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Qom

Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Q'um or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. It lies 97 miles by road south-west of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. It has an estimated population of 1,042,309 in 2005.[1] Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x849, 47 KB) Summary Blank locator map (orthographic projection) of Iran By Kaveh General SVG version: Sources Map of Iran - CIA - 2005 Provinces of Iran Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Qom River receives its water from the Zagros Mountain and the Namak Lake. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ...


Qom is considered to be a holy city in Shi`a Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatema Mæ'sume, sister of Imam `Ali ibn Musa Rida (Persian Imam Reza, 789-816 CE). The city is home to Iran's largest seminary, competing only with Najaf in Iraq. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... The Persian saint Hadratah Fatimah Masumah was buried in Qum, modern Iran. ... Imām ˤAlÄ« ibn-MÅ«sā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ...

Contents

History

Qom as an urban settlement existed in the pre-Islamic ages. Architectural discoveries indicate that Qom was a residential area from the 5th millennium BCE. Pre-Islamic remaining relics and historical texts point to the fact of Qom being a large regional city. Kum was known to be the name of this ancient city, thus, the incoming 7th century Arabs called it Qom during the conquests of Iran.


During the caliphate of ˤUmar ibn al-Khattāb, the area of Qom fell to the invading Arab armies of Islam. In 645CE, Abu Musa Ash'ari, also dispatched forces under his command to the area. Conflicts resulted between the incoming Arab army and the residents of the area. The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ... `Umar ibn al-Khattāb (in Arabic, عمر بن الخطاب) (c. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Abu-Musa Abd-Allah ibn Qays al-Ash`ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ashari (Arabic: ابوموسی) (d. ...


In Seljuki times, the city flourished as well. During the Mongol invasion of Persia the city witnessed widespread destruction, but after the Mongol ruling dynasty, also known as the Ilkhanate, converted to Islam during the reign of Öljeitü (Persian Muhammad Khudabænde), the city received special attention, thus undergoing a revival once more. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Öljeitü (1280 - December 16, 1316, in Soltaniyeh, near Kazvin), was the eight Ilkhanate ruler in Iran, resigned from 1304 to 1316. ...


In the late 14th century, the city was plundered by Tamerlane and the inhabitants were massacred. But during the periods of rule of the Qara Qoyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and especially during the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed due to its religious shrine. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... The Qara Qoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu; Turkish: Karakoyunlu; Persian: قراقویونلو), were a tribal federation of Turkoman origin that ruled in what is today Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and northern Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


By 1503 CE, Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to the Shia Islam, and became a significant religious pilgrimage site and pivot. Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


The city suffered heavy damages again during the Afghan invasions, resulting in consequent severe economic hardships. Qom further sustained damages during the reigns of Nadir Shah and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajariyeh in order to gain power over Iran. Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ...


Finally in 1793CE, Qom came under the control of Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar. On being victorious over his enemies, the Qajar Sultan Fæteh Æli Shah was responsible for the repairs done on the sepulchre and Holy Shrine of Hæzræt Mæ'sume, as he had made such a vow. Agha Mohammad Khan by a European Engraver Agha Muhammad Khan (1742 - June 17, 1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Fath Ali Shah was the second Qajar King of Persia. ...


The city of Qom began an era of prosperity in the Qajar era yet once again. After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom due to reasons of proximity, and the transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was even discussed. But the British and Russians defeated prospects of the plan by putting Æhmæd Shah Qajar under political pressure. Coinciding with this period, a "National Defense Committee" was set up in Tehran, and Qom turned into a political and military apex against the Russian and British colonial powers. Karaj Country Iran Province Tehran Population 2000000 (2005) Area 1000 km² Coordinates Lat. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ...


Many years later, Qom also became the center from which Ayatollah Khomeini based his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty while in Iran. For many years, Qom was the home of Ayatollah Khomeini who led Iran during the events that led to the Islamic revolution in 1979 before permanently leaving for Tehran after the revolution. Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ...


Qom today

Today, Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shi'a both in Iran and around the globe. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hadrat Ma'sumah are prominent features of the provincial capital of Qom province. Another religious site of pilgrimage is outside the city of Qom and is called Jamkaran. The Jamkaran Mosque undergoing renovation. ...


Qom's proximity to Tehran has given it an advantage as well. Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ...


