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Encyclopedia > Qu'ran
This article forms part of the series
Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam
It is sometimes difficult to separate concepts in Islam from concepts specific to Arab culture, from the language itself. The Quran is expressed in Arabic and traditionally Muslims deemed it untranslatable, though this view has changed somewhat in recent decades. Concepts that derive from both Islam and Arab tradition... Vocabulary of Islam
The religion of Islam consists of faith (إيمان, īmān) and practice (دين, dīn). The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to the five most fundamental aspects of Islam. For the Sunni sect, the Five Pillars (Arkan-al... Five Pillars
There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. The shahādah, or the Islamic creed, is the declaration of belief in the unity of God... Profession of faith
Salah (other terms and spellings exist) (Arabic: صلاه , Old (Quran) Arabic: صلوة ) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). Being a Pillar of Islam, it is compulsory (fard... Prayer · Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam. Its literal meaning is to grow (in goodness) or increase, purifying or making pure. It is prescribed in the Quran. And... Alms · Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان ) is the ninth month of the Islamic year. Siyam or Saum (fasting in English) is the fourth of the Five Pillars of Islam and involves fasting during Ramadan. Timing The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the... Fasting
The Hajj or Haj is the Pilgrimage to Mecca (or, Makkah) and is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. The government of Saudi Arabia... Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad (ǧihād جهاد) is an Arabic word which comes from the Arabic root word jahada; which means exerting utmost effort or to strive. The word connotes a wide range of meanings, from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to holy war. During... Jihad (See The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Muslim faith. Most Muslims believe there are precisely Five Pillars of Islam, and consider the concept of a sixth pillar to be heretical... Sixth pillar of Islam)
Major Figures
Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad
The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. Such individuals are believed by Muslims to have been assigned a special mission by God (called Allah in Arabic). In the Quran, prophets such as Moses, Jesus and Muhammad are appointed to spread the word of God... Prophets of Islam
An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... Caliph · Sects Within Shiism there are various sects that differ over the number of Imams, or path of succession. The issue of who is the rightful Imam has led to the growth of numerous sects within Shiism including: Ismailis (Seveners), Zaidis (Fivers), Alawites, Druze, and others. Ithna Ashariya According to the... Shia Imam · The Mahdi (or Mehdi), in Islamic eschatology, is a man who will come at the end of the times. The exact nature of the Mahdi differs between Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims. The Mahdi in Sunni traditions The exact nature of the Mahdi is not completely clear, but according to... The Mahdi
In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (Asahaaba,الصحابه) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. A Sahabi (singular of Sahaba) knew or saw the Prophet, believed in his teachings, and died a Muslim. At the time of the death of Muhammad, peace be upon... Companions of Muhammad
Holy Cities Events
Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. The term Mecca has into common usage metaphorically... Mecca · This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. For other uses, see Medina (disambiguation). Medina (Arabic: مدينة رسول الله or المدينه, Madinat Rasul Allah, or al-Madina; alternatively transliterated into English as Madinah... Medina
Jerusalem ( Modern Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim, Biblical and trad. Sephardi Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ, Arabic: القدس al-Quds, see also names of Jerusalem) is... Jerusalem
Najaf (نجف in the Arabic language) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31.99°N 44.33°E. Its estimated population in 2003 was 585,600 people. It is the capital of Najaf province. It is one of the holiest cities... Najaf · Karbalā (كربلاء; also transliterated as Kerbala or Kerbela) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32.61°N, 44.08°E. The estimated population in 2003 was 572,300 people. It is the capital of Al Karbala Province... Karbala
Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Along with Karbala, and... Kufa · View of the Imami Shrine Kazimain or Al-Kazimiyah is a town located in Iraq that is now a neighborhood of Baghdad, located in the northern area of the city about 5 km from the center of the city. The coordinates of Kazimain are 33.38 N, 44.34 E... Kazimain
Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. Mashhad (مشهد in Persian) is a city located 850 kilometers East of Tehran, Iran, and the center of the province of Khorasan. With a population of more than 2.5 million, Mashhad is... Mashhad · The two Shiite mosques in Samarra A soldier descends a Minaret in Samarra, Iraq. Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the province of Salah ad Din, 125 km north of Baghdad... Samarra
For other uses see Hijra. The Hijra (هِجْرَة), or withdrawal, is the emigration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word in the Latin alphabet are Hijrah, or Hegira in Latin. Muhammad, preaching the... Hijra
The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. It is a purely lunar calendar having 12 lunar months in a year of about 354... Islamic calendar
The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan. It is one of the two Eid festivals in the Islamic year (the other being Eid ul-Adha). Its also referred to as the Little or Small Bayram... Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. Eid ul-Adha is celebrated as a commemoration of Prophet Ibrahims (Abraham) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismail for Allah. On this day Muslims sacrifice... Eid ul-Adha
The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. It commemorates the death of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of Muhammad and the third Imam of the Shias, at the Battle of Karbala in the year 61... Aashurah
Arbaeen (اربعين, Arabic forty) is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after Aashura, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. Husayn and 72 supporters died in the Battle of Karbala in... Arba'een
Buildings Religious Roles
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. Masjid ( Arabic: مسجد - pronounced: mŭsjĭd) is the Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Malay, Hindi, Gujarati, and Marathi term for a mosque. This term is used widely throughout the Islamic world, and... Mosque · Mosque in Aswan, Egypt, with minarets. A minaret in Samarkand, Uzbekistan History and Evolution Minarets ( Arabic and Urdu: minra pl. minar) are distinctive architectural features of Islamic mosques. Minarets are generally tall, graceful spires, with onion-shaped crowns, usually either free standing or much taller than any surrounding support structure... Minaret
Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. محاريب) is a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla, i.e. the direction of Kaaba that... Mihrab · The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. It is a small masonry building in the shape of a cube. The structure is 50 ft. high (15.24 m), the shorter walls are about 35 ft... Kaaba
Islamic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved from Islam as a social, cultural, political and religious phenomenon. Hence the term encompasses religious buildings as well as secular ones, historic as well as modern expressions and the production of all places that have come under the varying... Islamic architecture
The müezzin (the word is pronounced this way Turkish, Urdu, etc.; in Arabic: muaddin or muadhdhin, plural: muadhdhin, dual: muadhdhinayn) is a servant at the mosque who leads the call ( adhan) to Friday service and the five daily prayers, or Salah, from one of... Muezzin · A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (fatwas). See also Grand Mufti Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Mufti also refers to ordinary clothes, especially when worn by one who normally wears, or has... Mufti
Categories: Islam-related stubs | Islamic law | Religious leaders ... Mullah · Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. The term, however, has important connotations in the Islamic tradition. Prayer leader The common everyday use of the word is for a person leading Muslim congregational prayers. In this meaning Imam... Imam
Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. The word means sign of God, and those who carry the title are experts in Islamic sciences such as jurisprudence, ethics, philosophy and... Ayatollah · A marja is the second highest authority on religion and law in Shia Islam after the (Shia) Imam. Where a difference in opinion exist between the marjas, Aalims (Religious Scholars) try to provide different opinions. Four senior Grand Ayatollahs constitute the Religious Institution Hawza Ilmiyyah in Najaf, the... Marja
Texts & Law
