FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Qing dynasty
大清
Great Qing
 
Flag
1636 – 1912

Flag of Qing Dynasty Shun Dynasty was a pseudo imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_1912-1928. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ...


Flag (1890-1912)

Anthem
Gong Jin'ou (1911)
Location of Qing Dynasty
Qing China at its greatest extent.
Territories in light green represent the affiliated states of Qing.
Capital Shengjing
(1636-1644)

Beijing
(1644-1912)
Language(s) Chinese
Manchu
Mongolian
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji
 - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor
Prime Minister
 - 1911 Yikuang
 - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai
History
 - Establishment of the Late Jin 1616
 - Renamed from "Late Jin" to "Qing" 1636, 1636
 - Captured Beijing June 6, 1644
 - Xinhai Revolution February 12, 1912
Population
 - 1776 est. 311,500,000 
 - 1790 est. 300,000,000 
 - 1820 est. 383,100,000 
 - 1851 est. 436,000,000 
 - 1865 est. 255,960,000 
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2070–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BCE
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–619
Tang Dynasty 618–907
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1911–1949
People's Republic
of China
1949–present

Republic of China
(on Taiwan) A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Gong Jinou (鞏金甌, lit. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Shenyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÄ›nyáng, Manchu: Mukden) is the capital city of Liaoning province in Northeast China. ... Peking redirects here. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Qing Dynasty was founded as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616 by Nurhaci, a Manchu of the Aisin-Gioro Clan, and changed its name to Qing in 1636. ... Manchu name Manchu: (Hong Taiji) Huang Taiji (1592 – September 21, 1643; reigned 1626 – 1643), also transliterated as Hong Taiji or Hung Taiji based on the Manchu language, was the first Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China. ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over... This is a list of the Premiers of China since 1911. ... Yikuang, the Prince Qing, in Imperial Robes Yikuang, the Prince Qing (Simplified Chinese: 庆亲王奕劻, Wade-Giles:Prince Ching, February 1836 - January 1918) was a Manchu noble of the late Qing Dynasty. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Peking redirects here. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Xia Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: hsia-chao), ca. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...


Timeline of Chinese history
Dynasties in Chinese history
Military history of China
Naval history of China
Economic history of China
Linguistic history of China
History of Chinese art
History of science and technology in China
History of education in China
This box: view  talk  edit

The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ch'ing ch'ao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин Улс), also known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the last ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1911. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in what is today northeast China (Manchuria). Starting in 1644 it expanded into China proper and its surrounding territories, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing (simplified Chinese: 大清国; traditional Chinese: 大清國; pinyin: dàqīngguó). The Qing Dynasty was the last Imperial dynasty of China. Declared as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616, it changed its name to "Qing", meaning "clear" or "pellucid", in 1636 and captured Beijing in 1644. By 1646 it had come into power over most of present-day China, although complete pacification of China would not be accomplished until 1683. The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Image File history File links Daicing_gurun. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Aisin Gioro (Chinese: 愛新覺羅; pinyin: ixīn j o1) was the family name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... Peking redirects here. ...


During its reign, the Qing Dynasty was highly integrated with Chinese culture. However, its military power weakened during the 1800s, and faced with international pressure, massive rebellions and defeats in wars, the Qing Dynasty declined after the mid-19th century. The Qing Dynasty was overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, when Empress Dowager Longyu abdicated on behalf of the last emperor, Puyi, on February 12, 1912. Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (Chinese: 隆裕皇后), (given name: Jingfen 靜芬) (1868 - 1913). ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Formation of the Manchu State

Flag of Qing Dynasty, 1862–1890
Flag of Qing Dynasty, 1862–1890

The Dynasty was founded not by the Han Chinese who form the majority of the Chinese population, but the Manchus, who are today an ethnic minority within China. The Manchus are decended from Jurchens (Zh: 女真), a Tungusic people who lived around the region now comprising the Russian province of Primorsky Krai and the Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang and Jilin. What was to become the Manchu state was founded by Nurhaci, the chieftain of a minor Jurchen tribe in Jianzhou (Zh: 建州), in the early seventeenth century. Originally a vassal of Ming Dynasty, Nurhaci in 1582 embarked on an inter-tribal feud that escalated into a campaign to unify the Jianzhou Jurchen tribes. By 1616 he had sufficiently consolidated Jianzhou region to proclaim himself Khan of 'Great Jin' in reference to the previous Jurchen dynasty. Historians refer to this pre-Qing entity as 'Later Jin' to distinguish it from the first Jin Dynasty. Two years later Nurhachi openly renounced the sovereignty of Ming's overlordship in order to complete the unification of those Jurchen tribes still allied to Ming Dynasty. After a series of successful battles he relocated his capital from Hetu Ala to successively bigger captured Ming cities in the province of Liaodong (Zh: 辽东), first Liaoyang (Zh: 辽阳; Ma: dergi hecen) in 1621 and again in 1625 to Shenyang (Zh: 沈阳; later renamed Shengjing; Zh: 盛京; Ma: Mukden). Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1862. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1862. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The term Tungusic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Tungusic languages. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... This article is about the title. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Liaodong Peninsula (sim. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Liaoyang (Simplified Chinese: 辽阳; Traditional Chinese: 遼陽; Pinyin: Liáoyáng) is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the beautiful and rich Liaodong Peninsula. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... This article is about a city. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Relocating his court from Jianzhou to Liaodong provided Nurhaci a bigger power base in terms of human and material resources; geographically it also brought him in close contact with the Mongol domains on the plains of Mongolia. Although by this time the once united Mongol nation under Genghis Khan had long fragmented into individual and at times hostile tribes, these disunited tribes still presented a serious security threat to Ming's borders. Nurhaci's policy towards the Mongols was to seek their friendship and cooperation, thus securing the Jurchen's western front from a potential enemy. Furthermore, the Mongols proved a useful ally in the war lending the Jurchens their traditional expertise as cavalry archers. To cement this new alliance Nurhaci initiated a policy of inter-marriages between Jurchen and those Mongolian nobility compliant to Jurchen leadership, while those who resisted were met with military action. This is a typical example of Nurhachi's many initiatives that eventually became official Qing government policy, as such Nurhachi is widely credited by historians as well as his descendents - successive Qing emperors as the founder of the Dynasty. Some of Nurhaci's other important contributions include ordering the creation of a written Manchu language based on Mongolian script, and the creation of the civil and military administrative system that eventually evolved into the Manchu Banners the defining element of Manchu identity, thus laying foundation for transforming the loosely knitted Jurchen tribes into a nation. The Liaodong Peninsula (sim. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The term Mongolian alphabet may refer to any of three scripts used over the centuries to write the Mongolian language. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakÅ«n gÅ«sa, In Chinese: å…«æ—— baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...