Attractions of Qom

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. But the more visited sites of Qom are:

  • Kahak Cave
  • Vashnaveh Cave
  • Howz-e Soltan Salt Lake
  • Namak Great Salt Lake
  • Mar'ashi Najafi Library, with over 500,000 handwritten texts and copies.
  • Astaneh Moqaddaseh Museum
  • Qom Bazaar
  • Feyzieh Seminary
  • Jamkaran Mosque
  • Jami' Mosque Qom
  • Atiq Mosque in Qom
  • A'zam Mosque
  • Shrine of Fatimah al-Masumah

Jamkaran Mosque is a Mosque in the holy city of Qom, Iran. ... Shrine of Mæsume The shrine of Fatema Mæsume, sister of Imam Reza, is located in Qom, the second most sacred city in Iran after Mashhad. ...

Qom space center

Qom space center is, with the Emamshahr space center, one of the two places where the Iranian Space Agency is launching its suborbital Shahab 3s space rockets. A spaceport is a site for launching spacecraft, by analogy with airport for aircraft. ... Emamshahr is a city in Iran at 36°25 northern latitude and 55°01 eastern length. ... The Iranian Space Agency (ISA) is a governmental based space research organization. ... A sub-orbital spaceflight (or sub-orbital flight) is a spaceflight that does not involve putting a vehicle into orbit. ... Shahab-3 Type Ballistic missile Nationality Iran Era modern Launch platform Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder Date of design Production period Service duration Operators Iran Variants Number built Specifications Type Diameter between 1,32 and 1,35 metres Wing span Length 16 metres Weight between 15 852 and 16...


Universities in Qom

  1. Mofid University
  2. Islamic Azad University of Qom
  3. payam noor University of Qom
  4. University of Qom
  5. The Research Institute of Hawzeh va Daneshgah
  6. Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences, Qom
  7. Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute
  8. Qom University of Medical Sciences
  9. Fatemieh School of Medical Sciences
  10. Qom Students Organisation

Mofid University Logo Mofid University is a university located in Qum, Iran. ... University of Qom is a university in Qom, Qom Province, Iran. ...

Seminaries of Qom

Qom is currently the largest center for Shi'a scholarship in the world. The following seminaries (Hawzahs) are located there:

  • Amuliyah Seminary
  • Ayatollah Golpayegani Seminary
  • Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Seminary
  • Abul-Sadigh Seminary
  • Imam al-Husayn Seminary
  • Imam al-Askari Seminary
  • Imam al-Mahdi Seminary
  • Imam al-Hadi Seminary
  • Rasul ul-A'dham Seminary
  • Sayyed Hasan al-Shirazi Seminary
  • Alwandiyah Seminary
  • Imam al-Khamenei Seminary
  • Imam al-Baqir Seminary
  • Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba Seminary
  • Imam Khomeini Seminary
  • Imam al-Sadiq Seminary
  • Imam al-Hadi Seminary
  • Amir al-Mu'menin Seminary
  • Bi'that Seminary
  • Jabir ibn al-Hayyan Seminary
  • Al-Zahra Seminary
  • Jafariyah Seminary
  • Haj Sayyed Sadiq Seminary
  • Haj Ghazanfar Seminary
  • Hojattiyeh Seminary
  • Hossaynie Seminary
  • Hadhrat al-Masuma Seminary
  • Dar al-Shifa Seminary
  • Rasul al-Akram Seminary
  • Sa'adat Seminary
  • Sharafiddin Amili Seminary
  • Shahabiyah Seminary
  • Shahid Sadr Seminary
  • Shahidayn Seminary
  • Sadiqqiyah Seminary
  • Saduq Seminary
  • Seminary of The Judiciary
  • Alavi Seminary
  • Fatimie Seminary
  • Feyzie Seminary
  • Qadiriye Seminary
  • Kermani-ha Seminary
  • Ma'sumiye Seminary
  • Mahdi Mow'ud Seminary
  • Na'ini Seminary
  • Wahidiyah Seminary
  • Wali Asr Seminary
  • Al-Alam Seminary
  • Ad-Dirasat al-Islamiyya Seminary
  • Maktab al-Mahdi Seminary
  • Maktab at-Towhid Seminary
  • al-Kawthar Seminary

Listing of Qom's Senior ranking clerics

The following is a list of Grand Ayatollahs and the most senior ranking Ayatollahs in or directly related to Qom.


