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Encyclopedia > Quality control

For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) Quality Control is the second album from the alternative hip hop group Jurassic 5, and their first on a major label. ...

In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. These systems are often developed in conjunction with other business and engineering disciplines using a cross-functional approach. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Manufacturing is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. ...

Contents

History

They could be fragile, dull where they should be sharp, sharp where they should be dull, etc. When the first specialized craftsmen arose, manufacturing tools for others, the principle of quality control was simple: "let the buyer beware" (caveat emptor). A craft is a skill, especially involving practical arts. ... Caveat emptor is Latin for Let the buyer beware. Generally Caveat Emptor was the property law doctrine that controlled the sale of real property after the date of closing. Under the doctrine of Caveat Emptor, the buyer could not recover from the seller for defects on the property that rendered...


Early civil engineering projects, however, needed to be built to specifications. For instance, the four sides of the Great Pyramid of Giza are perpendicular to within 3.5 arcseconds. The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa ( ). The oldest and only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World, it is believed to have been constructed over a 20... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ...


Craft and tradespersons

During the Middle Ages, guilds took the responsibility of quality control upon themselves. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


Royal governments purchasing material were interested in quality control as customers. For instance, King John of England appointed a certain William Wrotham to supervise the construction and repair of ships. Some centuries later, but also in England, Samuel Pepys, Secretary to the Admiralty, appointed multiple such overseers. Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


Prior to the extensive division of labor and mechanization resulting from the Industrial Revolution, it was possible for workers to control the quality of their own products. Working conditions then were more conducive to professional pride. Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... A Watt steam engine. ...


The Industrial Revolution led to a system in which large groups of people performing a similar type of work were grouped together under the supervision of a foreman who also took on the responsibility to control the quality of work manufactured.


Quality Assurance has developed a good deal during the last 80-90 years (in about 20 year intervals) from its inception to the current state of the art. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Wartime production

During World War I, the manufacturing process became more complex, and the introduction of large numbers of workers being supervised by a foreman designated to ensure the quality of the work, which was being produced. This period also introduced mass production and piecework, which created quality problems as workmen could now earn more money by the production of extra products, which in turn led to bad workmanship being passed on to the assembly lines. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A foreman is the leader of a group of workers, often in a construction industry. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... It has been suggested that piece rate be merged into this article or section. ... Modern car assembly line. ...


Due to the large amount of bad workmanship being produced, the first full time inspectors were introduced into the large-scale modern factory. These full time inspectors were the real beginning of inspection quality control, and this was the beginning the large inspection organizations of the 1920s and 1930s, which were separately organised from production and big enough to be headed by superintendents. Inspector is a rank in many police forces. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Superintendent may refer to: Superintendent (education), an education executive or administrator Superintendent (police), a police rank Superintendent (United States Air Force), a United States Air Force position In buildings, a manager, a maintenance or repair person, a custodian or janitor. ...


The systematic approach to quality started in industrial manufacture during the 1930s, mostly in the USA, when some attention was given to the cost of scrap and rework. With the impact of mass production, which was required during the Second World War, it became necessary to introduce a more stringent form of quality control which can be identified as Statistical Quality Control, or SQC. Some of the initial work for SQC is credited to Walter A. Shewhart of Bell Labs. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A breakers yard in the UK, showing cars stacked on a metal grid to make it easier to find and remove usable parts. ... Rework is a term used in several contexts. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The application of statistical techniques (SPC and Statistical Sampling) to control a product characteristic to ensure it meets product specifications or the engineering design specifications. ... Walter Andrew Shewhart (March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967) was a physicist, engineer and statistician, sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ...


This system came about with the realisation that quality cannot be inspected into an item. By extending the inspection phase and making inspection organizations more efficient, it provides inspectors with control tools such as sampling and control charts. Theoretical sampling is a term coined by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss in 1967 in the context of social research to describe the process of choosing new research sites or research cases to compare with one that has already been studied. ... Look up Control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... plotting redirects here. ...


SQC had a significant contribution in that it provided a sampling inspection system rather than a 100 per cent inspection. This type of inspection however did lead to a lack of realisation to the importance of the engineering of product quality.


For example, if you have a basic sampling scheme with an acceptance level of 4%, what happens is you have a ratio of 96% products released onto the market with 4% defective items – this obviously is a fair risk for any company/customer – unless you happen to be one of the unfortunate buyers of a defective item. A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ... Customers are waiting in front of a famous fashion shop for its grand opening in Hong Kong. ...