Qur'an · The Hadith (الحديث, pl. Ahadith) is a body of laws, legends and stories about Muhammads way of life, (Arabic, Sunnah which includes his biography or the sira) and the sayings themselves where he elaborated on his choices or offered advice; many parts of the... Hadith · The Arabic word Sunnah (سنة) means “way” or “custom”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”, or what is commonly known as Prophet’s traditions. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ means the deeds, sayings... Sunnah
Islamic jurisprudence, Fiqh (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings of Islamic scholars to direct the lives of the Muslim faithful. There are four Sunni schools or maddhab of fiqh. The four schools of Sunni Islam are each named after a classical jurist . The... Fiqh · A fatwa (Arabic: فتوى) plural fataawa, is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. Usually a fatwa is issued at the request of an individual or a judge to settle a question where fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence, is unclear. A... Fatwa · Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. Like most religious cultures, Islam classically drew no distinction between religious and secular life. Hence Sharia covers not only religious rituals, but many aspects of day-to-day life. However, this traditional view... Sharia
Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. Each of the Ashaab had a unique school of jurisprudence, but these schools were gradually consolidated or discarded so that there are currently four recognized... Sharia Schools The term Kalam can refer to: A President of India, Abdul Kalam Islamic theology This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it... Kalam Schools
Hanafi is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It is considered to be the school most open to modern ideas. Hanafi is predominant among Sunni Muslims in Egypt, Turkey, the Levant, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Indian subcontinent and parts of West Africa, although... Hanafi
Hanbali is one of the four schools (Maddhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. It is considered to be the most conservative of the four schools. The school was started by the students of Imam Hanbal or Ahmad bin Hanbal (d. 855). Hanbali is predominant among Muslims in... Hanbali
Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. The Twelvers are the largest Shia school of thought, predominant in Iran. Among the more notable persons belonging to this denomination in modern history is Ayatollah Khomeini. Alternate names The Twelvers are also... Jafari
It differs from the 3 other schools of law mainly on the sources it uses for derivation of rulings. While all 4 schools use primarily the Quran as a source, followed by the sunnah of the prophet Muhammad transmitted as hadith (sayings), ijma (consensus of the scholars or Muslims) and... Maliki
Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. Shafii is practiced throughout the Ummah, but is most prevalent in Egypt, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines, and is the school of thought officially followed by the government of Brunei Darussalam and... Shafi'i
The Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy were instrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development drastically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. It was founded by the theologian Abu lHasan al-Ashari (d. 945) who gave it its name. In contrast to... Asharite
Jabriyya
In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. This theology is popular where the Hanafi school of law is followed, viz. in Turkey, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. See also Ashari External links Article from... Maturidi
During the early centuries of Islam, Muslim thought encountered a multitude of infuences from various ethnic and philosophical groups that it absorbed. The Murjites emerged as a theological school that was opposed to the Kharijites on questions related to early controversies regarding sin and definitions of what is a true... Murjite
Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. It is also spelled Mutazilite, or Mutazilah. Etymology The name Mutazili originates from the Arabic root اعتزل meaning to leave, to abandon, to... Mu'tazili
Qadariyya
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. Sunni Muslims make up the rest. Shia is short for Shiat... Shi'a sects Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. They were distinct from the Sunni and Shiites. The origins of Kharijites lie in the strife over political supremacy over the Muslim community in the years following the death... Kharijite sects
Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. The Twelvers are the largest Shia school of thought, predominant in Iran. Alternate names The Twelvers are also known by other names, each connoting some aspect of the faith. Shia, when this term... Ithna Asharia
The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. The Ismailis are found primarily in Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and East Africa... Ismailiyah
Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. Zaidi separated from the main Shia branch (the Twelvers) over a disagreement as to who the fifth Imam was. Twelvers believe it was Muhammad al-Baqir, while Zaidis hold that it was his half... Zaiddiyah
Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. Bashar al_Asad, the president of Syria as of 2004, is an Alawite. Alawites call themselves Alawi. The term Alawi was recognized by the French when they occupied the region in 1920. Historically they had been called Nusairis, Namiriya, or Ansariyya. Nusayri had become a... Alawi* · Alevis are a branch of Islam, related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in (majority Sunni) Turkey, among both Turks and Kurds. Alevis in Turkey Alevis Adherents of Alevism (in Turkish Alevîlik) are called Alevis. The correct number of Alevis isnt known, it varies from 15% to... Alevi*
Sufri
Azraqi
Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. It is the dominant form of Islam in only one Muslim country, Oman. One of the earliest schools, it was founded less than 50 years after the death of the prophet Muhammad. Jabir bin Zaid... Ibadi
This article is about religious concept of Messiah. For the musical work by Handel, see Messiah (Handel). For the BBC television drama series, see Messiah (television). In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Mā... Messianic Sects Movements
Ahmadi Muslims, or Ahmadiyya, are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. They comprise two subsects, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement (Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islaman). There are at least ten million Ahmadi throughout the world, with some counts being more than ten times that high [1]. At... Ahmadiyyah
Zikri is a small Islamic sect that is concentrated in Balochistan. The sect is generally seen as heretical by mainstream Muslims. There are about seven-hundred fifty thousand followers of the religion. The sect is based around the teachings of Nur Pak, a figure who lived in the 15th century... Zikri
Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. In modern language it might also be referred to as Islamic spirituality or Islamic mysticism. Some non-Islamic Sufi organizations also exist, especially in the West [1] Many Sufi practitioners are... Sufism
Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). It is a fundamentalist Sunni form of Islam and has become an object of increased interest because it is the major sect of the government and society of oil... Wahhabism
A Salafi (Arabic سلفي lit. early muslim), from the Arabic world Salaf سلف (meaning predecessors or early generations), is a practictioner of Salafiyyah (Salafism). Modern usage from the Islamic phrase minhaj as-Salaf منهاج السلف, or method... Salafism
In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المت... Liberals
Other Sects Related Faiths
The Nation of Islam (NOI), also known as the Black Muslim Movement (although the term is discouraged by the NOI), is a spiritual and political black separatist movement founded in America in 1930 by Wallace Fard Muhammad (1877- ?). The Nation of Islam has a somewhat tenuous connection to mainstream... Nation of Islam
The Nation of Gods and Earths, commonly known as the Five Percent Nation or the Five Percenters are an African-American social/ religious movement founded in Harlem in the late 1960s by Clarence 13X. Spawned from a combination of teachings of by Malcolm X and The Nation of Islam, the... Five Percenters
This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Druze1 (Arabic: durzi درزي, pl. durūz دروز) are a small and distinct religious community residing mainly in Lebanon, Israel, Syria, and Jordan (small communities... Druze*
The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. The Bábís (in Persian بابی ها Bâbihâ) are members of a religious movement that flourished in Persia between 1844 and 1852. Its founder was Ali... Babism
Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. The Baháí Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Baháulláh, founder and prophet of... Bahá'í Faith
The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. They are primarily ethnic Kurds, and most Yazidis live near Mosul, Iraq with smaller communities in Syria, Turkey, Iran, Georgia and Armenia, and are estimated to number ca. 500,000 individuals in total... Yazidi
The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. A Sikh is a person who believes in One God and the teachings of the Ten Gurus, enshrined in Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book... Sikhism
* = self-identification unclear