Qing Dynasty era brush container
Qing Dynasty era brush container

Nurhaci's unbroken series of military successes came to an end in January 1626 when he was dealt his first major military defeat by general Yuan Chonghuan while laying siege to the Ming city of Ningyuan. (Please read Battle of Ningyuan). He died a few months later[1] and was succeeded by his eighth son Hung Taiji who emerged after a short political struggle amongst other potential contenders as the new Khan. Although an experienced general and the commander of two Banners at the time of his succession, Hung Taiji's reign did not start well on the military front. The Jurchens suffered yet another defeat in 1627 at the hands of Yuan Chonghuan. As was in the previous year this defeat was the result of the superior firepower of Ming forces' newly acquired Portuguese sourced cannons. To redress the technological and numerical disparity Hung Taiji in 1634 created his own artillery corps (Zh: 重军, Ma: ujen chooha) from amongst his existing Han troops who casted their own cannons from European design with the help of captured Chinese artisans. In 1635 the Manchu's Mongolian allies were fully incorporated into a separate Banner hierarchy under direct Manchu command. Hong Taiji then defeated in 1637 the army of King Injo of Korea with the aftermath being that (i) Korea becomes a tributary state of the Manchus and (ii) Korea will serve in the upcoming war against Ming China. Together with the Korean troops and troops formed from the various tribes conquered in Manchuria, the Manchus led by Hung Taiji were able to resoundingly defeat Ming forces in a series of battles from 1640 to 1642 for the territories of Songshan (Zh: 松山)) and Jingzhou (Zh: 锦州)). This final victory resulted in the surrender of many of Ming Dynasty's most battle hardened troops and the complete permanent withdrawal of remaining Ming forces from lands north of the Great Wall. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Combatants Manchurian Army Ming army Commanders Nurhaci Yuan Chonghuan Strength 130,000- 200,000 3000-10,000 Casualties Immense, along with the Manchurian Emperor, Nurhaci Few Battle of Ningyuan was a battle between Ming Dynasty and Later Jin in 1626. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... This article is about the title. ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakÅ«n gÅ«sa, In Chinese: å…«æ—— baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; style name: Yuansu 元素 and Ziru 自如; June 6, 1584 – September 22, 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


On the civil front, Hung Taiji, on the advice of surrendered Ming officials, set up a rudimentary bureaucratic system based on the Ming model of government. Hung Taiji's bureaucracy was staffed with an unprecedented number of Han Chinese, many of them newly surrendered Ming officials. However Jurchen continued dominance in government was ensured by an ethnic quota for top bureaucratic appointments. Hung Taiji's reign also saw a fundamental change of policy towards his Han Chinese subjects. Whereas under Nurhaci all captured Han Chinese were seen as a potential fifth column for the Ming Dynasty and treated as chattel - including those who eventually held important government posts, Hung Taiji in contrast incorporated them into the Jurchen "nation" as full if not first class citizens who too were obligated to provide military service. This change of policy not only increased Hung Taiji's powerbase and reduced his military dependence on those Banners not under his personal control, it also greatly encouraged other Han Chinese subjects of Ming Dynasty to surrender and accept Jurchen rule when they were defeated militarily. Through these and other measures Hung Taiji was able to centralize power unto the office of the Khan which in the long run prevented the Jurchen federation from fragmenting after his death. Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... A fifth column is a group of people which clandestinely undermines a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakÅ«n gÅ«sa, In Chinese: å…«æ—— baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... This article is about the title. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...


One of the most defining events of Hung Taiji's reign was the official adoption of the name "Manchu" (Zh: 满族; Ma: ) for all Jurchen people in November 1635. And when the imperial seal of the Yuan emperors was presented to Hung Taiji by Ejei Khan the son of Lingdan Khan, the last grand-Khan of the Mongols, Hung Taiji in 1636 renamed the state from "Later Jin" to "Great Qing" and elevated his position from Khan to Emperor, suggesting imperial ambitions beyond unifying Manchu territories. Some sources suggested that the name "Qing" was chosen in reaction to that of the Ming Dynasty (明) which consists of the Chinese characters for sun (日) and moon (月), which are associated with the fire element. The character Qing (清) is composed of the water (水) radical and the character for blue-green (青), which are both associated with the water element. Other suggested that the name change went a long way to rehabilitate the Manchu state in the eyes of the Ming era Han Chinese who being heavily infleunced by a Neo-Confucian education system had regarded the former Jurchen Jin dynasty as foreign invaders. Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Image File history File links Manjui_gisun. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Ejei Khongghor or Ejei Khan was the son of Lingdan Khan, the last in the line of Mongol Khans, who ruled over China as the Yuan Dynasty. ... Lingdan Khutaghtu Khan, also Ligdan, Legdan or Likdan (ruled 1604-1634), was the last in the Chahar dynasty of Mongol Khans. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... This article is about the title. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Jin may refer to: In Chinese history: Jin (廑), a ruler of the Xia dynasty (2033 BC–1562 BC) Jin (state) (746 BC-403 BC) (晉), a state in northern China during the Spring and Autumn Period Jin Dynasty, used to refer to a number of Chinese dynastic kingdoms: Jìn Dynasty...


Claiming the Mandate of Heaven

Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759 AD, by Shen Quan (1682—1760). Hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk. The Palace Museum, Beijing.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759 AD, by Shen Quan (1682—1760). Hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk. The Palace Museum, Beijing.

Hung Taiji died suddenly in September 1643 without a designated heir. Because Jurchen had traditionally "elected" their leader through a council of nobles, the Qing state did not have in place a clear succession system until the reign of Emperor Kangxi. The leading contenders for power at this time were Hung Taiji’s eldest son Hooge and Hung Taiji’s agnate half brother Dorgon. In the ensuing political impasse between two bitter political rivals a compromise candidate in the person of Hung Taiji’s five year old son Fulin was installed as Emperor Shunzhi with Dorgon as regent and de facto leader of the Manchu nation. Fortunately the Manchus' nemesis the Ming Dynasty was fighting for its own survival against a long drawn peasant rebellion and was unable to capitalise on the Qing court’s political uncertainty over the succession dispute and installation of a minor as Emperor. Ming Dynasty's internal crisis came to a head in 1644, when the capital at modern day Beijing was sacked by a coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, a minor Ming official turned leader of a peasant revolt. The last Ming Emperor Chongzhen committed suicide when the city fell, marking the official end of the dynasty. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 307 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1366 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 307 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1366 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Hall of Supreme Harmony (太和殿) at the centre of the Forbidden City The Forbidddden City (紫禁城, pinyin: Zǐjìn Chéng, literal meaning: Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient City of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the... Peking redirects here. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Hooge (Manchu: ; Chinese: 豪格; 1609-1648) was the eldest son of Emperor Hong Taiji of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Brother and Sister redirect here. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Peking redirects here. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li HóngjÄ« (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself ChuÇŽng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Chongzhen Emperor (WG: Chung-chen) (1611 - 1644) was last emperor of Ming dynasty in China between 1627 and 1644. ...