Current

  • Grand Ayatollah Sayed Sadeq al-Shirazi
  • Grand Ayatollah Noori-Hamedani
  • Grand Ayatollah Mousavi Ardebili
  • Grand Ayatollah Gharvi-Aliari
  • Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpayegani
  • Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani
  • Grand Ayatollah Seyd Mohammad Shahroudi
  • Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi
  • Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
  • Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Wahid Khorasani
  • Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Behjat
  • Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Kadhim Haeri
  • Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Vahidi
  • Grand Ayatollah Sheikh hasan-zadeh Amoli
  • Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri
  • Grand Ayatollah Sanei
  • Grand Ayatollah Haj Sayyed Musa Shebiri Zanjani
  • Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Reza Golpayegani
  • Ayatollah Tabrizi
  • Ayatollah Sheikh Jawadi Amoli
  • Ayatollah Abolfadhl Khansari
  • Ayatollah Haj Sayyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
  • Ayatollah Sayyed Hasan Taheri Khurram-Abadi
  • Ayatollah Sheikh Jafar Sobhani
  • Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Imami Kashani
  • Ayatullah Haj Sheikh Ali Panah Ishtihardi
  • Ayatollah Mesbah Yazdi
  • Ayatullah Sheikh Haadi Ma`rifat
  • Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Alavi Gorgani
  • Ayatollah sheikh Muhammad Reza Mahdavi Kani
  • Ayatollah Sayyed Hassan Abtahi
  • Ayatollah Mohsen Qara'ati
  • Ayatollah Sheikh Abu Taleb Tajleel
  • Ayatollah Sheikh Husein Mazaheri
  • Ayatollah Haj Sheikh Ismail Salehi Mazandarani
  • Ayatollah Haj Sayyed Mehdi Rouhani
  • Ayatollah Haj Sheikh Ali Kashani
  • Ayatollah Haj Sayyed Mohsen Kharrazi
  • Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Mohaqqeq Damad
  • Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Ali Gerami

Ayatollah Montazeri Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, born in 1922, was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and is a Grand Ayatollah (a Shia marja) and as such is considered one of the highest ranking authorities in Shia Islam today. ... Ayatollah al-Udhma Yousof al-Sanei is an Iranian reformist Ayatollah and a Grand Marja of Shia Islam. ...

Deceased

Ayatollah Sayyid Husayn Borujerdi (آیت‌الله سیدحسين بورجردی in Persian, 1914 -2003) was a Grand Shiite ayatollah. ... Allameh Tabatabaei, one of contemporarys greatest Islamic Philosophers, chatting with Ayatollah al-Shirazi. ... Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Seyyed Hassan Modarres (Persian: سید حسن مدرس)‎ (1870? - December 1, 1937), was an Persian/Iranian cleric and politician. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani was a senior Shia cleric of Iran. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location map of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela) is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia. ...

See also

Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... This is a list of Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... A Qom rug. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Iranian Space Agency (ISA) is a governmental based space research organization. ...

Other external links about Qom

Religiously affiliated

  • Tuba Graphics, a religiously affiliated organization based in Qom
  • Noor Fiqh Library, Qom
  • Imam Ali commemorative website, based in Qom.
  • Society of Islamic Teachers of Qom's Hawzah (in Persian)
  • Dar-ul Hadith Institute
  • Hawzah Yellow Pages
  • Qom Seminary Islamic Propagation Office 1
  • Qom Seminary Islamic Propagation Office 2
  • Qom Seminary Islamic Propagation Office 3
  • Qom Seminary Islamic Propagation Office 4
  • Qom Seminary Publishers
  • Islamic Qom City
  • Sharah Hawzah Seminary Information Network
  • Islamic International Foundation of Cooperation(IslamIFC) IslamIFC

Islamic International Foundation of Cooperation(IslamIFC): The IslamIFC is a nonprofit, non governmental organization that partners with North American Muslims, non-Muslims and organizations. ...

Non-Religiously affiliated

  • Qom's Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Qom Province Dwelling Foundation of Islamic Revolution
  • Qom Management and Planning Organization
  • Governor of Qom website
  • Qom Province Transportation and Terminals Organization
  • Telecommunications Company of Qom
  • Qom worries about new government interference in the clerical establishment.

Coordinates: 34°39′N 50°53′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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The Qom rugs that I offer are all pure silk and are the of the very high quality.
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Qom is connected by road and rail to Teheran 200 km north, Kashan 100 km southeast, Yazd 500 km southeast and Esfahan 300 km south.
Qom is a sacred city for Shi'i Islam, and has a golden-domed shrine from the 9th century, that is built around the tomb of Fatima, Imam Reza's sister.
Qom has the largest madrasa, or theological college, in the country, and has been the leading centre for Twelver Shi'i theology in recent decades.
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