The Qur'an ( Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. It is spoken throughout the Arab world and is widely known throughout the Islamic world. Arabic has been a literary language for over 1500 years, and is the liturgical language of Islam. The expression Arabic may refer either to... Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is "the recitation" and is often called "Al Qur'an Al Karim": "The Noble Qur'an", also Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. It tries to be lossless, i.e., the informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words. To achieve this, it may define complex conventions about how to transliterate letters that... transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. Often believing that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are wholly divine or partially inspired in origin, the faithful use titles like Word of God to denote the holy writings... holy book of Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam.


A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslims believe that the Qur'an is the literal word of God and culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad over a period of 23 years by the Angel Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. Painting by El Greco (1575) Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʾēl, Arabic جبريل) appears first in the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew... Jibreel ( Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. Painting by El Greco (1575) Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʾēl, Arabic جبريل) appears first in the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew... Gabriel). The Qur'an consists of 114 (one hundred [and] fourteen) is the natural number following 113 and preceding 115. Cardinal one hundred [and] fourteen Ordinal 114th Factorization Divisors 2, 3, 6, 19, 38, 57 Roman numeral CXIV Binary 1110010 Hexadecimal 72 One hundred fourteen is an abundant number, a sphenic number and a Harshad number... 114 See also: Sura (disambiguation). Sura is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. These are traditionally ordered in roughly reverse chronological order, with Madinan suras coming first and Makkan ones last for the most part. Each sura is divided into ayat, or verses. The 114 suras are: Al... suras (chapters) with a total of 6,236 Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. It usually refers to the 6228 verses found in the Islamic Quran. Muslims regard each verse of the Quran as a sign from God. Categories: Stub | Quran ... ayat (verses; the exact number of ayat is disputed, not due to content dispute but due to different methods of counting; the sect founded by Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935 - January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian Muslim who moved to the United States as a student of biochemistry in 1959 and later became a citizen. He established an Islamic group called United Submitters International whose beliefs include the rejection of Hadith/Sunnah as a source... Rashad Khalifa claims the exact number is 6,346). The Qur'an retells stories of many of the people and events recounted in For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. The Star of David, a common symbol of Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion and culture of the Jewish people and one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths. It is also one of... Jewish and For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christian sacred books ( Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially Law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses. The five books are Genesis (Bereishit בראש... Torah, The Bible (From Greek βιβλιος biblios, meaning book, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is a word applied to sacred scriptures. Although most often... Bible) and devotional literature ( In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. When most in the Western world refer to the Apocrypha, they are typically referring to the 14 books excluded from Protestant Bibles (see below). Definition The word apocrypha, from the Greek α... Apocrypha, Midrash (pl. Midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of reading details into, or out of, a Biblical text. The term midrash also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical or homiletical commentaries on the Tanakh . Midrash can be used as... Midrash), although it differs in many details. Well-known Biblical characters such as This article is about the biblical Adam and Eve. For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation) and Eve (disambiguation) According to the Book of Genesis of the Bible and to the Quran, Adam was the first man created by God. Adams mate, Eve or Hava was either created from his... Adam, Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew נֹחַ Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ) is a character from the Book of Genesis who builds an ark to save his family and the world... Noah, Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. His story... Abraham, (See also Exodus) Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה Drawn, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. Legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. If... Moses, This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus, and John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. According to the Gospel of Luke, he was a relative of Jesus. That he was a prophet is asserted by the Gospels of the... John the Baptist are mentioned in the Qur'an as The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. Such individuals are believed by Muslims to have been assigned a special mission by God (called Allah in Arabic). In the Quran, prophets such as Moses, Jesus and Muhammad are appointed to spread the word of God... Prophets of Islam. (Note: For a complete list, see The Quran (Koran) contains many references to people and events that are mentioned in the Bible; especially the stories of the prophets of Islam, among whom are included Moses, David and Jesus. Muslims believe that Moses was given the Tawrat (Hebrew torah, or the Law); that David was given... Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an).

Contents

Origin and development of the Qur'an

Muslims believe that the wording of the Qur'anic text that we have today is identical to that revealed to Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad himself; words of God delivered to Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad through Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. Painting by El Greco (1575) Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʾēl, Arabic جبريل) appears first in the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew... Jibreel ( Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. Painting by El Greco (1575) Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʾēl, Arabic جبريل) appears first in the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew... Gabriel).


Muhammad, according to tradition, could neither read nor write, but would simply recite what was revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. This tradition of memorization is still very strong among Muslims. The Qur'an has remained in the hearts of millions of Muslims throughout the world in the centuries since Muhammad's mission. Muslims regard this as evidence of the fulfillment of God's promise to preserve the Qur'an:


"We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)." (15:9)


The very word Qur'an is usually translated as "recital," indicating that it cannot exist as a mere text. To be able to perform Salah (other terms and spellings exist) (Arabic: صلاه , Old (Quran) Arabic: صلوة ) is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It refers to the five daily ritual prayers that Muslims offer to Allah (God). Being a Pillar of Islam, it is compulsory (fard... salat (prayer), a religious obligation in Islam, a Muslim is required to learn at least some See also: Sura (disambiguation). Sura is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. These are traditionally ordered in roughly reverse chronological order, with Madinan suras coming first and Makkan ones last for the most part. Each sura is divided into ayat, or verses. The 114 suras are: Al... suras of the Qur'an (typically starting with the first sura, Surat Al-Fatiha (The Opening or The Exordium) is the opening chapter of the Quran; it consists of a short 7-verse prayer which Muslims repeat at the beginning of every rakah of salat. It reads as follows: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise... al-Fatiha, known as the "seven oft-repeated verses," and then moving on to the shorter ones at the end). The more of the Qur'an learned, the better. A person whose recital repertoire encompasses the whole Qur'an is called a Qari' (قَارٍئ) or Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic:حافظ) is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorised the Quran. Those who are entitled to use the word are tested for the accuracy of their recall by being asked to continue the reading of a passage taken... Hafiz (which translate as "reciter" or "memorizer," respectively). Muhammad is regarded as the first Hafiz.


Muhammad's companions began recording all the suras in writing before Muhammad died in Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. Southern Ireland celebrates Easter on the Roman date. Births Deaths June 8 - Muhammad, prophet of Islam October 12 - Edwin of Deira, king of Deira and Bretwalda Categories... 632; written copies of various suras during his lifetime are frequently alluded to in the traditions. For instance, in the story of the conversion of Umar ibn al-Khattab, al-Farooq (in Arabic, عمر بن الخطاب) (c. 581 - November, 644), sometimes referred to as Umar Farooq or just as Omar or Umar, was the second caliph of Islam and one of the first four caliphs, also referred... Umar ibn al-Khattab (when Muhammad was still at Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. The term Mecca has into common usage metaphorically... Mecca), his sister is said to have been reading a text of surat Sura Ta-Ha is the 20th sura of the Quran. It has 135 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... Ta-Ha, and at This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. For other uses, see Medina (disambiguation). Medina (Arabic: مدينة رسول الله or المدينه, Madinat Rasul Allah, or al-Madina; alternatively transliterated into English as Madinah... Medina, about 65 In the Islamic religion, the Sahaba (Asahaaba,الصحابه) are the companions of the Prophet Muhammad. A Sahabi (singular of Sahaba) knew or saw the Prophet, believed in his teachings, and died a Muslim. At the time of the death of Muhammad, peace be upon... Companions are said to have acted as scribes for him at one time or another, and he would regularly call upon them to write down revelations immediately after they came.


According to Islamic tradition, the first complete compilation of the Qur'an in one volume was made in the first An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... Caliph Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. 573 – August 23, 634) ruled as the first of the Muslim caliphs (632 – 634). Originally called Abd-el-Kaba (servant of the... Abu Bakr's time by Zayd ibn Thabit, who "gathered the Qur'an from various parchments and pieces of bone, and from the chests (ie memories) of men." This copy was kept in Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. She became a widow when she was eighteen. According to Islamic tradition, after Abu Bakr and Uthman ibn Affan refused to marry her, Umar went to Muhammad to complain about their behavior, and Muhammad replied... Hafsa bint Umar's house. However, during the caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. 574 - 656) was the third Caliph of the Ummah, and is regarded as one of The Four Righteous Caliphs. He reigned from 644 until 656. Uthman was born into the wealthy Umayyad clan of... Uthman ibn Affan, a dispute developed about the use of various dialects (ahruf) that the Qur'an was being recited in. Some were also alarmed by reported divergences in the recitation of the revelation, especially among new Muslims. In response, Uthman decided to codify and standardize the text. According to some Islamic traditions, Uthman commissioned a committee, that included Zayd and several prominent members of Quraysh, to produce a standard copy of the text, based on the compilation in the keeping of Hafsa.