After easily taking Beijing in April, 1644, Li Zicheng led a coalition of rebel forces numbering 200,000[2] to confront Wu Sangui, the general commanding Ming's garrison at Shanhai Guan (Zh:山海關). Shanhai Guan is a pivotal pass of the Great Wall of China located fifty miles northeast of Beijing and for years its defenses were what kept the Manchus from directly raiding the Ming capital. Wu caught between a rebel army twice his size and a foreign enemy he had fought for years, decided to cast his lot with the Manchus which he was familiar with and made an alliance with Dorgon to fight the rebels. Some sources suggested that Wu Sangui's actions were influenced by news of mistreatment of his family and his concubine Chen Yuanyuan at the hands of the rebels when the Ming capital fell. Regardless of the actual reason(s) for his decision[3], this awkward and some would say cynical alliance between Wu Sangui and his former sworn enemy was ironically made in the name of avenging the death of Ming Emperor Chongzhen. Together, the two former enemies met and defeated Li Zicheng's rebel forces in battle on May 27, 1644. After routing Li's forces the Manchu captured Beijing on June 6 where Emperor Shunzhi was installed as the "Son of Heaven" on October 30. The Manchus who had positioned themselves as political heir to the Ming Emperor by defeating Li Zicheng, completed the symbolic act of transition by holding a former funeral for Emperor Chongzhen. However the process of conquest took another seventeen years of battling Ming loyalists, pretenders and rebels. The last Ming pretender, Prince Gui, sought refuge with the King of Burma a vassal of the Ming Dynasty but was turned over to a Qing expeditionary army commanded by Wu Sangui who had him brought back to Yunnan province and executed in early 1662. Peking redirects here. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li HóngjÄ« (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself ChuÇŽng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... First Gate Under Heaven, under repairs in 2003. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... First Gate Under Heaven, under repairs in 2003. ... In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Peking redirects here. ... In military science, defense (or defence) is the art of preventing an enemy from conquering territory. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... Chen Yuanyuan (Chinese: 陈圆圆; 1624–1681), born Xing Yuan (邢沅), lived near the end of the Ming Dynasty, and was a concubine of Wu Sangui. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Chongzhen Emperor (WG: Chung-chen) (1611 - 1644) was last emperor of Ming dynasty in China between 1627 and 1644. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li HóngjÄ« (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself ChuÇŽng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li HóngjÄ« (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself ChuÇŽng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Peking redirects here. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Lǐ Zìchéng (李自成) (September 22, 1606 - 1644), born Li HóngjÄ« (鴻基), was a rebel in late Ming Dynasty China who proclaimed himself ChuÇŽng Wáng (闖王), or The Roaming King. Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣), Yanan Subprefecture (延安府), Shaanxi, Li grew up as a shepherd. ... Chongzhen Emperor (WG: Chung-chen) (1611 - 1644) was last emperor of Ming dynasty in China between 1627 and 1644. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... The Prince of Gui (桂王) or the Yongli Emperor, was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty in China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... Yunan redirects here. ...

A Chinese paddle-wheel driven ship from a Qing Dynasty encyclopedia published in 1726.
A Chinese paddle-wheel driven ship from a Qing Dynasty encyclopedia published in 1726.

The first seven years of Shunzhi’s reign was dominated by the regent prince Dorgon who because of his own political insecurity within the Manchu power structure followed Hung Taiji’s example of centralizing power unto himself in the name of the Emperor at the expense of other contenting Manchu princes many whom eventually were demoted or imprisoned under one pretext or another. Although the period of his regency was relatively short, Dorgon cast a long shadow over the Qing Dynasty. Firstly the Manchus were able to enter "China Proper" only because of Dorgon’s timely decision to act on Wu Sangui’s appeal for military assistance. After capturing Beijing instead of sacking the city as the rebels had done before them, Dorgon insisted over other Manchu princes on making it Qing’s capital and largely reappointed Ming officials back to their posts. Setting the Qing capital in Beijing may seem a straight forward move with hindsight, but it was then an act of innovation because historically no major Chinese dynasty had ever "inherited" its immediate predecessor’s capital. Keeping the Ming capital and bureaucracy intact helped quickly stabilize the country and greatly sped up Manchu's process of conquest. However not all of Dorgon’s policies were equally popular nor easily implemented. One of his most controversial decisions was his 1646 imperial edict ordering all Han Chinese men to follow Manchu custom of dressing including shaving the front of their heads and combing the remaining hair into a queue. To the Manchus this policy might both be a symbolic act of submission and in practical terms an aid in identification of friend from foe, however for the Han Chinese it totally went against their traditional Confucian values[4]. Unsurprisingly it was deeply unpopular and together with other policies unfavourable towards the Han Chinese might account for the increasingly steep resistance met by Qing forces after 1646. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (405 × 604 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (405 × 604 pixel, file size: 122 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... Peking redirects here. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ...


Dorgon died suddenly while on a hunting expedition in 1651[5] marking the official start of Emperor Shunzhi’s personal rule. However because the Emperor was only twelve years old at that time, most decisions were made on his behalf by his mother, the Empress Dowager Xiao-Zhuang who turned out to be a skilled political operator. Although Dorgon’s “support” was paramount to Shunzhi’s ascend and rule in the early years of the Emperor’s reign, Dorgon had through the years centralised so much power unto his office as imperial regent to become a direct threat to the throne, so much so that upon his death Dorgon was extraordinarily bestowed the posthumous title of Emperor Yi (Zh: 義皇帝), the only instance in Qing history of a Manchu "prince of the blood" (Zh: 亲王) was so honoured. However two months into Shunzhi’s personal rule Dorgon was not only striped of his titles, but his corpse was disinterred and mutilated[6] to atone for multiple "crimes" - one of which was persecuting to death Shunzhi’s agnate eldest brother Hooge. More importantly Dorgon’s symbolic fall from grace also signalled a political purge of his family and associates in court thus reverting power back to the person of the Emperor. However from a promising start, Shunzhi’s reign was cut short by his early death in 1661 at the age of twenty-four from smallpox[7]. He was succeeded by his third son Xuan-Ye who became Emperor Kangxi. Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Empress Dowager (Chinese: 皇太后; Chinese Pinyin: , Korean pronunciation: Hwang Tae Hu, Japanese pronunciation: Kōtaigō, Vietnamese pronunciation: Hoàng Thái Hậu) was the title given to the mother of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or Vietnamese emperor. ... The Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: HiyooÅ¡ungga AmbalinggÅ« GenggiyenÅ¡u HÅ«wanghu; March 28, 1613 - January 27, 1688), known for the majority of her life under the title Grand Empress Dowager, was the mother of the Shunzhi Emperor and the grandmother of the Kangxi Emperor during the Qing... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... In hereditary monarchies, particularly in more ancient or in more underdeveloped times, seniority was a much used principle of order of succession. ... Hooge (Manchu: ; Chinese: 豪格; 1609-1648) was the eldest son of Emperor Hong Taiji of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... In history and political science, to purge is to remove undesirable people from a government, political party, profession, or from community/society as a whole, usually by violent means. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ... This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ...


