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Encyclopedia > Qizilbash

Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: قزلباش Qezelbāš, Turkish: Kızılbaş, Azerbaijani: Qızılbaş) - Turkish for "Red Heads" - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shi'ite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. The name "Red Heads" is derived from their distinct headwear with twelve points (indicating their adherence to the twelve Ithnāˤashari Imams.[1]), known in Persian as the Tāj-e Heydar "Haydar's Crown"[2], a reference to their Sufi grandmaster Sheikh Haydar Ṣafawī. Ottoman Turkish is the variant of the Turkish language which was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, containing extensive borrowings from Arabic and Persian and written in Arabic script. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Ghulat (Arabic: غلاة extremists) is the adjectival form of Ghuluww (Arabic: غلو extremism). ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Imam is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that is practised by some muslims and some non-muslims and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Contents

Origins

Qizilbash soldier in full gear bearing the Persian Lion and Sun banner

The origin of the "Qizilbash movement" - as they were called by their Sunni Ottoman foes and later adopted the name as a mark of pride - can be dated from middle of the 15th century, when their spiritual grandmaster (shaykh) Haydar, the head of the Safawiyya Sufi order, organized his followers into a body of militant troops. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x779, 34 KB)Kizilbash Soldier File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x779, 34 KB)Kizilbash Soldier File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Current flag of the Islamic republic of Iran, introduced in 1980. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Safaviyeh was the name of the Sufi order founded by the Persian Mystic Sheikh Safi Al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ...


Theories have been put forward by scholars to connect the Qizilbash to certain religious groups and secret societies throughout history, like the Mazdaki movement in the Sassanid Empire, or the radical Persian Khurrami sect who were also known as "Muhammira" because of their practise of wearing a red headgear and fighting for their religious beliefs. In this context, Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli sees the Qizilbash as "spiritual descendants of the Khurramits".[3] It has also been speculated that the group had its origins among the mystical Ismaili Assassin sect.[4] However, most historians dispute this as no influence of Ismaili beliefs is obvious in Qizilbash practices. A secret society is a social organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation or club ceremonies—from outsiders. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... It has been suggested that Khurramiyyah be merged into this article or section. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ...


Organization

The Qizilbash were a coalition of many different peoples of predominantly, but not exclusively Turkic-speaking Azerbaijani background, united in their belief in the Safavid doctrine of Shiism. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


As murids of the Safawiyyah sheikhs (pirs), the Qizilbash owed implicit obedience to their leader in his capacity as their murshid-e kāmil ("supreme spiritual director") and, after the establishment of the kingdom, as their padshah ("king"), changing the purely religious pir - murid relationship into a political one. As a consequence, any act of disobedience of the Qizilbash Sufi against the order of his spiritual grandmaster became "an act of treason against the king and a crime against the state" (Persian: nā-sufīgarī, "improper conduct of a Sufi"), for example in 1614 when Shah Abbas I put to death some Qizilbash.[5] A Murid (Arabic: مريد meaning committed one. ... Safaviyeh was the name of the Sufi order founded by the Persian Mystic Sheikh Safi Al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) is a Sufi teacher. ... A Murshid is the teacher and guide to his disciples (Mureedh). ... Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a title sometimes applied to to a several historic monarchs, notably the rulers of Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and the Moghul Empire. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ...


Beliefs

Qizilbash tribes adhered to heterodox Shi'a doctrines encouraged by early Safawiyyah sheikhs, specifically sheikh Haydar and his son, Ismail. They regarded their rulers as divine figures, and would thus be classified as ghulat extremist by orthodox Ithnāˤashari Shias. It is clear that Ismail I. was presenting himself to his Qizilbash followers not as a representative of the Hidden Imam, but as the Hidden Imam himself, beyond that even claiming divinity for himself.[1] The Qizilbash would go into battle without armour, confident that no harm would befall them, while adding Ismā'il waliyyu'llāh to the Islamic Shahada. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Safaviyeh was the name of the Sufi order founded by the Persian Mystic Sheikh Safi Al-Din of Ardabil (1252-1334). ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... Ghulat (Arabic: غلاة extremists) is the adjectival form of Ghuluww (Arabic: غلو extremism). ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ...