Download high resolution version (576x672, 265 KB)12th century Quran page, from http://faculty.washington.edu/wheelerb/quran/quran_index.html The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of...
Download high resolution version (576x672, 265 KB)12th century Quran page, from http://faculty.washington.edu/wheelerb/quran/quran_index.html The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of... Enlarge
(11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events Song dynasty loses power... 12th century For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km² 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain... Andalusian Qur'an

When finished, Uthman sent out copies of it to the various corners of the Islamic empire, and ordered the destruction of all copies that differed from it. Several manuscripts, including the Samarkand manuscript, are claimed to be one of the original copies Uthman sent out[1]  (http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/Text/Mss/); however, many scholars dispute that Samarkand is Uthmanic copy. Among the recently discovered Sanaá (Arabic صنعاء, romanized as Ṣanʻāʼ, and also known as Sana or Sanaa), population 1,303,000 (2000), is the capital of Yemen. It is the center of a grape growing region. Sanaá has been settled from pre-Islamic times; it... Sanaa Qur'an manuscripts, at least three are dated to before 50 AH. Inscriptional evidence begins somewhat later; the earliest dated inscriptions containing portions of the Qur'an other than the The Basmala is the first verse in the Quran. It is usually numbered as the first verse of sura 1, but, according to the view adopted by Al-Tabari, it precedes the first verse. It precedes each sura of the Quran, except for the 9th sura, but is... basmala (bismillah ir-rahman ir-rahim) are dated to around 70 AH [2] (http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Dome_Of_The_Rock/Estwitness.html)[3]  (http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Inscriptions/).


Beside the known earlier versions from Abdallah Ibn Masud and Ubay Ibn Ka'b, there exist also some reports about a Shiite version which was allegedly compiled by Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. 600 – 661) was the fourth Caliph or successor of Muhammad. He was born at Mecca where his father, Abu Talib, was an uncle of the Prophet. Ali himself was adopted by Muhammad... Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, which he gave up in favor of Uthman's collection. Muslim scholars assume that the differences between the versions consisted mostly of orthographical and lexical variants and differing count of verses. All three of the mentioned people (Ibn Masud, Ubay Ibn Ka'b & Ali) were in positions of authority that would allow them to oppose any variations that existed between their collection and that of Uthman's. But to the contrary they all supported the Uthmanic compilation and continued to serve under the Caliph's rule.


Since Uthman's version contained no diacritical marks, and could thus be read in various ways by those who had not memorised it, around the year 700 the development of a vocalized version started.The oldest existing copy of the full text is from the ninth century [4] (http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/features/quran/index.shtml). Today the Qur'an is published in fully vocalized versions.


Today ten canonical recitations of the Qur'an and four uncanonical exist. For a recitation to be canonical it must conform to three conditions:

  1. It must match the Uthmanic compilation, letter for letter.
  2. It must conform with the syntactic rules of the Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. See also Arabic authors Arabic numerals Arabic names... Arabic language.
  3. It must have a continuous The isnad (Arabic) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. After Muhammads death in 631, Islam began to divide into factions based on different interpretations of his views. It became important to trace narrators to... isnad to Prophet Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad through tawatur, meaning that it has to be related by a large group of people to another down the isnad chain.

Ibn Mujahid documented seven such recitations and Ibn Al-Jazri added three. They are:

  1. Nafi` of This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. For other uses, see Medina (disambiguation). Medina (Arabic: مدينة رسول الله or المدينه, Madinat Rasul Allah, or al-Madina; alternatively transliterated into English as Madinah... Madina (169/ Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. Harun al-Rashid becomes caliph. The Frankish empire conquers Girona from the Moors. Cologne becomes an archbishopry. Talorgen succeeds Talorcan II as king of the Picts. Births Deaths Cynewulf, king of Essex Categories: 785 ... 785), transmitted by Warsh and Qaloon
  2. Ibn Kathir of Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. The term Mecca has into common usage metaphorically... Makka (120/ Events Favila becomes king of Asturias after Pelayos death Births Emperor Kammu of Japan (d. 806) Deaths Pelayo, King of Asturias (b. 690) Categories: 737 ... 737), transmitted by Al-Bazzi and Qonbul
  3. Ibn `Amer of This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. There is also a Damascus, Maryland, a Damascus, Oregon, a Damascus, Pennsylvania, and a Damascus, Virginia. Damascus (Arabic: دمشق Dimašq, Dimašq al-Šam, al-Šam; Tiberian Hebrew דַּמֶּ... Damascus (118/ Events The Kegon school of Buddhism arrives in Japan via Korea, when Rōben invites the Korean monk Simsang to lecture, and formally founds Japans Kegon tradition in the Tōdaiji temple. Births Deaths Categories: 736 ... 736), transmitted by Hisham and Ibn Zakwan
  4. Abu `Amr of Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. It is... Basra (148/ Events Emperor Konin ascends to the throne of Japan, succeeding Empress Shotoku. Hedeby is founded. Telerig becomes king of Bulgaria, ending a period of anarchy. Births Einhard, biographer of Charlemagne (approximate date) Egbert of Wessex Deaths Empress Koken of Japan = Empress Shotoku Du Fu, Chinese poet Categories: 770 ... 770), transmitted by Al-Duri and Al-Soosi
  5. `Asim of Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Along with Karbala, and... Kufa (127/ Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. 3 March - Abel becomes archbishop of Reims. October - Ratchis succeeds Hildeprand as king of the Lombards. Umayyad caliph al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik, Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik, and Marwan... 744), transmitted by Sho`bah and Hafs
  6. Hamza of Kufa (156/ Events Pope Adrian I succeeds Pope Stephen IV. Adrian I turns to Charlemagne for support against king Desiderius of the Lombards. Charlemagne starts fighting the Saxons. Offa of Mercia conquers Sussex (approximate date). Births Poet Bai Ju Yi Deaths January 24: Pope Stephen IV Categories: 772 ... 772), transmitted by Khalaf and Khallad
  7. Al-Kisa'i of Kufa (189/ Events March 25 - The Inscription of Sukabumi from Eastern Java marks the beginning of the Javanese language. March 30 - Liudger becomes 1st Bishop of Munster. Charlemagne finishes the conquest of Saxony. Births Fujiwara no Yoshifusa, Japanese Regent. Louis the German, Carolingian King of East Francia. Deaths May 19 - Alcuin of... 804), transmitted by Abul-Harith and Al-Duri
  8. Abu-Ja`far of Madina, transmitted by Ibn Wardan and Ibn Jammaz
  9. Ya`qoob of The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. National motto: none Official language Arabic Capital Sanaa President Ali Abdullah Saleh... Yemen, transmitted by Ruways and Rawh
  10. Khalaf of Kufa, transmitted by Ishaaq and Idris

These recitations differ in the vocalization (tashkil تشكيل) of a few words, which in turn gives a complementary meaning to the word in question according to the rules of Arabic is a Semitic language. See Arabic language for more information on the language in general. This article describes the grammar of Classical Arabic. Contents // In Arabic, a word is classified as either a noun (ism), a verb (fiʿl), a pronoun or a preposition (ḥarf). Adverbials are... Arabic grammar. For example, the vocalization of a verb can change its active and passive voice. It can also change its Arabic is a Semitic language. See Arabic language for more information on the language in general. This article describes the grammar of Classical Arabic. Contents // In Arabic, a word is classified as either a noun (ism), a verb (fiʿl), a pronoun or a preposition (ḥarf). Adverbials are... stem formation, implying intensity for example. Vowels may be elongated or shortened, and glottal stops (hamzas) may be added or dropped, according to the respective rules of the particular recitation. For example, the name of archangel Gabriel delivering the Annunciation. Painting by El Greco (1575) Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʾēl, Arabic جبريل) appears first in the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew... Gabriel is pronounced differently in different recitations: Jibrīl, Jabrīl, Jibra'īl, and Jibra'il. The name "Qur'ān" is pronounced without the glottal stop (as "Qurān") in one recitation, and prophet Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. His story... Ibrāhīm's name is pronounced Ibrāhām in another.