Kangxi and consolidation

The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)

At sixty one years, Kangxi had the longest reign of any Emperor of China. But more importantly, apart from its length, Kangxi’s reign is also celebrated as the beginning of an era called “Kang-Qian Golden Age” (Zh: 康乾盛世) during which Qing Dynasty reached the zenith of its social, economic and military power. Kangxi’s long reign started when he was eight years old upon the untimely demise of his father. In order to prevent a repeat of Dorgon's dictatorial monopolizing of imperial powers during the period of regency, Emperor Shunzhi on his deathbed hastily appointed four senior cabinet ministers to govern on behalf of his young son. The four ministers--Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha, and Oboi--were chosen for their long service to the crown, but also to counteract each others' influences. Most importantly, the four were not closely related to the imperial family and laid no claim to the throne. However as time passed, through chance and machination, Oboi--the most junior of the four ministers--was able to achieve political dominance to such an extent as to become a potential threat to the crown. Even though Oboi's loyalty was never an issue, his personal arrogance and political conservatism led him to come into ever escalating conflict with the young Emperor. In 1669 Kangxi, through trickery, disarmed and imprisoned Oboi--a not insignificant victory for the fifteen-year-old Emperor, as Oboi was not only a wily old politician but also an experienced military commander. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1165, 192 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Qing Dynasty Chinese Rites controversy Kangxi Emperor List of longest reigning Monarchs in China ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x1165, 192 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Qing Dynasty Chinese Rites controversy Kangxi Emperor List of longest reigning Monarchs in China ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Dorgon (多爾袞 duo1 er3 gun3) (November 17, 1612 - December 31, 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang (和碩睿親王), was a Manchu prince in the early Qing dynasty. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Sonin, (?-1667) also known as Soni (Manchu: ; Chinese: 索尼), was a senior regent during Chinese Emperor Kang Xis minority in the Qing Dynasty. ... Ebilun was an assistant minister appointed by the Chinese Emperor Shunzhi for his successor, Emperor Kang Xi during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). ... A regent during the early reign of Chinese Emperor Kang Xi who was put to death by Oboi. ... Oboi (Ma: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?[1]-1669) was a highly decorated Manchurian military commander and courtier who served in various martial and administrative posts under three successive Emperors of early Qing Dynasty ending his career as one of four ministers nominated by Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the regency... Oboi (Ma: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?[1]-1669) was a highly decorated Manchurian military commander and courtier who served in various martial and administrative posts under three successive Emperors of early Qing Dynasty ending his career as one of four ministers nominated by Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the regency... Oboi (Ma: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?[1]-1669) was a highly decorated Manchurian military commander and courtier who served in various martial and administrative posts under three successive Emperors of early Qing Dynasty ending his career as one of four ministers nominated by Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the regency... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... Oboi (Ma: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?[1]-1669) was a highly decorated Manchurian military commander and courtier who served in various martial and administrative posts under three successive Emperors of early Qing Dynasty ending his career as one of four ministers nominated by Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the regency... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... Oboi (Ma: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (?[1]-1669) was a highly decorated Manchurian military commander and courtier who served in various martial and administrative posts under three successive Emperors of early Qing Dynasty ending his career as one of four ministers nominated by Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the regency...


The Manchus found controlling the "Mandate of Heaven" a daunting task. The vastness of China's territory meant that there were only enough banner troops to garrison key cities forming the backbone of a defence network that relied heavily on surrendered Ming soldiers. In addition, three surrendered Ming generals were singled out for their contributions to the establishment of the Qing dynasty, ennobled as feudal princes (藩王), and given governorships over vast territories in Southern China. The chief of these was Wu Sangui (吳三桂), who was given the provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou, while generals Shang Kexi (尚可喜) and Geng Zhongming (耿仲明) were given the Guangdong and Fujian provinces, respectively. Mandate of Heaven (天命 PÄ«nyÄ«n: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Pilgrim flask, porcelain with underglaze blue and iron-red decoration. Qing dynasty, Qianlong period in the eighteenth century.
Pilgrim flask, porcelain with underglaze blue and iron-red decoration. Qing dynasty, Qianlong period in the eighteenth century.

As the years went by, the three feudal lords and their territories inevitably became increasingly autonomous. Finally, in 1673, Shang Kexi petitioned Kangxi Emperor, stating his desire to retire to his hometown in Liaodong (遼東) province and nominating his son as his successor. The young emperor granted his retirement, but denied the heredity of his fief. In reaction, the two other generals decided to petition for their own retirements to test Kangxi's resolve, thinking that he would not risk offending them. The move backfired as the young emperor called their bluff by accepting their requests and ordering all three fiefdoms to be reverted back to the crown. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1039 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Qing Dynasty Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1039 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Qing Dynasty Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... “Fine China” redirects here. ...


Faced with the stripping of their powers, Wu Sangui felt he had no choice but to rise up in revolt. He was joined by Geng Zhongming and by Shang Kexi's son Shang Zhixin (尚之信). The ensuing rebellion lasted for eight years. At the peak of the rebels' fortunes, they managed to extend their control as far north as the Yangtze River (長江). Ultimately, though, the Qing government was able to put down the rebellion and exert control over all of southern China. The rebellion would be known in Chinese history as the Revolt of the Three Feudatories. The Three Feudatories (Chinese: ; pinyin: sān fàn) were territories in southern China bestowed by the early Manchu rulers on three Chinese generals (Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong, and Shang Zhixin). ...


To consolidate the empire, Kangxi Emperor personally led China on a series of military campaigns against Tibet, the Dzungars, and later Russia. He arranged the marriage of his daughter to the Mongol Khan Gordhun to avoid a military conflict. Gordhun's military campaign against the Qing failed, further strengthening the Empire. Taiwan was also conquered by Qing Empire forces in 1683 from Zheng Jing's son, Zheng Keshuang. Zheng Keshuang's grandfather Koxinga had conquered Taiwan from the Dutch colonists to use it as a base against the Qing Dynasty. By the end of the seventeenth century, China was at the height of its most power since the early Ming Dynasty. This article needs cleanup, so as to conform to a higher standard. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... Zheng Jing (鄭經, pinyin: Zhèng Jīng, 1642_1681) was the son of Zheng Cheng_Gong. ... Zheng Keshuang (鄭克塽, 1669–1707 pinyin: Zhèng KèshuÇŽng) was the son of Zheng Jing. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


Kangxi Emperor also handled many Jesuit Missionaries that came to China hoping for mass conversions. Although they failed in their attempt, Kangxi peacefully kept the missionaries in Beijing. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors

The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, built in the eighteenth century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, built in the eighteenth century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

The reigns of the Yongzheng Emperor (r. 1723–1735) and his son the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–1796) marked the height of Qing's power. During this period, the Qing Dynasty ruled over 13 million square kilometres of territory. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 907 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chengde ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 907 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chengde ... The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, built in the 18th century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. ... The Putuo Zongcheng ticket to the summer resort (1984) Chengde (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngdé; Manchu: Erdemu be aliha fu) is a city approximately one hundred miles northeast of Beijing in northeastern Hebei province, situated near the Luan River. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


After the Kangxi Emperor's death in the winter of 1722, his fourth son Prince Yong (雍親王) succeeded him as the Yongzheng Emperor. Yongzheng remained a controversial character because of rumours about him usurping the throne, and in the late Kangxi years, he was involved in great political struggles with his brothers. Yongzheng was a hardworking administrator who ruled with an iron hand. His first big step towards a stronger regime came when he brought the State Examination System back to its original standards. In 1724, he cracked down on illegal exchange rates of coins, which was being manipulated by officials to fit their financial needs. Those who were found in violation of new laws on finances were removed from office, or in extreme cases, executed. The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ...


