FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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QoI, or Quinone outside inhibitors are a group of fungicides used in agriculture. They represent the most important development made in fungicides by the chemicals industry. QoI are chemical compounds which act at the Quinol outer binding site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ... Cytochromes are generally membrane-bound proteins that contain heme groups and carry out electron transport. ...


QoI's are the resulting fusion of three fungicides families, the well-known family of strobilurins and two new families, represented by fenamidone and famoxadone. Some strobilurins are azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin. Strobilurins are a group of chemical compounds used in agriculture as fungicides. ...


These fungicides are used on a wide range of crops, such as cereals, vines, pome fruits, cucurbits, tomatoes and potatoes.


For example, they are used as fungicides for cereals, against Erysiphe graminis f.sp tritici responsible for the powdery mildew in wheat or against Septoria tritici, responsible for septoria leaf spot in wheat. Much of the following text is taken from the Household Cyclopedia of 1881: Wheat mildew may be ranked as a wheat disease which affects the ear, and is brought on by causes somewhat similar to those which occasion blight, though at a more advanced period of the season. ... Species T. boeoticum T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp) is a grass that is cultivated around the world. ... Septoria is a fungal disease due to Septoria tritici. ...


They are also commonly used for vine culture, against Plasmopara viticola, responsible for downy mildew or in oïdium treatment. Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis...


All these fungicides are in the same cross-resistance group (same mode of action) and must be managed carefully to avoid the appearance of fungicide resistance. Some fungicide resistance has been observed in most crops (such as in the case of wheat powdery mildew), so the application of QoI products should respect effective rates and intervals to provides time and space when the pathogen population is not influenced by the product selection pressure. Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth, caused by one of two types of microorganism. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...


See also

plant pathology
integrated farming

Phytopathology or Plant Pathology is the science of diagnosing and managing plant diseases. ...

External links

http://www.frac.info/qoi_wg.html (Fungicides Resistance Action Committee, QoI working group)
http://www.agry.purdue.edu/turf/tips/2002/gray416.htm (Gray Leaf Spot Resistance to Strobulurins)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fungicides: QoI fungicides (444 words)
Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides include three fungicide families, the well-known family of strobilurins and two new families, represented by fenamidone and famoxadone.
QoI fungicides approved for, or in review for, use on field crops in Iowa include strobilurins azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin, and famoxadone.
Apply QoI fungicides according to manufacturers' recommendations for the target disease at the specific crop growth stage indicated.
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