The more widely used narrations are those of Hafs (حفص عن عاصم), Warsh (ورش عن نافع), Qaloon (قالون عن نافع) and Al-Duri (الدوري عن أبي عمرو). Muslims firmly believe that all canonical recitations were recited by the Prophet himself, citing the respective The isnad (Arabic) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. After Muhammads death in 631, Islam began to divide into factions based on different interpretations of his views. It became important to trace narrators to... isnad chain of narration, and accept them as valid for worshipping and as a reference for rules of Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. Like most religious cultures, Islam classically drew no distinction between religious and secular life. Hence Sharia covers not only religious rituals, but many aspects of day-to-day life. However, this traditional view... Sharia. The uncanonical recitations are called "explanatory" for their role in giving a different perspective for a given Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. It usually refers to the 6228 verses found in the Islamic Quran. Muslims regard each verse of the Quran as a sign from God. Categories: Stub | Quran ... ayah. Today several dozen persons hold the title "Memorizer of the Ten Recitations," considered to be the ultimate honour in the sciences of Qur'an.


Textual Criticism and the Qur'an

Higher biblical criticism revolutionized Judaism and Christianity by calling into question long-held assumptions about the origins of the Bible; some ambitious textual critics are doing the same for the Qur'an. They say that parts of the Qur'an are based on stories of the 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [תורה] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [חומש] (The... Tanakh ( 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. Its use is favored by most academic Biblical scholars as a bias-free term that is preferred to both Tanakh and Old Testament when discussing the text in... Hebrew Bible), the The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. The term is a translation of the Latin Novum Testamentum, which translates the Greek Η Καινη Δια... New Testament of the For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christian Bible, and other non-canonical Christian works; differences of the biblical to the Qur'anic versions suggest to some scholars that these stories were not taken directly from written texts but seem rather to have been part of the oral traditions of the Arab peninsula at Muhammad's time. To Muslims, however, this explanation is topsy-turvy: the "non-canonical" Jewish and Christian stories are simply further textual corruptions of an otherwise nearly lost divine original reflected in the Qur'an.


These critics also seek to find evidence of text evolution and transcription disputes in early Islam; the results have been meager, but some have expressed hopes that recent discoveries of "Qur'an Graveyards" in Yemen will throw more light on the subject.


Interpretation of the Qur'an

According to the earliest accounts, all of which were written by believers, the Qur'an was revealed piecemeal over a long period; thus each sura, and sometimes even an individual verse, has its own specific circumstances. In some cases, these are mentioned in the well-known A tafsir (tafsīr تفسير , also transliterated tafseer, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegisis or commentary. Someone who writes tafsir is a mufassir (mufassir, plural mufassirīn). Sources of Tafsir The sources for commentary of the Quran are: 1) The Quran itself... tafsirs (for instance, surat Surat al-Alaq, Iqra, or al-Qalam (The Clot, Read, or The Pen) is the 96th sura of the Quran. Its first five verses are believed to be the first verses of the Quran to be revealed to Muhammad, as he sat in the cave of Mount Hira... Iqra, or many parts, including ayat 190-194, of surat Surat al-Baqarah (the Cow) is the second, and the longest, sura of the Quran, with 286 ayat. The Suras name is in reference to an argument between Moses and the Israelites over a cow they should sacrifice in order to know the murderer of a slain man... al-Baqarah); in other cases (eg surat Surat Al-`Asr (The Declining Day, Eventide, The Epoch, Time) is the 103rd sura of the Quran. It contains 3 ayat, and is believed to be an early Makkan sura (although a few commentators consider it Madinan.) It is said to have sparked the conversion of Amr ibn al... al-Asr), the most that can be said is which city the Prophet was living in at the time (dividing between The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. They are typically shorter, with relatively short ayat, and mostly come near the end of the Quran. Most of the suras containing Muqattaat are Makkan. Categories: Stub | Quran ... Makkan and The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. They are mostly placed at the beginning of the Quran, and are... Madinan suras.) In some cases, such as surat Surat al-Kawthar (Abundance) is the 108th sura of the Quran, and the shortest. There are several differing reports as to the circumstances under which it was revealed. According to Ibn Ishaq, it was revealed in Makka, some time before the Isra and Miraj, when al-As ibn Wa... al-Kawthar, the details of the circumstances are disputed, with different traditions giving different accounts. Where known, however, the circumstances are considered an important aid in understanding the intended meaning of each verse. The more general background of the Qur'an, especially historical, is also of value in its interpretation. For example, it would scarcely be possible to make sense of surat al-Fil is also the name of a sura by the unsuccessful would-be prophet Musaylimah. Surat al-Fil (The Elephant) is the 105th chapter of the Quran. It is a Makkan sura consisting of 5 ayat. It describes the incidents of the Year of the Elephant, the year when... al-Fil without the background knowledge given by early Arab historians' account of the The Year of the Elephant (عام الفيل `Âm al-Fîl) is estimated at 570 AD. According to early Islamic historians such as Ibn Ishaq, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, Abraha, had built a great church in Sanaa intended to lure the Arabs away... Year of the Elephant.


The most important external aid used in interpreting the meanings of the Qur'an is the The Hadith (الحديث, pl. Ahadith) is a body of laws, legends and stories about Muhammads way of life, (Arabic, Sunnah which includes his biography or the sira) and the sayings themselves where he elaborated on his choices or offered advice; many parts of the... Hadith — the collection of Islamic traditions from which the details of early Islamic history are derived. An extensive science of The isnad (Arabic) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. After Muhammads death in 631, Islam began to divide into factions based on different interpretations of his views. It became important to trace narrators to... isnad emerged in the early centuries of Islam, attempting to classify alleged sayings according to their reliability. The interpretation of the Qur'an soon developed into its own science, the ilm at- A tafsir (tafsīr تفسير , also transliterated tafseer, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegisis or commentary. Someone who writes tafsir is a mufassir (mufassir, plural mufassirīn). Sources of Tafsir The sources for commentary of the Quran are: 1) The Quran itself... tafsir. Famous commentators include Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (AD 838-AD 923), Iranian historian and theologian, was born in Amol, Tabaristan (south of the Caspian), and studied in Ray (Rages) , Baghdad, and in Syria and Egypt. Tabari means from Tabaristan. He died in Baghdad in 923. Cast upon his own resources... at-Tabari, az-Zamakhshari, at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. Ibn Kathir wrote a famous commentary of the Quran named Tafsir Ibn Kathir which linked certain... Ibn Kathir. While these commentaries mention all common and accepted interpretations, modern fundamentalist commentaries like the one of Categories: Islam-related stubs | 1906 births | 1966 deaths | Muslim philosophers ... Sayyed Qutb tend to stick to only one of the possible interpretations.