This stemmed from the fact that among the Qizilbash there appeared to be a substantial lack of knowledge of Twelver Shia doctrines. When Tabriz was taken for example, there was not a single book on Twelver Shiism among Qizilbash leaders, and the book of the well known Allama Al-Hilli was procured in the town library to provide guidance on new religion of the state.[6] Nor did any Shia ulema participate in the formation of Safavid religious policies during the early stages of the state. However later, the ghulat doctrines were forsaken and Arab Twelver Shia ulema resident in Iraq and Bahrain were brought in increasing numbers. Initially the Shia ulema kept quiet about inconsistencies in the religious stance of the monarch, but during the following century they were able to enforce a stricter version of Shia Islam on the population and the state. Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Ghulat (Arabic: غلاة extremists) is the adjectival form of Ghuluww (Arabic: غلو extremism). ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia (Arabic اثنا عشرية) are members of the group of Shia Islam who believe in twelve Imams. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


"Turk & Tājīk"

Among the Qizilbash, Turcoman tribes from Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijan who had helped Shah Ismail I defeat the Aq Qoyunlu tribe were by far the most important - in number and influence. Therefore the name Qizilbash is sometimes only applied to them.[7] Some of these greater Turcoman tribes were subdivided into as many as eight or nine clans and included the: Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ...

  • Ustādjlu
  • Rumlu
  • Shāmlu (the most powerful clan during the reign of Shah Ismail I.)
  • Dulghadir (Arabic: Dhu 'l-Kadar)
  • Afshār
  • Qājār
  • Takkalu

Other tribes, such as Turkman, Bahārlu, Warsāk, or Bayāt were occasionally listed among these "seven great uymaqs". Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Bahārlu (also spelled Baharloo, Baharlooe) is a persian tribe of Fars (Pars), Kerman, Azarbaijan and Khorasan. ... Bayat was the name of one the 24 Oghuz Turkish clans purported to descend from Oghuz Khaqan according to Oghuzname[citation needed] and the oral legends prior to that books writing in early 14th century. ...

Some of these names consist of a place-name with addition of the Turkish suffix -lu, such as Shāmlu or Bahārlu. Other names are those of old Oghuz tribes such as Afshār, Dulghadir, or Bayāt, as mentioned by the medieval Uyghur historian Mahmoud Al-Kāshgharī. The origin of the name Ustādjlu, however, is unknown and may indicate a non-Turkic origin of the tribe. Image File history File links Qizilbashafghan. ... Image File history File links Qizilbashafghan. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The non-Turkic or non-Turkish-speaking Iranian tribes among the Qizilbash were called Tājiks by the Turcomans and included:[7][8] Languages Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajik) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ...

The rivalry between the Turkic clans and Persian nobles was a major problem in the Safavid kingdom and caused much trouble. As V. Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Turcomans "were no party to the national Persian tradition". Shah Ismail tried to solve the problem by appointing Persian wakils as commanders of Qizilbash tribes. However, the Turcomans considered this an insult and brought about the death of 3 of the 5 Persians appointed to this office - an act, that later lead to the deprivation of the Turcomans by Shah Abbas I.[9]

Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Lurs are an ethnic group of Iranian peoples. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ...


History

The Beginnings

In the 15th century, Ardabil was the center of an organization designed to keep the Safavid leadership in close touch with its murids in Azerbaijan, Iraq, eastern Anatolia, and elsewhere. The organization was controlled through the office of khalīfāt al-khulafā'ī who appointed representatives (khalīfa) in regions where Safavid propaganda was active. The khalīfa, in turn, had subordinates termed pira. Their presence in eastern Anatolia posed a serious threat to the Ottomans, because they encouraged the Shi'ite population of Asia Minor to revolt against the sultan. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Ardabil (in Persian: اردبیل; also known as Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... A Murid (Arabic: مريد meaning committed one. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


