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Encyclopedia > Qualitative research

Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. Qualitative research involves an indepth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern human behavior. Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research relies on reasons behind various aspects of behavior. Simply put, it investigates the why and how of decision making, as compared to what, where, and when of quantitative research. Hence, the need is for smaller but focused samples rather than large random samples, which qualitative research categorizes data into patterns as the primary basis for organizing and reporting results. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Human behavior is the collection of activities performed by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... A sample is that part of a population which is actually observed. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

History

Qualitative research approaches began to gain recognition in the 1970s. The phrase 'qualitative research' was until then marginalized as a discipline of anthropology or sociology, and terms like ethnography, fieldwork, participant observation and Chicago school (sociology) were used instead. During the 1970s and 1980s qualitative research began to be used in other disciplines, and became a dominant - or at least significant - type of research in the fields of women's studies, disability studies, education studies, social work studies, information studies, management studies, nursing service studies, human service studies, psychology, communication studies, and others. In the late 1980s and 1990s after a spate of criticisms from the quantitative side, new methods of qualitative research have been designed, to address the problems with reliability and imprecise modes of data analysis.[1] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Fieldwork refers to scientific activity conducted in the field, outside the laboratory, of subject matter in an as-found state, by anthropologists, geologists, botanists, archaeologists or others who study the natural or human world. ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ... In sociology and, later, criminology, the Chicago School (sometimes described as the Ecological School) refers to the first major body of works emerging during the 1920s and 1930s specialising in urban sociology, and the research into the urban environment by combining theory and ethnographic fieldwork in Chicago, now applied elsewhere. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Disability studies is an interdisciplinary field of study, which is focused on the contributions, experiences, history, and culture of people with disabilities. ... A German classroom, circa 1930s. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... Data analysis is the act of transforming data with the aim of extracting useful information and facilitating conclusions. ...


One way of differentiating Qualitative research from Quantitative research is that largely Qualitative research is exploratory, while Quantitative research is conclusive. However it may be argued that each reflect a particular discourse; neither being more conclusive or 'true' than the other.


Quantitative data is measurable, while Qualitative data can not be put into a context that can be graphed or displayed as a mathematical term.


See also

Analytic induction refers to a systematic examination of similarities between various social phenomena in order to develop concepts or ideas. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ... Critical ethnography builds upon conventional ethnography. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Cudos is an acronym used to denote principles that should guide good scientific research. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Grounded theory (GT) is a general research method (most often associated with qualitative research) for social sciences developed by the sociologists Barney Glaser (b. ... Morphological analysis (or General Morphological Analysis) is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified problem complex. ... An online panel is a group of individuals (either professionals or general public) made up of members of a specific category of the population (eg : lawyers, physicians, car dealers, elderly, ...) who participate in market research studies online. ... // Description PAR has emerged in recent years as a significant methodology for intervention, development and change within communities and groups. ... Phenomenography is a qualitative research methodology, within the interpretivist paradigm, that investigates the qualitatively different ways in which people experience something or think about something (Ference Marton, 1986). ... Qualitative economics refers to representation and analysis of information about the direction of change (+ or -) in some economic variable(s) as related to change of some other economic variable(s) (James Quirk, 1987, p. ... Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. ... Qualitative research is a set of research techniques, used in marketing and the social sciences, in which data are obtained from a relatively small group of respondents and not analyzed with statistical techniques. ... In the broadest sense qualitative research is research which uses only dichotomous data — that is, data which can take only the values 0 (zero) and 1 (one). ... Morphological analysis (or General Morphological Analysis) is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified problem complex. ... A monotonically increasing function (it is strictly increasing on the left and just non-decreasing on the right). ... A common misunderstanding about case study research is that one cannot generalize from a case study. ... Theoretical sampling is a term coined by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss in 1967 in the context of social research to describe the process of choosing new research sites or research cases to compare with one that has already been studied. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Taylor, 1998

References

  • Adler, P. A. & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles in field research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Becker, Howard S., The epistemology of qualitative research. University of Chicago Press, 1996. 53-71. [from Ethnography and human development : context and meaning in social inquiry / edited by Richard Jessor, Anne Colby, and Richard A. Shweder]
  • Boas, Franz (1943). Recent anthropology. Science, 98, 311-314, 334-337.
  • Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Handbook of qualitative research ( 2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • DeWalt, K. M. & DeWalt, B. R. (2002). Participant observation. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
  • Fischer, C.T. (Ed.) (2005). Qualitative research methods for psychologists: Introduction through empirical studies. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-088470-4.
  • Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). "Five Misunderstandings About Case Study Research." Qualitative Inquiry, vol. 12, no. 2, April 2006, pp. 219-245.
  • Giddens, A. (1990). The consequences of modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Kaminski, Marek M. 2004. Games Prisoners Play. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11721-7.
  • Malinowski, B. (1922/1961). Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: E. P. Dutton.
  • Pamela Maykut, Richard Morehouse. 1994 Beginning Qualitative Research. Falmer Press.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Charles C. Ragin, Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method, Pine Forge Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8039-9021-9
  • Steven J. Taylor, Robert Bogdan, Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods, Wiley, 1998, ISBN 0-471-16868-8
  • Wolcott, H. F. (1995). The art of fieldwork. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
  • Wolcott, H. F. (1999). Ethnography: A way of seeing. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
  • Ziman, John (2000). Real Science: what it is, and what it means. Cambridge, Uk: Cambridge University Press.

Howard Saul Becker was born in Chicago, Illinois on April 18, 1928. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Centre for Health Evidence (6743 words)
To avoid confusion, qualitative researchers typically avoid the term "valid" in favour of alternatives such as "credible." [9] [21] Even so, qualitative insights must emerge from systematic observations and competent interpretation, correspond well to the social "reality" experienced by the participants, and also have meaning for those who will read and learn from the report.
Nevertheless, in principle, qualitative researchers should organize and interpret their data in such a way that another investigator could follow what was done, and could see a clear correspondence between the empirical data and the interpreted findings.
Qualitative analysis is foremost a process of summarizing and interpreting, "based on the value of trying to represent faithfully and accurately the social worlds or phenomena studied." [39] A good qualitative report will be received as robust and truthful across multiple perspectives (i.e., those of study participants, authors, readers, colleagues).
qualitative psychological research: Information from Answers.com (1581 words)
Qualitative research is sometimes said to have as its goal the understanding of the sample studied, rather than generalizing from the sample to the population.
That is, qualitative researchers believe in studying phenomena in their entirety rather than concentrating on narrow aspects of the phenomena defined as independent or dependent variables.
Qualitative analysis, however, is at the very least still descriptive research, and relevant quantitative psychometric concerns such as its reliability and validity are critical to its utility.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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