Belief in the Qur'an's direct, uncorrupted divine origin is fundamental to Islam; this of course entails believing that the Qur'an has neither errors nor inconsistencies. ("This is the book in which there is no doubt, a guide to the believers": Surat Surat al-Baqarah (the Cow) is the second, and the longest, sura of the Quran, with 286 ayat. The Suras name is in reference to an argument between Moses and the Israelites over a cow they should sacrifice in order to know the murderer of a slain man... al-Baqarah, verse 2.) However, it is well-known that certain chronologically later verses supersede earlier ones — the banning of wine, for instance, was accomplished gradually rather than immediately — and certain scholars have argued that some verses which discourage certain practices (for instance, Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). The term is often used in a de facto sense, applying regardless... polygamy) without banning them altogether should be understood as part of a similar process, though others argue that this contradicts "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and chosen for you Islam as your religion" ( Surat al-Maida (The Table) is the 5th sura of the Quran, with 120 ayat. It is a Madinan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Islam-related stubs | Sura ... 5.3). (Some non-Muslims claim to have found inconsistencies or errors in the Qur'an; Muslims consider these claims to be false.)


Note that, while certain The Hadith (الحديث, pl. Ahadith) is a body of laws, legends and stories about Muhammads way of life, (Arabic, Sunnah which includes his biography or the sira) and the sayings themselves where he elaborated on his choices or offered advice; many parts of the... Hadith — the Hadith Qudsi — are claimed to record noncanonical words spoken by God to Muhammad, or the gist of them, Muslims do not consider these to form any part of the Qur'an.


As to the basic message of the Qur'an, there are three fundamental points, repeated and restated throughout the book. They are as follows: this present physical life is a test; the afterlife is certain; our actions in this present life have consequences in the next.


Some Muslims claim that the Quran contains much information about entities and events that has been confirmed by science and technology many years after the Qur'an was revealed, and take this to constitute further evidence that the Qur'an is indeed the true, eternal word of God.


'Created' vs. 'uncreated' Qur'an

The most widespread varieties of Muslim theology consider the Qur'an to be eternal and 'uncreated'. Such an approach echoes Greek Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. It, therefore, requires a meta-philosophy to adjudicate. Although it can be conceded that philosophy aims at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom about fundamental matters such... philosophy, especially For the computing technology, see PLATO System. Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn) (c. 427 BC – c. 347 BC) was an immensely influential classical Greek philosopher, student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, writer, and founder of the Academy in Athens. Plato, a philodorian... Plato's theories that all ultimate realities and truths had to be eternal and unchanging. Given that Muslims believe that Biblical figures such as (See also Exodus) Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה Drawn, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. Legendary Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian. If... Moses and This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus all preached Islam, the doctrine of an unchanging, uncreated revelation implies that contradictions between their statements according to the Qur'an and the Bible must be the result of human corruption of the earlier divine revelations.


However, some, notably including the Mutazili (Arabic المعتزلة) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. It is also spelled Mutazilite, or Mutazilah. Etymology The name Mutazili originates from the Arabic root اعتزل meaning to leave, to abandon, to... Mu'tazili and The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. The Ismailis are found primarily in Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and East Africa... Ismaili sects, dispute this doctrine of the uncreated Qur'an. Various In modern times there have been a number of liberal movements within Islam (sometimes called in Arabic: الإسلام الإجتهادية or interpretation-based Islam, also الإسلام المت... liberal movements within Islam implicitly or explicitly question the doctrine of the uncreated Qur'an when they question the continuing applicability and validity of Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. Like most religious cultures, Islam classically drew no distinction between religious and secular life. Hence Sharia covers not only religious rituals, but many aspects of day-to-day life. However, this traditional view... Islamic law, as their justifications for doing so are often based on a belief that such laws were created by God to meet the particular needs and circumstances of Muhammad's community.


Among the many reasons the dissenting voices have offered for their critique of the doctrine of an eternal Qur'an has been its implications to the doctrine of tawhid, or unity of God. Holding that the Qur'an is the eternal uncreated speech of Allah, speech that has always existed alongside Him, seemed to some thinkers to be a step in the direction of a more plural concept of God's nature (which could lead to what Muslims consider the sin of This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended page. Shirk can refer to: Avoidance of work... shirk, the association of something with God). Concerned that this interpretation appeared to echo the Christian conception of God's eternal Word or logos, some Muslim philosophers and theologians rejected the notion of the Qur'an's eternality.


Stylistic attributes

The Qur'an often, although by no means always, uses loose This article is about the poetic technique. For the form of ice, see rime ice. A rhyme or rime is the association of words with similar sounds, a technique most often used in poetry. (The spelling rime is older than rhyme, but the latter is more common today.) Indeed, a... rhyme between successive verses; for instance, at the beginning of surat Al-Fajr may refer to: Al-Fajr - the 89th sura of the Quran; Fajr - the first of the five salat prayers; Operation Phantom Fury This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred... al-Fajr:

Wal-fajr(i),
Wa layâlin `ashr(in),
Wash-shaf`i wal-watr(i)
Wal-layli 'idhâ yasr(î),
Hal fî dhâlika qasamun li-dhî ḥijr(in).

or, to give a less loose example, the whole of surat al-Fil is also the name of a sura by the unsuccessful would-be prophet Musaylimah. Surat al-Fil (The Elephant) is the 105th chapter of the Quran. It is a Makkan sura consisting of 5 ayat. It describes the incidents of the Year of the Elephant, the year when... al-Fil:

'A-lam tara kayfa fa`ala rabbuka bi-'aṣḥâbi l-fîl(i),
'A-lam yaj`al kaydahum fî taḍlîl(in)
Wa-'arsala `alayhim ṭayran 'abâbîl(a)
Tarmîhim bi-ḥijâratin min sijjîl(in)
Fa-ja`alahum ka-`aṣfin ma'kûl(in).

Note that verse-final vowels are unpronounced when the verses are enunciated separately, a regular pausal phenomenon in classical Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. It is spoken throughout the Arab world and is widely known throughout the Islamic world. Arabic has been a literary language for over 1500 years, and is the liturgical language of Islam. The expression Arabic may refer either to... Arabic. In these cases, î and û often rhyme, and there is some scope for variation in syllable-final consonants. Some suras also include a A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. Poetic fixed forms that feature refrains include the villanelle, the virelay, and the sestina. However, the use of... refrain repeated every few verses, for instance A. R. Rahman Allah Rakha Rahman, born January 6, 1967 as A.S. Dileep Kumar in Chennai, India, is a popular Indian film music composer. He made his debut with Mani Ratnams movie, Roja (Rose) (1992) in Tamil and RamGopal Vermas movie Rangeela (Colourful) (1995) in Hindi. Rahman... ar-Rahman ("Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?") and Surat Al-Mursalat (The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth) is the 77th sura of the Quran with 50 ayat. Categories: Sura | Religion stubs ... al-Mursalat ("Woe unto the repudiators on that day!")