In 1499, Ismail, the young leader of the Safavid order, left Lanjan for Ardabil to make his bid for power. By the summer of 1500, ca. 7,000 supporters from the local Turcoman tribes of Anatolia, Syria, and Iraq - collectively called "Qizilbash" by their enemies - rallied to his support. Leading his troops on a punitive campaign against the Shīrvanshāh (ruler of Shirvan), he sought revenge for the death of his father and his grand-father in Shīrvan. After defeating the Shīrvanshāh Farrukh Yassar, he moved south into Azarbaijan where his 7,000 Qizilbash warriors defeated a force of 30,000 Ak Koyunlu under Alwand Mirzā,[10] and conquered Tabriz. This was the beginning of the Safavid state. 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ... Lenjan county is a county in Isfahan Province, Iran. ... Ardabil (in Persian: اردبیل; also known as Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shervan or Shirvan was a former Persian province in Caucasus, a state ruled by the Shervanshahs and the birthplace of the Persian poet Khaqani. ... Farrukh Yassar Shirvanshah of Shirvan (1465-1500). ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ...


In the first decade of the 16th century, the Qizilbash expanded Safavid rule over the rest of Persia, as well as Baghdad and Iraq, formerly under Ak Koyunlu control. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...

Qizilbash cavalryman, Safavid period

In 1510 Shah Ismail sent a large force of the Qizilbash to Transoxania to support the Timurid ruler Babur in his war against the Uzbeks. The Qizilbash defeated the Uzbeks and secured Samarqand for Babur. However, in 1512, an entire Qizilbash army was annihilated by the Uzbeks after Turcoman Qizilbash had mutinied against their Persian wakil and commander, Amir Nadjm.[11] This heavy defeat put an end to Safavid expansion and influence in Transoxania and the northeastern frontiers of the kingdom remained vulnerable to nomad invasions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (996x1550, 95 KB) Summary taken from the French Wikipedia (http://fr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (996x1550, 95 KB) Summary taken from the French Wikipedia (http://fr. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a Turkic-Mongol dynasty of Iran established by the Mongol Timur (Tamerlane). ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ...


The Battle of Chaldiran

Main article: Battle of Chaldiran

Meanwhile, the Safavid da'wa (propaganda) continued in Ottoman areas - with great success. Even more alarming for the Ottomans was the successful conversion of Turcoman tribes in eastern Anatolia and Iraq, and the recruitment of these well experienced and feared fighters into the growing Safavid army. In order to stop the Safavid propaganda, Sultan Bayezid II deported large numbers of the Shia population of Asia Minor to Morea. However, in 1507, Shah Ismail and the Qizilbash overran large areas of Kurdistan, defeating regional Ottoman forces. Only two years later in Central Asia, the Qizilbash defeated the Uzbeks at Merv, killing their leader Muhammad Shaybani and destroying his dynasty. His head was sent to the Ottoman sultan as a warning. The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... 1507 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kurdistan (Soranî: كوردستان, literally meaning the land of Kurds[2]; Ancient: Corduene, old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also Kurdish: ) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Portrait of Muhammad Shaybani Abu I-Fath Muhammad Shaybani Khan (c. ...


In 1511, a Shia revolt broke out in Tekke and was brutally suppressed by the Ottomans: 40,000 were massacred on the order of the sultan. Shah Ismail sought to turn the chaos within the Ottoman Empire to his advantage and invaded Anatolia. The Qizilbash defeated a large Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha. Shocked by this heavy defeat, Sultan Selim I (the new ruler of the Empire) decided to invade Persia with a force of 200,000 Ottomans and face the Qizilbash on their own soil. In addition, he ordered the persecution of Shiism and the massacre of all its adherents in the Ottoman Empire.[12] 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Tekke is a Turkish word which corresponds to the Arabic word Zawya or the Persian Dergah. ... Sinan Pasha (died 1596) was a Turkish soldier and statesman, of Albanian low origin. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ); also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim (October 10, 1465 in Amasya – September 22, 1520 in Edirne) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


On the 20th August of 1514 (1st Rajab 920 A.H.), the two armies met at Chaldiran in Azarbaijan. The Ottomans outnumbered the Qizilbash two to one (according to other sources: three to one) and had artillery and handguns. The Qizilbash were heavily defeated,[13] and many high-ranking Qizilbash amirs as well as three influential figures of the ulamā were killed. (Redirected from 20th August) August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rajab (Arabic: رجب ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... Long Live Azerbaijan. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ...