Yongzheng showed a great amount of trust in Han officials, and appointed many of his proteges to prestigious positions. Nian Gengyao was appointed to lead a military campaign in place of his brother Yinti in Qinghai. Nian's arrogant actions, however, led to his downfall in 1726. Yongzheng's reign saw consolidation of imperial power at its height in Chinese history. More territory was incorporated in the Northwest. A toughened stance was directed towards corrupt officials, and Yongzheng led the creation of a Grand Council, which grew to become the de facto Cabinet for the rest of the dynasty. Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Nian Gengyao (年羹尧 Courtesy Lianggong 亮功; d. ... YinTi (胤禵) (1688-1767) was Kang Xis fourteenth son who was said to be the favourite to succeed him. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... The Grand Council or Junjichu (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: JÅ«njÄ«chù; Manchu: coohai nashÅ«n i ba; literally, Office of Military Secrets) was an important policy-making body in the Qing Empire. ...


The Yongzheng Emperor died in 1735. This was followed by the succession of his son Prince Bao (寶親王) as the Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong was known as an able general. Succeeding the throne at the age of 24, Qianlong personally led the military in campaigns near Xinjiang and Mongolia. Revolts and uprisings in Sichuan and parts of southern China were successfully put down. The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ...


Around forty years into Qianlong's reign, the Qing government saw a return of rampant corruption. The official Heshen was arguably one of the most corrupt in the entire Qing Dynasty. He was eventually forced into committing suicide by Qianlong's son, the Jiaqing Emperor (r. 1796–1820). Heshen (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; other transliteration: Hoshen) (1750 - February 22, 1799), from the Manchu Niohuru clan, was a Manchu official of the Qing Dynasty. ... The Jia Qing Emperor (November 13, 1760 – September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ...


In 1796 open rebellion by the White Lotus Society against the Qing government broke out. The White Lotus Rebellion continued for eight years, until 1804, and shattered the myth of the military invincibility of the Manchus. White Lotus (Pai-lien chiao) sectarianism appealed to Chinese, most notably to women and to the poor, who found solace in worship of the Eternal Mother who was to gather all her children at the millennium into one family. ... The White Lotus Rebellion was a Chinese anti-Manchu uprising that occurred during the Ching dynasty. ...


Rebellion, unrest and external pressure

See also: Taiping Rebellion, Dungan revolt, Panthay Rebellion, and Nien Rebellion

A common view of nineteenth century China is that it was an era in which Qing control weakened and prosperity diminished. Indeed, China suffered massive social strife, economic stagnation, and explosive population growth which placed an increasing strain on the food supply. Historians offer various explanations for these events, but the basic idea is that Qing power was, over the course of the century, faced with internal problems and natural disasters which were simply too much for the antiquated Chinese government, bureaucracy, and economy to deal with. Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... The Nien Rebellion (Chinese: 捻軍起義; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: nien-chün chi-yi; Western historians have traditionally used the Wade-Giles transcription Nien, rather than Hanyu Pinyin Nian) was a large armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868. ...

Flag of Qing Dynasty, 1890–1912
Flag of Qing Dynasty, 1890–1912

The Taiping Rebellion in the mid-nineteenth century was the first major instance of anti-Manchu sentiment threatening the stability of the Qing dynasty, a phenomenon that would only increase in the following years. However, the horrific number of casualties of this rebellion—as many as 30 million people—and the complete devastation of a huge area in the south of the country have to a large extent been overshadowed by another significant conflict. Although not nearly as bloody, the outside world and its ideas and technologies had a tremendous and ultimately revolutionary impact on an increasingly weak and uncertain Qing state. The Qing government would go on to face more revolts, this time by Muslims who would fight the Panthay Rebellion (1856-1873) and the Dungan revolt (1862-1877). Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ...


One of the major issues affecting nineteenth-century China was the question of how to deal with other countries. Prior to the nineteenth-century, the Chinese empire was the hegemonic power in Asia. Under its imperial theory, the Chinese emperor had the rights to rule "all under heaven". Depending on the period and dynasty, it either ruled territories directly or neighbors fell under its hierarchical tributary system. Historians often refer to the underlying concept of Chinese empire as "an empire with no boundary." However, the eighteenth century saw the European empires gradually expand across the world, as European states developed stronger economies built on maritime trade. European colonies had been established in nearby India and on the islands that are now part of Indonesia, whilst the Russian Empire had annexed the areas north of China. In 1793, Great Britain attempted to forge an alliance with China, sending the Macartney Embassy to Hong Kong with gifts for the Emperor, including examples of the latest European technologies and art. When the British delegation received a letter from Peking explaining that China was unimpressed with European achievements, and that George III was welcome to pay homage to the Chinese court, the deeply offended British government aborted all further attempts to reconcile relations with the Qing regime. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... All under heaven (Chinese: 天下; pinyin: tiān xi ) is a concept in Chinese history. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Macartney Embassy, also called the Macartney Mission, was a British embassy to China in 1793. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... “George III” redirects here. ...

Xi Wang Mu ("Godmother of the West"), a Daoist deity, decor on a Qing dynasty porcelain plate, famille-rose-style, Yongzheng Emperor period, 1725 AD.
Xi Wang Mu ("Godmother of the West"), a Daoist deity, decor on a Qing dynasty porcelain plate, famille-rose-style, Yongzheng Emperor period, 1725 AD.

When the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, world trade rapidly increased, and as China's vast population offered limitless markets for European goods, trade between Chinese and European merchants expanded during the early years of the nineteenth century. This increased trade, though, led to increasing hostility between European governments and the Qing regime. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 841 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Xi Wang Mu (Godmother of the West), a daoist deity Decor on a Qing dynasty porcelain plate, famille-rose-style, Yongzheng period, approx. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 841 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Xi Wang Mu (Godmother of the West), a daoist deity Decor on a Qing dynasty porcelain plate, famille-rose-style, Yongzheng period, approx. ... Xiwangmu near Kaohsiung, Taiwan The Queen Mother of the West (西王母; pinyin XÄ«wángmÇ”), in Chinese mythology, is the ruler of the western paradise and goddess of immortality. ... Chrysanthemum styled porcelain vase with three colors from the Ming Dynasty at the National Museum of China Chinese Ceramics is a form of fine art developed since the dynastic periods. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von...