18th century Quran page, from http://faculty.washington.edu/wheelerb/quran/quran_index.html The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. This photograph...
18th century Quran page, from http://faculty.washington.edu/wheelerb/quran/quran_index.html The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. This photograph... Enlarge
18th century C.E. Qur'an

The length of verses ( Ayah is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. It usually refers to the 6228 verses found in the Islamic Quran. Muslims regard each verse of the Quran as a sign from God. Categories: Stub | Quran ... ayat) varies notably from sura to sura; in general, the earlier The Makkan suras are the chronologically earlier suras of the Quran that were revealed at Makka. They are typically shorter, with relatively short ayat, and mostly come near the end of the Quran. Most of the suras containing Muqattaat are Makkan. Categories: Stub | Quran ... Makkan suras tend to have shorter verses than the later The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. They are mostly placed at the beginning of the Quran, and are... Madinan suras, with legal verses being particularly long. Contrast the Makkan verses above with a verse such as Surat al-Baqarah (the Cow) is the second, and the longest, sura of the Quran, with 286 ayat. The Suras name is in reference to an argument between Moses and the Israelites over a cow they should sacrifice in order to know the murderer of a slain man... al-Baqara 229:

Divorce must be pronounced twice and then (a woman) must be retained in honour or released in kindness. And it is not lawful for you that ye take from women aught of that which ye have given them; except (in the case) when both fear that they may not be able to keep within the limits (imposed by) Allah. And if ye fear that they may not be able to keep the limits of Allah, in that case it is no sin for either of them if the woman ransom herself. These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Transgress them not. For whoso transgresseth Allah's limits: such are wrong-doers.

Similarly, the The Madinan suras of the Quran are those suras which were revealed at Madina, after Muhammads hijra from Makka, when the Muslims were establishing a state rather than being, as at Makka, an oppressed minority. They are mostly placed at the beginning of the Quran, and are... Madinan suras tend to be longer, including the longest sura of the Qur'an, Surat al-Baqarah (the Cow) is the second, and the longest, sura of the Quran, with 286 ayat. The Suras name is in reference to an argument between Moses and the Israelites over a cow they should sacrifice in order to know the murderer of a slain man... al-Baqara.


Every chapter but one is preceded by the words The Basmala is the first verse in the Quran. It is usually numbered as the first verse of sura 1, but, according to the view adopted by Al-Tabari, it precedes the first verse. It precedes each sura of the Quran, except for the 9th sura, but is... Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Rahim, "In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate". 29 suras begin with letters taken from a restricted subset of the The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. The alphabets influence spread with that of Islam and it has been, and still is, used to write many other languages from families unrelated to... Arabic alphabet; thus, for instance, surat Sura Maryam (Mary) is the 19th sura of the Quran. It has 98 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... Maryam begins "Kaf. Ha. Ya. 'Ain. Sad. A mention of the mercy of thy Lord unto His servant Zachariah." While there has been some speculation on the meaning of these letters, the consensus of Muslim scholars is that these letters' full meaning is beyond our understanding. However, they have observed that in all but 4 of the 29 cases, these letters are almost immediately followed by mention of the Qur'anic revelation itself. Western scholars' efforts have been tentative; one proposal, for instance, was that they were initials or monograms of the scribes that had originally written the sura down. See Qur'anic initial letters for a fuller discussion.


A notable feature of the Qur'an is its rather frequent partial repetition, ranging from brief epithets (eg "Lord of the heavens and the earth") to sentences. For instance, in the story of This article is about the biblical Adam and Eve. For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation) and Eve (disambiguation) According to the Book of Genesis of the Bible and to the Quran, Adam was the first man created by God. Adams mate, Eve or Hava was either created from his... Adam, the words "And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis", are repeated verbatim in suras Surat al-Baqarah (the Cow) is the second, and the longest, sura of the Quran, with 286 ayat. The Suras name is in reference to an argument between Moses and the Israelites over a cow they should sacrifice in order to know the murderer of a slain man... al-Baqarah, Surat Al-Isra or Bani Israil (ie The Night Journey or The Children of Israel) is the 17th sura of the Quran. This Surah takes its names from verse 1 or 4 respectively, but this name is merely a title, much like the names of many other surahs... al-Isra, Surat al-Kahf (The Cave) is the 18th sura of the Quran. It has 110 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... al-Kahf, and Sura Ta-Ha is the 20th sura of the Quran. It has 135 ayat. It is a Makkan sura. External links Tafsir Ibn Kathir Categories: Stub | Sura ... Ta-Ha, and with only slight change in al-A'raf. Similarly, "Come not nigh to the orphan's property except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength" is found both in al-An'am 152 and in Surat Al-Isra or Bani Israil (ie The Night Journey or The Children of Israel) is the 17th sura of the Quran. This Surah takes its names from verse 1 or 4 respectively, but this name is merely a title, much like the names of many other surahs... al-Isra 34. These repetitions sometimes serve to emphasise an important point, and sometimes are repeated in different contexts to illustrate different points. They often prove difficult for memorisers of the Qur'an, since, whereas most verses can only have one possible verse following them, these can have several.


Less literally, thematic repetition is also found; the stories of Thamud or Adam, for instance, is narrated in several places to about the same level of detail each time. One reason for this is that the Qur'an is not a Narrative is a term which has several and changing meanings. In origin it is a Latin word which came into English via the French language. A narrative is, originally, a story or part of a story spoken, written or imagined from the viewpoint of one of the (possibly fictional) participants... narrative; rather than having a single centralized place for a given account, it generally tells the account whenever it serves to illustrate the appropriate point, typically recounting those portions of it that are most relevant.


Traditionally, the Arabic is a Semitic language. See Arabic language for more information on the language in general. This article describes the grammar of Classical Arabic. Contents // In Arabic, a word is classified as either a noun (ism), a verb (fiʿl), a pronoun or a preposition (ḥarf). Adverbials are... Arabic grammarians consider the Qur'an to be a genre unique unto itself, neither Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. It consists largely of oral or literary works in which language is used in a manner that is felt by... poetry (defined as speech with This article is about the unit of length. For other uses of metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation). The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. It is defined as the length of the path traveled by light in an absolute vacuum during a... metre and This article is about the poetic technique. For the form of ice, see rime ice. A rhyme or rime is the association of words with similar sounds, a technique most often used in poetry. (The spelling rime is older than rhyme, but the latter is more common today.) Indeed, a... rhyme) nor Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. The word prose comes from the Latin prosa, meaning straightforward. This describes the type of writing that prose embodies, unadorned with obvious stylistic devices. Prose writing is usually... prose (defined as normal speech or rhymed but non-metrical speech, saj'.)


Parts and subdivisions

In addition to and largely independent of the division into suras, there are various ways of dividing the Qur'an into parts of approximately equal length for convenience in reading, reciting and memorizing. The seven A manzil (منزل, plural manazil, منازل) is one of seven parts of roughly equal length into which the Quran is divided for the purpose of reciting the entire text in one week. Categories: Stub ... manazil (stations) and the thirty ajza' (parts) can be used to work through the entire Qu'ran in a week or a month, one manzil or one juz' a day, respectively. A juz' is sometimes further divided into two A hizb (حزب , plural ahzab,احزاب) is one half of a juz and thus comprises roughly one 60th of the text of the Quran. Categories: Stub ... ahzab (groups), and each hizb is in turn subdivided into four quarters. A different structure is provided by the ruku'at, semantical units resembling paragraphs and comprising roughly ten ayat each.


The Qur'an and Islamic culture

Before touching a copy of the Qur'an, or mushaf, a Muslim performs People washing before prayer at the Badshahi mosque in Lahore, Pakistan Wodoo is washing parts of the body, in clean water, as a part of the preparation for the daily prayer, Salah. Wodoo is sometimes considered as an ablution. The ideal form is done with water. The Muslim first silently... wudu (washing for prayer.) This is based on a literal interpretation of sura 56:77-79: "Most surely it is an honored Qur'an, in a book that is protected; none shall touch it save the purified ones."


Cantillation (tilawa تلاوة) of the Qur'an is a fine art in the Muslim world, and allows for several variations of pronunciation of, for instance, pausal vowels and ta marbutah.


The traditions governing the translation and publication of the Qur'an state that when the book is published, it must never simply be entitled "The Qur'an." The title must always include a defining adjective (avoiding conceivable confusion with other "recitations", in the Arabic meaning), which is why all available editions of the Qur'an are titled The Glorious Qur'an, The Noble Qur'an, and other similar titles.