Postwar

After World War II, the United States continued to apply the concepts of inspection and sampling to remove defective product from production lines. However, there were many individuals trying to lead U.S. industries towards a more collaborative approach to quality. Excluding the U.S., many countries' manufacturing capabilities were destroyed during the war. This placed American business in a position where advances in the collaborative approaches to quality were essentially ignored.


After World War II, the U.S. sent General Douglas MacArthur to oversee the re-building of Japan. During this time, General MacArthur invited two key individuals in the development of modern quality concepts: W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. Both individuals promoted the collaborative concepts of quality to Japanese business and technical groups, and these groups utilized these concepts in the redevelopment of the Japanese economy. MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... William Edwards Deming (October 14, 1900 - December 20, 1993) was an American statistician, college professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. ... Dr. Joseph Moses Juran, industrial engineer and philanthropist was born in 1904 in Braila, Romania and later lived in Gura Humorului. ...


Quality assurance

Quality Assurance covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing and documentation. This introduced the rules: "fit for purpose" and "do it right the first time". It includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ...


One of the most widely used paradigms for QA management is the PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) approach, also known as the Shewhart cycle. PDCA (aka the Shewhart Cycle or the Deming Wheel) is an iterative four-step quality control strategy. ... It has been suggested that PDCA be merged into this article or section. ...


Failure testing

A valuable process to perform on a whole consumer product is failure testing, the operation of a product until it fails, often under stresses such as increasing vibration, temperature and humidity. This exposes many unanticipated weaknesses in a product, and the data is used to drive engineering and manufacturing process improvements. Often quite simple changes can dramatically improve product service, such as changing to mould-resistant paint or adding lock-washer placement to the training for new assembly personnel. Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Look up vibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fig. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Weakness can mean: The opposite of strength Weakness (medical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Process Improvement Process Improvement is a series of actions taken to identify, analyze and improve existing processes within an organization to meet new goals and objectives. ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills obtained thru time. ...


Statistical control

Many organizations use statistical process control to bring the organization to Six Sigma levels of quality, in other words, so that the likelihood of an unexpected failure is confined to six standard deviations on the normal distribution. This probability is less than four one-millionths. Items controlled often include clerical tasks such as order-entry as well as conventional manufacturing tasks. Process control is an engineering discipline that deals with architectures, mechanisms, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process. ... It has been suggested that Organizing be merged into this article or section. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. ... The normal distribution, also called Gaussian distribution by scientists (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss due to his rigorous application of the distribution to astronomical data (Havil, 2003)), is a continuous probability distribution of great importance in many fields. ... (Redirected from 1 E-6) This list compares various sizes of positive numbers, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities. ...


Traditional statistical process controls in manufacturing operations usually proceed by randomly sampling and testing a fraction of the output. Variances of critical tolerances are continuously tracked, and manufacturing processes are corrected before bad parts can be produced.


Company quality

During the 1980s, the concept of “company quality” with the focus on management and people came to the fore. It was realised that, if all departments approached quality with an open mind, success was possible if the management led the quality improvement process. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up Management in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A department is a part of a larger organization with a specific responsibility. ... Look up Improve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The company-wide quality approach places an emphasis on three aspects :-

  1. Elements such as controls, job management, adequate processes, performance and integrity criteria and identification of records
  2. Competence such as knowledge, skills, experience, qualifications
  3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organisational culture, motivation, team spirit and quality relationships.

The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects are deficient in any way. Look up integrity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Confidence is trust or faith that a person or thing is capable. ... Organizational culture comprises the attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and customs of an organization. ... It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ...


The approach to quality management given here is therefore not limited to the manufacturing theatre only but can be applied to any business activity:

  • Design work
  • Administrative services
  • Consulting
  • Banking
  • Insurance
  • Computer software
  • Retailing
  • Transportation

It comprises a quality improvement process, which is generic in the sense it can be applied to any of these activities and it establishes a behaviour pattern, which supports the achievement of quality.


This in turn is supported by quality management practices which can include a number of business systems and which are usually specific to the activities of the business unit concerned. Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ...


In manufacturing and construction activities, these business practices can be equated to the models for quality assurance defined by the International Standards contained in the ISO 9000 series and the specified Specifications for quality systems. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sign on a wholesaler at the Tsukiji fish market indicates ISO 9001 certification. ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ...


Still, in the system of Company Quality, the work being carried out was shop floor inspection which did not control the major quality problems. This led to quality assurance or total quality control, which has come into being recently.


Total quality control

Total Quality Control is the most necessary inspection control of all in cases where, despite statistical quality control techniques or quality improvements implemented, sales decrease.