In 1793, the Qianlong Emperor stated to the British Ambassador Lord Macartney that China had no use for European manufactured products.[8] Consequently, leading Chinese merchants only accepted bar silver as payment for their goods. The huge demand in Europe for Chinese goods such as silk, tea, and ceramics could only be met if European companies funnelled their limited supplies of silver into China. By the late 1830s, the governments of Great Britain and France were deeply concerned about their stockpiles of precious metals and sought alternate trading schemes with China - the foremost of which was addicting China with opium. When the Qing regime tried to ban the opium trade in 1838, Great Britain declared war on China. George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney (14 May 1737 - 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Ancient Egyptian ceramic art: Louvre Museum. ...


The First Opium War revealed the outdated state of the Chinese military. The Qing navy, composed entirely of wooden sailing junks, was severely outclassed by the modern tactics and firepower of the Royal Navy at its apex. British soldiers, using modern rifles and artillery, easily outmanoeuvred and outgunned Qing forces in ground battles. The Qing surrender in 1842 marked a decisive, humiliating blow to China. The Treaty of Nanking, which demanded reparation payments, allowed unrestricted European access to Chinese ports, and ceded the island of Hong Kong to Great Britain. It revealed many inadequacies in the Qing government and provoked widespread rebellions against the already hugely unpopular regime. Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, Nánjīng Tiáoyuē) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: Xiānggǎngdǎo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory...


The Western powers, largely unsatisfied with the Treaty of Nanking, only gave grudging support to the Qing government during the Taiping and Nien Rebellions. China's income fell sharply during the wars as vast areas of farmland were destroyed, millions of lives lost, and countless armies raised and equipped to fight the rebels. In 1854, Great Britain tried to re-negotiate the Treaty of Nanking, inserting clauses allowing British commercial access to Chinese rivers and the creation of a permanent British embassy at Peking. This last clause outraged the Qing regime, who refused to sign, provoking another war with Britain. The Second Opium War ended in another crushing Chinese defeat, whilst the Treaty of Tianjin contained clauses deeply insulting to the Chinese, such as a demand that all official Chinese documents be written in English and a proviso granting British warships unlimited access to all navigable Chinese rivers. Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... The Nien Rebellion (Chinese: 捻軍起義; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: nien-chün chi-yi; Western historians have traditionally used the Wade-Giles transcription Nien, rather than Hanyu Pinyin Nian) was a large armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: Běijīng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... The Treaties of Tientsin (天津條約) were signed in Tianjin in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856-1860). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The rule of Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress Dowager Cixi

In the late nineteenth century, a new leader emerged. The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine to the Emperor Xianfeng (r. 1850–1861), the mother of child emperor Tongzhi, and Aunt of Guangxu successfully controlled the Qing government and was the de facto leader of China for 47 years. She staged a coup d'état to oust the regency led by Sushun appointed by the late Emperor. She was known for "ruling from behind the curtain" (垂簾聽政). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... A swampy marsh area ... The Xianfeng Emperor (July 17, 1831 - August 22, 1861) was the eigth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1850 to 1861. ... The Tongzhi Emperor (April 27, 1856–January 12, 1875) was the ninth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the eigth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875. ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian(載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1875 to 1908. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Coup redirects here. ... Emperor Sushun (崇峻天皇) was the 32nd imperial ruler of Japan (587-592). ...


By the 1860s, the Qing dynasty had put down the rebellions with the help of militia organized by the gentry. The Qing government then proceeded to deal with problem of modernization, which it attempted with the Self-Strengthening Movement. Several modernized armies were formed, including the much renowned Beiyang Army; however, the fleets of "Beiyang" were annihilated in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), which produced calls for greater and more extensive reform. After the start of the twentieth century, the Qing Dynasty was in a dilemma. It could proceed with reform and thereby alienate the conservative gentry or it could stall reform and thereby alienate the revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty tried to follow a middle path, but proceeded to alienate everyone. Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Self-Strengthening Movement (Traditional Chinese: ; c 1861–1894) was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Japan and Qing China fought the First Sino-Japanese War (or the Qing-Japanese War) during 1894 and 1895, primarily over control of Korea. ...


Ten years into the reign of Guangxu (r. 1875–1908), western pressure on China was so great that she forcefully gave up all sorts of power. In 1898 Guangxu attempted the Hundred Days' Reform (百日維新/戊戌變法), in which new laws were put in place and some old rules were abolished. Newer, more progressive-minded thinkers like Kang Youwei were trusted and recognized conservative-minded people like Li Hongzhang were removed from high positions. But the ideals were stifled by Cixi and Guangxu was jailed in his own palace. Cixi concentrated on centralizing her own power base. At the occasion of her sixtieth Birthday, she spent over 30 million taels of silver for the decorations & events, funds that were originally to improve the weaponry of the Beiyang Navy. The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian(載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1875 to 1908. ... The Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... Kang Youwei (Chinese: 康有為; March 19, 1858–March 31, 1927) was a Chinese scholar and political reformist. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ... The tael (兩), PY: Liang, was part of the Chinese system of weights and currency. ... Ding Yuan, the flagship of Beiyang Fleet The Beiyang Fleet (Traditional Chinese: 北洋艦隊; Simplified Chinese: 北洋舰队; Pinyin: Bêiyáng Jiàndùi) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty. ...


In 1901, following the murder of the German Ambassador, the Eight-Nation Alliance (八國聯軍) entered China as a united military force for the second time. Cixi reacted by declaring war on all eight nations, only to lose Beijing under their control within a short period of time. Along with the Guangxu Emperor, she fled to Xi'an. As a military compensation, the Alliance listed scores of demands on the Qing Government, including an initial hit list which had Cixi as No. 1. Li Hongzhang was sent to negotiate and the Alliance backed down from several of the demands. Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Peking redirects here. ... Xian redirects here. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ...


Qing government and society

Qing China in 1892
Qing China in 1892

Download high resolution version (888x725, 778 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (888x725, 778 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Politics

The Qing were very clever in stabilizing the government. The most important administrative body of the Qing dynasty was the Trung Council which was a body composed of the emperor and high officials. The Qing dynasty was characterized by a system of dual appointments by which each position in the central government had a Manchu and a Han assigned to it. During the Qianlong Emperor's reign, for example, members of his family were distinguished by garments with a large circular emblem on the back, whereas a Han could only hope to wear clothing with a square emblem; this meant effectively that any guard in the court could immediately distinguish family members from the back view alone. The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


With respect to Mongolia, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan, like other dynasties before it the Qing maintained imperial control, with the emperor acting as Mongol khan, patron of Tibetan Buddhism and protector of Muslims. However, Qing policy changed with the establishment of Xinjiang province in 1884. In response to British and Russian military action in Xinjiang and Tibet, the Qing sent Army units which performed remarkably well against British units. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


The abdication of the Qing emperor inevitably led to the controversy about the status of territories in Tibet and Mongolia. It was and remains the position of Mongols and Tibetans, that because they owed allegiance to the Qing monarch, that with the abdication of the Qing, they owed no allegiance to the new Chinese state. This position was rejected by the Republic of China and subsequent People's Republic of China which claims that these areas were integral parts of Chinese dynasties even before the Qing, and that regardless of Hans, Manchus, Mongols, or other ethnic groups, all established Sino-centric based dynasties, and claimed legitimacy and history as part of imperial China over two thousands years. The Western powers accepted the latter theory, partly in order to prevent a scramble for China.


