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Encyclopedia > Quality Function Deployment

Quality function deployment (QFD) is a technique for product or service development, brand marketing, and product management. QFD was originally developed by Yoji Akao and Shigeru Mizuno in the early 1960s.[citation needed] This article is about a term used in economics. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...

QFD is designed to help planners focus on characteristics of a new or existing product or service from the viewpoints of market segments, company, or technology-development needs. The technique yields graphs and matrices. A Market segment is a subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics that cause them to have similar product needs. ... In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular table of elements (or entries), which may be numbers or, more generally, any abstract quantities that can be added and multiplied. ...

QFD has been used by several corporations and organizations.


The technique

  1. Identify customer needs and wants as voice of the customer (VOC)
  2. Identify the engineering characteristics of products or services that meets VOC
  3. Setting development targets and test methods for the products or services

QFD helps transform customer needs (the voice of the customer [VOC]) into engineering characteristics (and appropriate test methods) for a product or service, prioritizing each product or service characteristic while simultaneously setting development targets for product or service. Voice of the Customer (VOC) is a term used in business to describe the process of capturing a customers requirements. ... Customers are waiting in front of a famous fashion shop for its grand opening in Hong Kong. ... Needs refer to things that people must have. ... Voice of the Customer (VOC) is a term used in business to describe the process of capturing a customers requirements. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... A test method is a definitive procedure that produces a test result. ...

Areas of application

QFD is applied in a wide variety of services, consumer products, military needs (such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter[1]), and emerging technology products. The technique is also used to identify and document competitive marketing strategies and tactics (see example QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development, at right). QFD is considered a key practice of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).[2] It is also implicated in the new ISO 9000:2000 standard which focuses on customer satisfaction. The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a military fighter aircraft designed by the United States and the United Kingdom. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Google search for House of Quality This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a separate and emerging discipline related to Six Sigma quality processes. ...

Results of QFD have been applied in Japan and elsewhere into deploying the high-impact controllable factors in Strategic planning and Strategic management (also known as Hoshin Kanri, Hoshin Planning,[3] or Policy Deployment). Strategic planning is an organizations process SCREW YOU, RILEY of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. ... Strategic management is the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives[1]. It is the process of specifying the organizations objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources to implement the policies... In its simplest form, Hoshin Kanri is nothing more than a system of forms and rules that encourage employees to analyze situations, create plans for improvement, conduct performance checks, and take appropriate action. ...

Acquiring market needs by listening to the Voice of Customer (VOC), sorting the needs, and numerically prioritizing them (using techniques such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process) are the early tasks in QFD. Traditionally, going to the Gemba (the "real place" where value is created for the customer) is where these customer needs are evidenced and compiled. This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Gemba is Japanese term meaning the place where the truth can be found. ...

While many books and articles on "how to do QFD" are available, there is a relative paucity of example matrices available. QFD matrices become highly proprietary due to the high density of product or service information found therein.

Notable U.S. companies using QFD techniques include the U.S. automobile manufacturers (GM, Ford, Daimler Chrysler) and their suppliers, IBM, Raytheon, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and many others.[citation needed] General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by production volume for the first 9 months of 2007, and by sales volume for 76 consecutive years. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (Xetra: DCX) , (NYSE: DCX), with headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany and Auburn Hills, Michigan, is a prominent automobile and truck manufacturer, formed in 1998 by the buyout of the Chrysler Corporation (USA) by Daimler-Benz (Germany). ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in defense systems and defense and commercial electronics. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ...


While originally developed for manufacturing industries, interest in the use of QFD-based ideas in software development commenced with work by R. J. Thackeray and G. Van Treeck,[4] for example in Object-oriented programming[5] and use case driven software development.[6] Raymond John Thackeray known as Ray Thackeray, was one of the founders of OnVantage Inc. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... A use case is a technique used in software and systems engineering to capture the functional requirements of a system. ...