The defeat destroyed Shah Ismail's belief in his invincibility and his divine status. It also fundamentally altered the relationship between the murshid-e kāmil and his murids.


The Qizilbash and the Mughals of India

For almost ten years after the Battle of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash factions fought for control of the kingdom. In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. He was the ward of the powerful Qizilbash amir Ali Beg Rūmlū (titled "Div Soltān") who was the de facto ruler of the Safavid kingdom.[14] However, Tahmasp managed to reassert his authority over the state and over the Qizilbash. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. ...


During the reign of Shah Tahmasp, the Qizilbash fought a series of wars on two fronts and - with the poor resources available to them - successfully defended their kingdom against the Uzbeks in the east, and against the Ottomans in the west. With the Treaty of Amasya, peace between Safavids and Ottomans remained for the rest of Tahmasp's reign.[15]


The deprivation of the Turcomans

Ali Quli Khan, Aftab-i-Alam's direct ancestor
Ali Quli Khan, Aftab-i-Alam's direct ancestor

Inter-tribal rivalry of the Turcomans, the attempt of Persian nobles to the end the Turcoman dominance, and constant succession conflicts went on for another 10 years after Tahmasp's death. This heavily weakened the Safavid state and made the kingdom vulnerable to external enemies: the Ottomans attacked and conquered Azerbaijan, the Uzbeks conquered Khurasan, including Balkh and Herat. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ali_quli_khan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ali_quli_khan. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, a city which is known as The Pearl of Khorasan Greater Khorasan is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ...


In 1588, Shah Abbas I came to power. He appointed the Governor of Herat and his former guardian and tutor, Alī Quli Khān Shāmlū (also known as Hājī Alī Qizilbāsh Mazandarānī) the chief of all the armed forces. Later on, events of the past, including the role of the Turcomans in the succession struggles after the death of his father, and the counter balancing influence of traditional Ithnāˤashari Shia Sayeds, made him determined to end the dominance of the untrustworthy Turcoman chiefs in Persia. In order to weaken the Turcomans - the important militant elite of the Safavid kingdom - Shah Abbas raised a standing army from the ranks of the ghulams who were usually ethnic Armenians and Georgians. The new army would be loyal to the king personally and not to clan-chiefs anymore.[10] 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sayyid (Arabic: ‎ ) (plu. ... Ghulam (Translates as Slave in English) is a 1998 Bollywood film directed by Vikram Bhatt. ...


The reorganization of the army also ended the independent rule of Turcoman chiefs in the Safavid provinces, and instead centralized the administration of those provinces.


Ghulams were appointed to high positions within the royal household, and by the end of Shah Abbas' reign, "one-fifth of the high-ranking amirs were ghulams".[7] By 1598 an ethnic Armenian from Georgia had risen to the position of commander-in-chief of all Safawid armed forces.[16] The offices of wakil and amir al-umarā fell in disuse and were replaced by the office of a Sipahsālār (Persian: سپهسالار, master of the army), commander-in-chief of all armed forces - Turcoman and Non-Turcoman - and usually held by a Persian noble. Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Spahbod or Spahbed (Persian: سپهبد, in new Persian Sepahbod, is derived from the words Spah سپه army bod بد master ) also alternatively Spah Salar (سپهسالار) and was a rank used in the Parthian empire and more widely in the Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran). ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


This was a heavy victory of the Tādjik fraction over the Turcomans and meant the end of decades Turcoman domination in Persia.


Nader Shah and the fall of the Safavids

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Legacy

Afghanistan

Qizilbash in Afghanistan live in urban areas, such as Kabul, Herat or Qandahar, as well as in certain villages in Hazarajat. They are descendants of the troops left behind by Nadir Shah during his "Indian campaign" in 1738. Afghanistan's Qizilbash held important posts in government offices in the past, and today engage in trade or are craftsmen. Since the creation of Afghanistan, they constitute an important and politically influential element of society. Estimates of their population vary from 60,000 to 200,000. They are Persian-speaking Shi'ite Muslims and are usually linked to the Fārsīwāns and Tājīks of the country. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... For the hamlet in Saskatchewan, Canada; see Kandahar, Saskatchewan. ... The habitat of Hazara ethnic group is usually knows as the Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Herāti FārsÄ«wāns performing their traditional dance. ... Languages Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajik) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ...


Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone described the Qizilbash of Kabul in the beginning of the 19th century as "a colony of Turks," who spoke "Persian, and among themselves Turkish."[17] Described as learned, affluent, and influential, they appear to have abandoned their native Turkish language in favour of Persian, and became "in fact Persianized Turks".[18] However, Lady Florentia Sale (wife of Sir Robert Henry Sale) and Vincent Eyre - both companions of Sir M. Elphinstone - described the Qizilbash of Afghanistan also as "Persians, of Persian descent".[19][20] Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779 - November 20, 1859) was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the British government of India. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Robert Henry Sale (born 1782; died 1845) was a British soldier. ...


The influence of the Qizilbash in the government created resentment among the ruling Pashtun clans, especially after the Qizilbash openly allied themselves with the British during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842). During Abdur Rahman Khan's massacre of the Shi'ite minorities in Afghanistan, the Qizilbash were declared "enemies of the state" and were persecuted and hunted by the government and by the Sunni majority.[21] (See also: Reign of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan) The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (1844 - October 1, 1901), Emir of Afghanistan, was the third son of Afzul Khan, who was the eldest son of Dost Mahommed Khan, who had established the Barakzais family dynasty in Afghanistan. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Amir Abdur Rahman Khan Abdur Rahman Khan (c. ...


India and Pakistan

DURMISH KHAN SHAMLU's grandson ALI QULI KHAN SHAMLU assumed the governorship of Herat after his death. He was also appointed as the Lala or the Guardian of Prince Abbas Safavi. After Prince Abbas Safavi assumed the throne of Iran as Shah Abbas I, Ali Quli Khan was appointed as the Sipahsalar or the Commander-in-Chief of all the armed forces in late 16th century. After court intrigues against the Qizilbash influence in the Safavid empire convinced the Shah to dismiss Ali Quli Khan from the command of Iran's armed forces, his family eventually fled to Multan, India (now Pakistan) some time in the late 17th century. During 18th century two of his descendents migrated to the Mughal capital of Agra and established the two famous households of Agra, namely Katra Haji Hasan and Katra Gulab Khana. Katra Gulab Khana produced Mirza Muhammad Hussain Qizilbash alias Agha Muhammad Askari, the famous author of Qaul-e-Faisal. His son, Mirza Zakir Hussain Qizilbash,whose pen name was Saqib Lucknavi, gained the distinction of becoming the famous poet of Urdu during the late 19th and early 20th century. Saqib had migrated to Lucknow thus adopting the pen name Saqib Lucknavi. During the partition of India in 1947, most of the family moved to Pakistan. In Pakistan, the family produced such luminaries as Mumtaz Qizilbash, who was the Chief Minister of Khairpur, and Aftab-i-Alam Qizilbash, a prominent social worker and a politician. Qizalbash, is an influential and family with both political and financial world in Pakistan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Iran

The Qizilbash were still vital players in the success of the Safavid Empire - providing soldiers and assisting greatly in the flourishing economy, as well as in arts and literature. In addition, many Qizilbash became Ayatollahs or Mujtahids (important Shia scholars), teaching Iran's masses religious practices and belief. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ...


Syria

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Turkey

see: Alevis Alevis are adherents of a branch of Islam, related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in (majority Sunni) Turkey, among both Turks, Zazas, and Kurds. ...


Some Alevi- and Bektashi leaning religious or ethnic minorities in Anatolia go under the name of Qizilbash to the present day. Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are adherents of a religious community in Eastern Turkey and Kurdistan, it also has communities in the Balkans due to the presence of the Ottomans. ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: Bektaşi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...

It has been reported that, among the Ottoman Turks, kızılbaş has become something of a derogatory term and can be applied to groups that aren't necessarily associated with the Qazilbash of Central Asia. The Bektaşi in Turkey are often referred to as Kızılbaşi[22]

These accounts certify the connection to Safavids within Alevi-Bektashi community of Turkey; as some of their towns and villages maintain legendary connections to Sultan Haydar of Persia, even naming their towns after him[citation needed]. The Alevi population with connections to Qizilbash are ethnic Turks, Zaza, and Kurds. The Bektashi order (Turkish: Bektaşi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Haydar means Lion in Arabic. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Zaza may refer to: The Zaza people, an ethnic group in Eastern Anatolia (Southeastern Turkey). ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...


