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Encyclopedia > Qom Province
The Grand Timcheh of Qom's Bazaar.
The Grand Timcheh of Qom's Bazaar.
Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza, one of Iran's holiest places, is in Qom.
Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza, one of Iran's holiest places, is in Qom.

Contents

Image File history File links Image by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Image by Zereshk. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... The Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza, Qom, Iran. ... The Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, sister of Imam Reza, Qom, Iran. ... Image File history File links IranQom. ...


Introduction

Qom is one of the 30 provinces of Iran with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its provincial capital is the city of Qom. It was formed from part of Tehran province in 1995. In 1996, this province had a population of approximately 853,000 out of which 91.2 % resided in urban areas and 8.8 % in rural vicinities. The province contains one city, four counties, nine rural districts, and 256 villages. Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ... Tehran province has been the seat of Irans capital, Tehran, since 1778. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

The climate of Qom province varies between a desert and semi-desert climate, and comprises of mountainous areas, foothills and plains. Due to being located near an arid region and far inland, it experiences a dry climate, with low humidity and scanty rainfall. Thus, agriculture is not possible in most of its areas, especially near the salt lake regions.


Qom province has two large salt lakes, namely: Howz e Soltan Lake, which can be seen from the Qom-Tehran freeway, and the larger Namak Lake further to the east.


History and Culture

Qom is thought to have existed in pre-Islamic ages. Archeological discoveries indicate Qom as a residential area from the 5th millennium BCE. According to the pre-Islamic remaining relics and historical texts, Qom was a large city. 'Kom' was the name of the ancient rampart of the city of Qom, thus, the Arabs called it Qom during the Arab conquests of Iran. Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...


It was during the reign of the second caliph Omar, that Qom's center was captured by the Muslims. In 644-645 CE, Abu Moosa Ashari, dispatched forces under his command to Qom. Conflicts arose between the invading Arabs and the residents of the area. People Umar ibn al-Khattab the second caliph of Islam Omar Khayyám - Persian writer, mathematician, astronomer Omar Mukhtar - A freedom fighter from Libya Mohammed Omar - leader of the Taliban of Afghanistan Omar Bradley - United States general during World War Two. ... Abdullah ibn Qays, better known as Abu Musa al-Ashari, was a Companion of the Prophet Muhammad and important figure in early Islamic history. ...


During the persecution of the Alavids by the Abbasids and Umayyads, many Alavids fled to Qom, making it their permanent home. The Caliph Al-Ma'mun sent forces to Qom in the year 825 CE, resulting in a public massacre and destruction of the city. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون Abbāsīyūn) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ...


On hearing of the demise of al-Ma'mun, the inhabitants of Qom revolted and were successful in overthrowing the representative of the Caliph in 831 CE. However al-Ma'mun's successor, al-Mu'tasim, dispatched forces to Qom in order to curb the riots and once again the city was set aflame. The unrest continued until the Buwayhid dynasty (Al e Booyeh in Persian) came to power, being of the Alavid community. It was during this reign that the city of Qom expanded and thrived. Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (786 - October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Āl-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


In the Saljuqi era the city flourished once more. During the first wave of the Mongol invasion, the city witnessed destruction, but after Mongol rulers, particularly after [[|Oljeitu|Sultan Öljeitü Khoda bandeh]] of the Ilkhanate dynasty converted to Islam, the city received special attention, thus witnessing a revival once again. The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


In the late 14th century, the city came under the plunder of Tamerlane when the inhabitants were massacred again. During the periods of the rule of the Qarah Qoyoonloo, Aq Qoyoonloo, and specially during the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


By 1503, Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to the Shia Islam, and became a vital pilgrimage site and religious pivot. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


During the Afghan invasion, the city of Qom suffered heavy damages, and its inhabitants witnessed severe economic hardships. Qom further sustained damages during the reigns of Nadir Shah, and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajar in order to gain power in Iran. Tomb of Nadir Shah, a popular tourist attraction in Mashhad Nadir Shah (Nadir Qoli Beg, also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan) (October 22, 1688 - June, 1747) ruled as shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Afsharid dynasty. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ...


In 1798, Qom came under the control of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar . On being victorious over his enemies, Fath Ali Shah made repairs to the sepulchre and Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soumeh, fulfilling his vow. Agha Muhammad Khan (1742-1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ...


The city of Qom thrived in the Qajar era. After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom. The transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was discussed. But the British and Russians demolished the plan by bringing the monarch of the times, Ahmad Shah Qajar under pressure. Coinciding with this period, a 'National Defense Committee' was set up, and Qom turned into a political and military apex against the Russian and British colonial powers. Karaj city viewed from the Azimiye mountain. ... Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ...


Qom was also the center from which Ayatollah Khomeini based his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty, while in Iran. Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...


Qom today

Today, Qom is considered as one of the focal centers of the Shiite sect both in Iran and around the globe. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat Ma'soomeh are prominent features of the provincial capital of Qom province.


Another religious site of pilgrimage is outside the city of Qom, and is called Jamkaran. Qom's proximity to Tehran has given it an advantage as well. The Jamkaran Mosque undergoing renovation. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ...


Qom has at times again been considered as a possible candidate for moving the political capital of Iran, as Tehran faces an increasing probability of an overdue major earthquake, aside from its notorious pollution and traffic congestion. The conservative factions are favorable to this idea while the business and economic base of Tehran opposes any such moves. Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ...


Qom's major universities and institutions are:

    1. Qom University of Sheikh Mofid
    2. Islamic Azad University of Qom
    3. University of Qom
    4. payam noor University of Qom
    5. The Research Institute of Hawzeh va Daneshgah
    6. Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences, Qom
    7. Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute
    8. Qom University of Medical Sciences
    9. Fatemieh University of Medical Sciences
    10. Qom's Feyzieh Seminary (called The Hawzah)

Attractions of Qom

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. But the more visited sites of Qom are:

  • Kahak cave
  • Vashnuh cave
  • Howz e Soltan Salt Lake
  • Namak Great Salt Lake
  • Mar'ashi Najafi Library, with over 500,000 handwritten texts and copies.
  • Astaneh Moqaddaseh Museum
  • Qom Bazaar
  • Feyzieh Seminary
  • Jamkaran Mosque
  • Qom Jame' Mosque
  • Qom Atiq Mosque
  • A'zam Mosque
  • Shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh

External websites

  • Noor Fiqh Library, Qom
  • The Islamic Propagation Office of The Islamic Seminary in Qom
  • Society of Islamic Teachers of Qom's Hawzah (in Persian)
  • Dar-ul Hadith Institute
  • Hawzah Yellow Pages
  • Qom's main Seminary website (called The Hawzah)
  • Qom's Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Tuba Graphics, a religiously affiliated organization based in Qom
  • Qom Province Dwelling Foundation of Islamic Revolution
  • Governor of Qom website
  • Qom Province Transportation and Terminals Organization
  • Telecommunications Company of Qom
  • Qom Management and Planning Organization
Provinces of Iran Flag of Iran
Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azarbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and Baluchistan | South Khorasan | Tehran | West Azarbaijan | Yazd | Zanjan

  Results from FactBites:
 
Qom Province - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (939 words)
Qom is one of the 30 provinces of Iran with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran.
It is in the north of the country, and its provincial capital is the city of Qom.
The climate of Qom province varies between a desert and semi-desert climate, and comprises of mountainous areas, foothills and plains.
Qom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (863 words)
Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century.
It lies 97 miles by road south-west of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province.
During the caliphate of ˤUmar ibn al-Khattāb, Qom fell to the invading Arab armies of Islam.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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