Since its early use in the United States, QFD met with initial enthusiasm then plummeting popularity when it was discovered that much time could be wasted if poor group decision making techniques were employed.[citation needed] Organizational culture/corporate culture has an effect on the ability to change organizational human processes and on the sustainability of the changes. In particular, in organizations exhibiting strong cultural norms and rich sets of tacit assumptions that prevent objective discussion of historical courses of action, QFD may be resisted due to its ability to expose tacit assumptions and unspoken rules.[citation needed] It has been suggested that a learning organization can more easily overcome these issues due to the more transparent nature of the organizational culture and to the readiness of the membership to discuss relevant cultural norms.[citation needed] Tacit assumptions include the underlying agreements or statements made in the development of a logical argument, course of action, decision, or judgment that are not explicitly voiced nor necessarily understood by the decision maker or judge. ... Unspoken rules are behavioral constraints imposed in organizations that are not voiced or written down. ... // In his book The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Peter Senge defined a learning organization as the capacity of organizations to create results that matter. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a rule that is socially enforced. ...

Techniques and tools based on QFD

House of Quality

QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development Processes
QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development Processes

House of Quality appeared in 1972 in the design of an oil tanker by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.[citation needed] Akao has reiterated numerous times that a House of Quality is not QFD, it is just an example of one tool.[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x1583, 64 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x1583, 64 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

A Flash tutorial exists showing the build process of the traditional QFD "House of Quality" (HOQ).[8] (Although this example may violate QFD principles, the basic sequence of HOQ building are illustrative.) There are also free QFD templates available that walk users through the process of creating a House of Quality.[9][10]

Other tools extend the analysis beyond quality to cost, technology, reliability, function, parts, technology, manufacturing, and service deployments.

In addition, the same technique can extend the method into the constituent product subsystems, configuration items, assemblies, and parts. From these detail level components, fabrication and assembly process QFD charts can be developed to support statistical process control techniques. For the Macintosh operating system, which was called System up to version 7. ... An important aspect of configuration management. ... Statistical process control (SPC) is a method for achieving quality control in manufacturing processes. ...

Pugh concept selection

Pugh Concept Selection can be used in coordination with QFD to select a promising product or service configuration from among listed alternatives. Description: The Pugh Matrix is a tool that is used to help select the best design concept from among alternatives. ...

Relationship to other techniques

This technique somewhat resembles Management by objectives (MBO), but adds a significant element in the goal setting process, called "catchball". Use of these Hoshin techniques by U.S. companies such as Hewlett Packard have been successful in focusing and aligning company resources to follow stated strategic goals throughout an organizational hierarchy. Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees buy in to the objectives and understand what they are. ...

Since the early introduction of QFD, the technique has been developed to shorten the time span and reduce the required group efforts (such as Richard Zultner's Blitz QFD®). Blitz QFD was developed by Richard Zultner for his clients in the software industry in the 1990s. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ http://www.di.ufpe.br/~req_case/Seminarios/Prioridades/qfd.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.c2c-solutions.com/pdfs/eQFDRoadmap.pdf QFD/DFSS Roadmap
  3. ^ http://www.qualitydigest.com/may97/html/hoshin.html
  4. ^ "QFD for Embedded Systems and Software Product Development," in GOAL/QPC 6th Annual Conference Proceedings (Boston: GOAL/QPC, 1989)
  5. ^ *Walter Lamia. 1995. “Integrating QFD with Object-oriented Software Design Methodologies.” Presented at the 7th Symposium on QFD.
  6. ^ Richard Denney. 2005. Succeeding with Use Cases: Working Smart to Deliver Quality, Addison-Wesley Object Technology Series, Addison-Wesley Professional, ISBN 0321316436
  7. ^ http://www.qfdi.org/what_is_qfd/faqs_about_qfd.htm#What%20is%20the%20House%20of%20Quality%20Why%20it%20isnt%20a%20QFD
  8. ^ http://www.gsm.mq.edu.au/cmit/qfd-hoq-tutorial.swf
  9. ^ http://www.qfdonline.com/templates/qfd-and-house-of-quality-templates/
  10. ^ http://www.6-echo.com/downloads_toolsets.html
  • Lou Cohen. 1995. Quality Function Deployment. Prentice Hall PTR, ISBN 0201633302.

  Results from FactBites:
Quality function deployment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1293 words)
Quality function deployment or "QFD" is a flexible and comprehensive group decision making technique used in product or service development, brand marketing, and product management.
QFD can strongly help an organization focus on the critical characteristics of a new or existing product or service from the separate viewpoints of the customer market segments, company, or technology-development needs.
QFD is applied in a wide variety of services, consumer products, military needs (such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter-- see [1]), and emerging technology products.
  More results at FactBites »



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