is supported by quality management practices which can include a number of business systems and which are usually specific to the activities of the business unit concerned. Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ...


In manufacturing and construction activities, these business practices can be equated to the models for quality assurance defined by the International Standards contained in the ISO 9000 series and the specified Specifications for quality systems. In large construction projects, such as skyscrapers, cranes are essential. ... Sign on a wholesaler at the Tsukiji fish market indicates ISO 9001 certification. ... In engineering and manufacturing, the term specification has the following meanings: Technical requirement A specification is a set of requirements. ...


Still, in the system of Company Quality, the work being carried out was shop floor inspection which did not control the major quality problems. This led to quality assurance or total quality control, which has come into being recently.


Total quality control

Total Quality Control is the most necessary inspection control of all in cases where, despite statistical quality control techniques or quality improvements implemented, sales decrease.


The major problem which leads to a decrease in sales was that the specifications did not include the most important factor, “What the customer required”. Sale is the name of several places: Sale, Victoria, Australia Sale, Greater Manchester, England Sale, Italy (pronunciation: SAH-leh) - in the province of Alessandria Salè, Morocco Sale Marasino (first pronunciation: SAH-leh), an Italian commune in the province of Brescia Sale is also a type of contract for the exchange... In engineering and manufacturing, the term specification has the following meanings: Technical requirement A specification is a set of requirements. ...


The major characteristics, ignored during the search to improve manufacture and overall business performance were:-

  • Reliability
  • Maintainability
  • Safety

As the most important factor had been ignored, a few refinements had to be introduced:

  1. Marketing had to carry out their work properly and define the customer’s specifications.
  2. Specifications had to be defined to conform to these requirements.
  3. Conformance to specifications i.e. drawings, standards and other relevant documents, were introduced during manufacturing, planning and control.
  4. Management had to confirm all operators are equal to the work imposed on them and holidays, celebrations and disputes did not affect any of the quality levels.
  5. Inspections and tests were carried out, and all components and materials, bought in or otherwise, conformed to the specifications, and the measuring equipment was accurate, this is the responsibility of the QA/QC department.
  6. Any complaints received from the customers were satisfactorily dealt with in a timely manner.
  7. Feedback from the user/customer is used to review designs.

If the original specification does not reflect the correct quality requirements, quality cannot be inspected or manufactured into the product. This article is about engineering. ... Drawing involves the choice of one or more tools from a wide variety and the choice of a support appropriate to that tool in order to make marks. ... For planning in AI see computer planning Planning is the (psychological) process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired future on some scale. ... In mathematics, an operator is a function that performs some sort of operation on a number, variable, or function. ... In general, a things components are its parts; the things that compose it. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Center for Correct, Usable, Reliable, Auditable, and Transparent Elections ACCURATE was established by a group of computer scientists, psychologists and policy experts to address problems with electronic voting. ... In general use, a complaint is an expression of displeasure, such as poor service at a store, or from a local government, for example. ...


For instance, all parameters for a pressure vessel should include not only the material and dimensions but operating, environmental, safety, reliability and maintainability requirements. :For other senses of this word, see dimension (disambiguation). ... An environment is a complex of external factors that acts on a system and determines its course and form of existence. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... In telecommunication, the term maintainability has the following meanings: A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. ...


To conclude, the above forms the basis from which the philosophy of Quality Assurance has evolved, and the achievement of quality or the “fitness-for-purpose” is “Quality Awareness” throughout the company.


See also

Computerized System Validation (CSV) is the documented process of assuring that a computerized system does exactly what it is designed to do in a consistent and reproducible manner. ... Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) monitor the appropriateness, effectiveness, and quality of care provided to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. ... Industrial engineering is a branch in engineering that concerns the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Manufacturing and manufacturing systems manufacturing factory Craft system English system of manufacturing American system of manufacturing Mass production Batch production Just in time manufacturing Toyota Production System Lean manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Mass customization Theories of production Taylorism Fordism Theory of constraints Productivity Productivity benchmarking cost accounting experience curve... This list complements the software engineering article, giving more details and examples. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... A playtest is the process by which a game designer tests a new game for bugs and improvements before bringing it to market. ... A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers who meet together to discuss workplace improvement, and make presentations to management with their ideas. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ... In its simplest form, Hoshin Kanri is nothing more than a system of forms and rules that encourage employees to analyze situations, create plans for improvement, conduct performance checks, and take appropriate action. ... When applied to software the adjective quality may apply to source code as seen by software developers, or to applications software as seen by the end-users of the software. ... Software Testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security, and quality of developed computer software. ... Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. ... The word validation has several uses: In general, validation is the process of checking if something satisfies a certain criterion. ... The Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme (PIC/S) are two international instruments between countries and pharmaceutical inspection authorities. ... // Validation Within the highly regulated environment of Drug manufacture and development there is a requirement within the regulations to prove that each process involved in producing the product can be shown to be both doing the right job, and doing the job right. ... EudraLex is the collection of rules and regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union. ... The discipline of Total Quality Control uses a number of quantitative methods and tools to identify problems and suggest avenues for continuous improvement in fields such as manufacturing. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Current Writing on Business and Technology (2134 words)
institute British standard published the first BRITISH standard for the quality assurance, BS 9000, that it was developed for the industry of the electronics.
Under the 2000 standard, the auditor performs a similar function but is required to make more value judgements on what is effective, rather than adhering safely to the formalism of what is prescribed.
While the critisicm focuses on the standard, the problems typically arise from a failure of organisations to understand the underlying philosophy and the fact that the standard describes a systematic approach.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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