See also

Sufism is a mystic tradition that is practised by some muslims and some non-muslims and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... A secret society is a social organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation or club ceremonies—from outsiders. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Moojan Momen, "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam", Yale Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN-0-300-03499-7, pp. 101-107
  2. ^ Note: Tāj, meaning crown in Persian, is also a term for hats used to delineate one's affiliation to a particular Sufi order.
  3. ^ Roger M. Savory (ref. Abdülbaki Gölpinarli), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005
  4. ^ F.W. Bussell, "Persistence of Primitive Beliefs in Theology" Folklore. 28 (3), 1917, pp. 279-294
  5. ^ Roger M. Savory, "The office of khalifat al-khulafa under the Safawids", in JOAS, lxxxv, 1965, p. 501
  6. ^ Moojan Momen, "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam", Yale Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN-0-300-03499-7, p. 397
  7. ^ a b c V. Minorsky, "Tadhkirat al-muluk", London 1943, p. 16-18, p.188
  8. ^ Roger M. Savory, "The consolidation of Safavid power in Persia", in Isl., 1965
  9. ^ Roger M. Savory in Islamic Studies: Journal of the Central Institute of Islamic Research, "The significance of the political murder of Mirza Salman", Karachi, 1964
  10. ^ a b Roger M. Savory, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Safavids", Online Edition, 2005
  11. ^ Roger M. Savory, "The significance of the political murder of Mirza Salman", in "Studies on the history of Safawid Iran", xv, pp. 186-187
  12. ^ H.A.R. Gibb & H. Bowen, "Islamic society and the West", i/2, Oxford, 1957, p. 189
  13. ^ M.J. McCaffrey, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Čālderān", v, pp. 656-8, (LINK)
  14. ^ Roger M. Savory in Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Dīv Soltān", Online Edition, 2005, (LINK)
  15. ^ M. Köhbach in Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Peace of Amasya", v, p. 928, Online Edition, (LINK)
  16. ^ C. Fleischer, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Allāhverdi Khān", v, pp. 891-892, Online Edition, 2005, (LINK)
  17. ^ Mountstuart Elphinstone, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, pp. 320-321
  18. ^ Henry Yule, "Hobson-Jobson", London, 1886, p. 380
  19. ^ Lady Sale, "A Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan 1841-42", London, Murray 1843, p. IX
  20. ^ Vincent Eyre, "The Military Operations at Cabul", London, Murray, MDCCCXLIII, p. XXXI.
  21. ^ U.S. Library of Congress, "Afghanistan: The society and its environment", index s.v. Qizilbash, (LINK)
  22. ^ J.W. Crowfoot, "Survivals among the Kappadokian Kizilbash (Bektash)", Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 30., 1900, pp. 305-20

  Results from FactBites:
 
Afghanistan - Qizilbash (189 words)
The Qizilbash of Mediterranean sub-stock speak Dari, are Imami Shi'a, and scattered throughout Afghanistan, primarily in urban centers.
The Qizilbash are traditionally considered to be the descendants of Persian Shia mercenaries and administrators left behind by the Safavid Emperor Nadir Shah Afshar (1736-47) to govern the Afghan provinces.
Amir Abdur Rahman accused the Qizilbash of being partisan to the enemy during his campaigns against the Shi'a Hazara in 1891-1893, declared them enemies of the state, confiscated their property and persecuted them.
1524-37. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (770 words)
Until the early decades of the 18th century, large quantities of silk were shipped from Iran to commercial centers such as Aleppo and Bursa and from there distributed in the region and reexported to Marseilles, London, and Venice.
This son of Tahmasp was brought to power by a Qizilbash faction interested in a prince whose mother was Turkoman rather than Circassian or Georgian.
This strengthened his authority in the provinces at the expense of the Qizilbash, although the rapacious practices of the shah's tax collectors tended to undermine the prosperity of agriculture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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