Bureaucracy

Qing Dynasty vases, in the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon
Qing Dynasty vases, in the Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon

The Qing Dynasty inherited many important institutions from the preceding Ming dynasty. The formal structure of the Qing government centered around the Emperor as the absolute ruler, who presided over six ministries (or boards), each headed by two presidents (Ch: Shàngshū, 尚書; Ma: Aliha amban) and assisted by four vice presidents (Ch: Shìláng, 侍郎; Ma: Ashan i amban). In contrast to the Ming system, however, Qing ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split between Manchu noblemen and Han officials who had passed the highest levels of the state examinations. The Grand Secretariat (Ch: Nèigé 內閣; Ma: Dorgi yamun), which had been an important policy making body during Ming, lost its importance during Qing and evolved into an imperial chancery. The institutions which had been inherited from the Ming dynasty formed the core of the Qing "outer court", which handled routine matters and was located in the southern part of the Forbidden City. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 413 KB) Summary Qing Dynasty vases, in the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 413 KB) Summary Qing Dynasty vases, in the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ...


In order not to let the routine administration take over the running of the empire, the Manchu Qing emperors made sure that all important matters were decided in the "Inner Court," which was dominated by the imperial family and Manchu nobility and which was located in the northern part of the Forbidden City. A central part of the inner court was the Grand Council, a body initially in charge of military and intelligence matters, but which later assumed the role of supervising all government departments. Ministers posted to the Grand Council served as the emperor's privy council and they were collectively known as privy councillors.[9] The Grand Council or Junjichu (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Jūnjīchù; Manchu: coohai nashūn i ba; literally, Office of Military Secrets) was an important policy-making body in the Qing Empire. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ...


The six ministries and their respective areas of responsibilities were as follows:


Board of Civil Appointments (Ch: Lìbù, 吏部; Ma: Hafan i jurgan) - The personnel administration of all civil officials - including evaluation, promotion, and dismissal. It was also in charge of the 'honours list'.


Board of Finance (Ch: Hùbù, 户部; Ma: Boigon i jurgan) - The literal translation of the Chinese word 'hù'(户)is 'household'. For much of the Qing Dynasty's history, the government's main source of revenue came from taxation on landownership supplemented by official monopolies on essential household items such as salt and tea. Thus, in the predominantly agrarian Qing dynasty, the 'household' was the basis of imperial finance. The department was charged with revenue collection and the financial management of the government.


Board of Rites (Ch: Lǐbù, 禮部; Ma: Dorolon i jurgan) - This was responsible for all matters concerning protocol at court, which included not just the periodic worshiping of ancestors and various gods by the Emperor—in his capacity as the "Son of Heaven" (Tiānzǐ, 天子), to ensure the smooth running of the empire—but also looking after the welfare of visiting ambassadors from tributary nations. The Chinese concept of courtesy (lǐ, 禮), as taught by Confucius, was considered an integral part of education. An intellect was said to "know of books and courtesy (rites)" ("知書達禮"). Thus, the ministry's other function was to oversee the nationwide civil examination system for entrance to the bureaucracy. Because democracy was unknown to pre-Republican China, neo-Confucian philosophy saw state sponsored exams as the way to legitimize a regime by allowing the intelligentsia participation in an otherwise autocratic and unelected system.

A stamp in Qing Dynasty

Board of War (Ch: Bīngbù, 兵部; Ma: Coohai jurgan) - Unlike its Ming Dynasty predecessor, which had full control over all military matters, the Qing Dynasty Board of War had very limited powers. First, the Eight Banners were under the direct control of the Emperor and hereditary Manchu and Mongolian princes, leaving the ministry only with authority over the Green Standard Armies. Furthermore, the ministry's functions were purely administrative - campaigns and troop movements were monitored and directed by the Emperor, first through the Manchu ruling council, and later through the Grand Council. Image File history File links Stamp_in_qing_dynasty. ... Image File history File links Stamp_in_qing_dynasty. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakÅ«n gÅ«sa, In Chinese: å…«æ—— baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... Green Standard Army is the name of a category of military units under the control of the Qing Dynasty in China. ...


Board of Punishments (Ch: Xíngbù, 刑部; Ma: Beidere jurgan) - The Board of Punishments handled all legal matters, including the supervision of various law courts and prisons. The Qing legal framework was relatively weak compared to modern day legal systems, as there was no separation of executive and legislative branches of government. The legal system could be inconsistent, and, at times, arbitrary, because the emperor ruled by decree and had final say on all judicial outcomes. Emperors could (and did) overturn judgements of lower courts from time to time. Fairness of treatment was also an issue under the apartheid system practised by the Manchu government over the Han Chinese majority. To counter these inadequacies and keep the population in line, the Qing maintained a very harsh penal code towards the Han populace, but it was no more severe than previous Chinese dynasties. The Great Qing Legal Code or Qing Code (Chinese: 大清律例; Manchu: Daicing gurun-i fafun-i bithe kooli) was the legal code of Qing dynasty (1644-1912). ...


Board of Works (Ch: Gōngbù, 工部; Ma: Weilere jurgan) - The Board of Works handled all governmental building projects, including palaces, temples and the repairs of waterways and flood canals. It was also in charge of minting coinage.


In addition to the six boards, there was a Court of Colonial Affairs unique to the Qing government. This institution was established to supervise the administration of Tibet and the Mongolian lands. As the empire expanded, it took over administrative responsibility of all minority ethnic groups living in and around the empire, including early contacts with Russia—then seen as a tribute nation. The office had the status of a full ministry and was headed by officials of equal rank. However, appointees were at first restricted only to candidates of Manchurian and Mongolian ethnicity. To the south, Manchuria was separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, a ditch and embankment planted with willows intended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria, as the area was off-limits to the Han until the Qing started colonizing the area with them later on in the dynasty's rule.[10] The Court of Colonial Affairs (Manchu: Tulergi golo be darasa jurgan; Mongol: γadaγdu mongγul un törü-ji jasaqu jabudal-un jamun; Chinese: Lǐfànyuàn, 理藩院) was an agency in the Qing government which supervised the Qing Empires Mongolian dependencies and its relations to Tibet. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Willow Palisade was a system of ditches and embankments planted with willows intended to restrict movement into Manchuria. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Even though the Board of Rites and the Court of Colonial Affairs performed some duties of a foreign office, they fell short of developing into a professional foreign service. This stemmed from the traditional imperial world view of seeing China as the centre of the world and viewing all foreigners as uncivilized barbarians unworthy of equal diplomatic status. It was not until 1861—a year after losing the Second Opium War to the Anglo-French coalition—that the Qing government bowed to foreign pressure and created a proper foreign affairs office known by as the Zongli Yamen. The office was originally intended to be temporary and was staffed by officials seconded from the Grand Council. However, as dealings with foreigners became increasingly complicated and frequent, the office grew in size and importance, aided by revenue from customs duties which came under its direct jurisdiction. Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... Zongli Yamen (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tsungli Yamen) was the name of the government office/department of foreign relations (or Foreign Office) of imperial China during the Qing dynasty. ...