Translation of the Qur'an

The Qur'an has been translated into many languages, but translations of the Qur'an from Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. It is spoken throughout the Arab world and is widely known throughout the Islamic world. Arabic has been a literary language for over 1500 years, and is the liturgical language of Islam. The expression Arabic may refer either to... Arabic to other languages are not considered by Muslims to be actual copies of the Qur'an, but rather are considered to be interpretive translations of the Qur'an; they are thus not given much weight in debates upon the Qur'an's meaning. In addition, as mere interpretive translations of the Qur'an, they are treated as ordinary books instead of being accorded the privileged status of Holy Books requiring special care.


Robert of Ketton was a medieval theologian. In 1134 he travelled to France, the Byzantine Empire, and the Crusader States in Palestine with fellow scholar Herman of Carinthia. In 1143 he was commissioned by Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, to translate the Quran into Latin. That was the... Robert of Ketton was the first to translate the Qur'an into Latin, in Events Celestine II is elected pope. October 5 - Portugal is recognized by the Kingdom of Leon as an independent kingdom Robert of Ketton makes the first European translation of the Quran, into Latin The exploration of the uncharted eastern parts of Germany begins and results in the founding of... 1143.


See also

  • Koran reading
  • An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah ( Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for God (not Gods personal name, but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). The word... Allah
  • The Hadith (الحديث, pl. Ahadith) is a body of laws, legends and stories about Muhammads way of life, (Arabic, Sunnah which includes his biography or the sira) and the sayings themselves where he elaborated on his choices or offered advice; many parts of the... Hadith
  • Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic:حافظ) is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorised the Quran. Those who are entitled to use the word are tested for the accuracy of their recall by being asked to continue the reading of a passage taken... Hafiz
  • Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam
  • Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. For other prominent Muhammads, see Muhammad (disambiguation) Muhammad  listen? ( Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. According to his traditional Muslim biographies... Muhammad
  • See also: Sura (disambiguation). Sura is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. These are traditionally ordered in roughly reverse chronological order, with Madinan suras coming first and Makkan ones last for the most part. Each sura is divided into ayat, or verses. The 114 suras are: Al... Sura

Literature

  • A. J. Arberry, The Koran Interpreted, Touchstone Books, 1996. ISBN 0684825074
  • M. M. Al-Azami, The History of the Qur'anic Text from Revelation to Compilation, UK Islamic Academy: Leicester 2003.
  • Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Jami al-bayan `an ta'wil al-Qur'an, Cairo 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. Events January-April January 2 - Panama president Jose Antonio Remon is assassinated. January 19 - The Scrabble board game debuts. February 8 - Nikolai Bulganin ousts Georgi Malenkov February 13 - Israel obtains 4 of the 7 Dead Sea scrolls. February 23 - First meeting of... 1955- 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). For other uses, see Number 1969. For the movie, see 1969 (movie). Events January January 1 - Australian media baron Rupert Murdoch purchases the largest selling British Sunday newspaper The News Of The World January... 69, transl. J. Cooper (ed.), The Commentary on the Qur'an, Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0199201420
  • Ibn Warraq, a name meaning son of a scribe, a reference to the medieval Islamic scholar Mohammad al Warraq, and with strong schismatic connotations from early Islamic history, is the pseudonym of a Muslim apostate writer and teacher currently living in Ohio. Among the few personal details known about his... Ibn Warraq (ed.), The Origins of the Koran, Prometheus Books, 1998. ISBN 157392198X
  • J. D. McAuliffe (ed.), Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Brill, 2002-2004.
  • Fazlur Rahman, Major Themes in the Qur'an, Bibliotheca Islamica, 1989. ISBN 0882970461
  • Robinson, Neal, Discovering the Qur'an, Georgetown University Press, 2002. ISBN 1589010248
  • W. M. Watt and R. Bell, Introduction to the Qur'an, Edinburgh University Press, 2001. ISBN 0748605975
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Quranic Christians : An Analysis of Classical and Modern Exegesis, Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0521364701
  • Barbara Freyer Stowasser, Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation, Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (June 1, 1996), ISBN 0195111486
  • Helmut Gatje, Alford T. Welch, The Qur'an and Its Exegesis, Oneworld Publications; New Ed edition (November 1, 1996). ISBN 1851681183
  • Hanna E. Kassis, A Concordance of the Qur'an, University of California Press (March 1, 1984), ISBN 0520043278

External links

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Translations

  • The Noble Qur'an (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/) — three translations (Yusuf Ali, Shakir, and Picthal). Also, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (alternative spelling Syed; often referred to Maulana Maududi) was one of the most influential Muslim theologians of the 20th century and the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami (Islamic Party), an Islamist political party in Pakistan. Maulana Maududi’s philosophy, literary productivity and tireless activism... Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi's chapter introductions to the Qur'an
  • The Noble Qur'an (http://www.thenoblequran.com) — Translated by Dr.Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al Hilali, and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan. A well-known English translation endorsed by the Saudi government. Includes Arabic commentary by Ibn Katheer, Tabari, and Qurtubi.
  • The Final Testament (http://www.submission.org/Q-T.html) — Translation by Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935 - January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian Muslim who moved to the United States as a student of biochemistry in 1959 and later became a citizen. He established an Islamic group called United Submitters International whose beliefs include the rejection of Hadith/Sunnah as a source... Rashad Khalifa, considered heretic and an apostate by the main corpus of Muslims.

Search

  • Qur'an Search (http://www.islamicity.com/QuranSearch/) Search English, Turkish, French, Spanish, Malay, German
  • Qur'an Database (http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchquran.html)
  • King Fahd Complex For The Printing Of The Holy Qur'an (http://www.qurancomplex.org/) (in Arabic, English, French, Urdu, Spanish, Indonesian and Hausa)

Tafsir (Commentary)

  • Tafsir (http://www.tafsir.com/) by Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. Ibn Kathir wrote a famous commentary of the Quran named Tafsir Ibn Kathir which linked certain... Ibn Kathir

Ulm (Qur'anic studies)

  • Ulum al Qur'an (http://www.ymofmd.com/books/uaq/index.htm) by Ahmad von Denffer
  • Ilm ul Qur'an (http://www.netnavigate.com/hasan/studyquran/) — by Hasanuddin Ahmad
  • Four Basic Quranic Terms (http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/M_four_term/index.html) by Maula Maududi (http://www.abulala.com/shortbio.asp)
  • Way To The Quran (http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/KM_W2Q/index.htm) by Khurrum Murad (http://www.youngmuslims.ca/biographies/display.asp?ID=11)

Audio/Video

Supporting views regarding Islamic traditions and the Qur'an

  • Examining The Qur'an (http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Quran/) Original articles responding to textual criticism.
  • The Qur'anic Studies (http://www.quranicstudies.com/)
  • The Bible, the Qur'an and Science (http://www.ymofmd.com/books/tbqs/) by Dr. Maurice Bucaille
  • Who Wrote the Qur'an? (http://www.el-haqq.com/Free_E-books/whowrote.pdf) Analysis of the various theories from an Islamic viewpoint.

Skeptical views of Islamic traditions and the Qu'ran

  • The Skeptic's Annotated Qur'an (http://www.skepticsannotatedbible.com/quran/index.html) — a version of the Qur'an annotated from a skeptical point of view.

Western academic discussion of the origins of the Qur'an

  • What is the Koran? (http://theatlantic.com/issues/99jan/koran.htm) The Atlantic Online

Qur'anic manuscripts and calligraphy


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