The major problem which leads to a decrease in sales was that the specifications did not include the most important factor, “What the customer required”. Sale is the name of several places: Sale, Victoria, Australia Sale, Greater Manchester, England Sale, Italy (pronunciation: SAH-leh) - in the province of Alessandria Salè, Morocco Sale Marasino (first pronunciation: SAH-leh), an Italian commune in the province of Brescia Sale is also a type of contract for the exchange... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ...


The major characteristics, ignored during the search to improve manufacture and overall business performance were:

  • Reliability
  • Maintainability
  • Safety

As the most important factor had been ignored, a few refinements had to be introduced:

  1. Marketing had to carry out their work properly and define the customer’s specifications.
  2. Specifications had to be defined to conform to these requirements.
  3. Conformance to specifications i.e. drawings, standards and other relevant documents, were introduced during manufacturing, planning and control.
  4. Management had to confirm all operators are equal to the work imposed on them and holidays, celebrations and disputes did not affect any of the quality levels.
  5. Inspections and tests were carried out, and all components and materials, bought in or otherwise, conformed to the specifications, and the measuring equipment was accurate, this is the responsibility of the QA/QC department.
  6. Any complaints received from the customers were satisfactorily dealt with in a timely manner.
  7. Feedback from the user/customer is used to review designs.
  8. Consistent data recording and assessment and documentation integrity.
  9. Product and/or process change management and notification.

If the original specification does not reflect the correct quality requirements, quality cannot be inspected or manufactured into the product. This article is about engineering. ... Drawing is a visual art which makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In mathematics, an operator is a function that performs some sort of operation on a number, variable, or function. ... In general, a things components are its parts; the things that compose it. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Center for Correct, Usable, Reliable, Auditable, and Transparent Elections ACCURATE was established by a group of computer scientists, psychologists and policy experts to address problems with electronic voting. ... In general use, a complaint is an expression of displeasure, such as poor service at a store, or from a local government, for example. ...


For instance, all parameters for a pressure vessel should include not only the material and dimensions but operating, environmental, safety, reliability and maintainability requirements. 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... An environment is a complex of external factors that acts on a system and determines its course and form of existence. ... Warning signs, such as this one, can improve safety awareness. ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... In telecommunication, the term maintainability has the following meanings: A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. ...


To conclude, the above forms the basis from which the philosophy of Quality Assurance has evolved, and the achievement of quality or the “fitness-for-purpose” is “Quality Awareness” throughout the company.


See also

CQE is an abbreviation for Certified Quality Engineer, a certification given by the American Society for Quality. ... American Society for Quality (ASQ), formerly known as American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), is a non-profit professional society comprised of almost 100,000 members who work in various aspects of the quality field (e. ... Computerized System Validation (CSV) is the documented process of assuring that a computerized system does exactly what it is designed to do in a consistent and reproducible manner. ... Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) monitor the appropriateness, effectiveness, and quality of care provided to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Manufacturing and manufacturing systems manufacturing factory Craft system English system of manufacturing American system of manufacturing Mass production Batch production Just in time manufacturing Toyota Production System Lean manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Mass customization Theories of production Taylorism Fordism Theory of constraints Productivity Productivity benchmarking cost accounting experience curve... This list complements the software engineering article, giving more details and examples. ... Manufacturing is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... A playtest is the process by which a game designer tests a new game for bugs and improvements before bringing it to market. ... Quality is conformance to the claims made. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ... In its simplest form, Hoshin Kanri is nothing more than a system of forms and rules that encourage employees to analyze situations, create plans for improvement, conduct performance checks, and take appropriate action. ... When applied to software the adjective quality may apply to source code as seen by software developers, or to applications software as seen by the end-users of the software. ... Software testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security, and quality of developed computer software. ... A test method is a definitive procedure that produces a test result. ... Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. ... The word validation has several uses: In general, validation is the process of checking if something satisfies a certain criterion. ... The Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme (PIC/S) are two international instruments between countries and pharmaceutical inspection authorities. ... // Validation Within the highly regulated environment of Drug manufacture and development there is a requirement within the regulations to prove that each process involved in producing the product can be shown to be both doing the right job, and doing the job right. ... EudraLex is the collection of rules and regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union. ... The discipline of Total Quality Control uses a number of quantitative methods and tools to identify problems and suggest avenues for continuous improvement in fields such as manufacturing. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Quality control - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (993 words)
Quality Assurance has developed a good deal during the last 80-90 years (in about 20 year intervals) from its inception to the current state of the art.
These full time inspectors were the real beginning of inspection quality control; and this was the beginning of large inspection organizations of the 1920s and 1930s, which were separately organized from production and big enough to be headed by superintendents.
In space exploration, victories or failures of quality control produce dramatic results- either the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster or the victory of the Mars Exploration Rovers after a high failure rate of probes to that planet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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