Military

Beginnings and early development

The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Twelve: Return to the Palace (detail), 1764—1770, by Xu Yang
The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Twelve: Return to the Palace (detail), 1764—1770, by Xu Yang

The development of Qing military system can be divided into two broad periods separated by the Taiping rebellion (1850–1864). Early Qing military was rooted in the Manchu banners first developed by Nurhachi as a way to organize Jurchen society beyond petty clan affiliations. There are eight banners in all, differentiated by colours. The banners in their order of precedence were as follows: Yellow, Bordered Yellow (i.e yellow banner with red border), White, Red, Bordered White, Bordered Red, Blue, & Bordered Blue. The Yellow, Bordered Yellow, and White banners were collectively known as the 'Upper Three Banners' (Zh: 上三旗) and were under the direct command of the Emperor. Only Manchus belonging to the Upper Three Banners, and selected Han Chinese who had passed the highest level of martial exams were qualified to serve as the Emperor's personal bodyguards. The remaining Banners were known as 'The Lower Five Banners' (Zh: 下五旗) and were commanded by hereditary Manchurian princes descended from Nurhachi's immediate family, known informally as the 'Iron Cap Princes' (Zh: 鐵帽子王). Together they formed the ruling council of the Manchu nation as well as high command of the army. In 1730, the Emperor Yongzheng established the Grand Council (Zh: 軍機處; Pinyin: Jūnjīchù; Ma: Cooha nashūn i ba) at first to direct day to day military operations, but gradually Junjichu took over other military and administrative duties and served to centralize authority unto the crown. However, the Iron Cap Princes continued to exercise considerable influence over the political and military affairs of Qing government well into the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1063 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 395 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 1063 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711 – February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: gūsa, In Chinese: 旗 qí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The Yongzheng Emperor (December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... The Grand Council or Junjichu (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: JÅ«njÄ«chù; Manchu: coohai nashÅ«n i ba; literally, Office of Military Secrets) was an important policy-making body in the Qing Empire. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Qianlong Emperor (September 25, 1711–February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. ...


As Qing power expanded north of the Great Wall in the last years of the Ming Dynasty, the Banner system was expanded by Nurhachi's son and successor Hung Taiji to include mirrored Mongolian and Han Banners. After capturing Beijing in 1644 and as the Manchu rapidly gained control of large tracts of former Ming territory, the relatively small Banner armies were further augmented by the Green Standard Army (Zh: 綠營兵) which eventually outnumbered Banner troops three to one. The Green Standard Army so-named after the colour of their battle standards was made up of those Ming troops who had surrendered to the Qing. They maintained their Ming era organization and were led by a mix of Banner and Green Standard officers. The Banners and Green Standard troops were standing armies, paid for by central government. In addition, regional governors from provincial down to village level maintained their own irregular local militias for police duties and disaster relief. These militias were usually granted small annual stipends from regional coffers for part-time service obligations. They received very limited military drill if at all and were not considered combat troops. The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... For other uses, see Ming. ... Nurhaci or Nurgaci (Chinese: 努爾哈赤) (1559-September 30, 1626; r. ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ... Peking redirects here. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...


Peace and stagnation

A red lacquer box from the Qing Dynasty.
A red lacquer box from the Qing Dynasty.

Banner Armies were broadly divided along ethnic lines, namely Manchurian and Mongolian. Although it must be pointed out that the ethnic composition of Manchurian Banners was far from homogeneous as they include non-Manchu bondservants registered under the household of their Manchu masters. As the war with Ming Dynasty progressed and the Han Chinese population under Manchu rule increased, Hung Taiji created a separate branch of Han Banners to draw on this new source of manpower. However these Han bannermen were never regarded by the government as equal to the other two branches due to their relatively late addition to the Manchu cause as well as their Han Chinese ancestry. The nature of their service - mainly as infantry, artillery and sappers, was also alien to the Manchurian nomadic traditions of fighting as cavalry. Furthermore, after the conquest the military roles played by Han Bannermen were quickly subsumed by the Green Standard Army. The Han Banners ceased to exist altogether after Emperor Yongzheng's Banner registration reforms aimed at cutting down imperial expenditures. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Graved Red Lacquer Box Qing Dynasty Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) Photographer:user:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 15. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 654 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Graved Red Lacquer Box Qing Dynasty Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) Photographer:user:Dr. Meierhofer Date: 15. ... In a general sense, lacquer is a clear or coloured coating, that dries by solvent evaporation only and that produces a hard, durable finish that can be polished to a very high gloss, and gives the illusion of depth. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Hong Taiji (Chinese: 皇太極; also known as 洪太極 or 黃台吉; sometimes referred to as Abahai), (1592-1643), was Manchu emperor first of the Later Jin dynasty and then, after he changed its name, of the Qing dynasty, reigning from 1626 to 1643. ...


The socio-military origins of the Banner system meant that population within each branch and their sub-divisions were hereditary and rigid. Only under special circumstances sanctioned by imperial edict were social movements between banners permitted. In contrast, the Green Standard Army was originally intended to be a professional force. However during protracted period of peace in China from the eighteenth to mid nineteenth century, recruits from farming communities dwindled, due partly to Neo-Confucianism's negative stance on military careers. In order to maintain strengths, the Green Standard Army began to internalize, and gradually became hereditary in practice. The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakūn gūsa, In Chinese: 八旗 baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ...


After defeating the remnants of the Ming forces, the Manchu Banner Army of approximately 200,000 strong at the time was evenly divided; half was designated the Forbidden Eight Banner Army (禁旅八旗 Jìnlǚ Bāqí) and was stationed in Beijing. It served both as the capital's garrison and Qing government's main strike force. The remainder of the Banner troops was distributed to guard key cities in China. These were known as the Territorial Eight Banner Army (駐防八旗 Zhùfáng Bāqí). The Manchu court keenly aware its own minority status reinforced a strict policy of racial segregation between the Manchus and Mongols from Han Chinese for fear of being sinitized by the latter. This policy applied directly to the Banner garrisons, most of which occupied a separate walled zone within the cities they were stationed in. In cities where there were limitation of space such as in Qingzhou (青州), a new fortified town would be purposely erected to house the Banner garrison and their families. Beijing being the imperial seat, the Regent Dorgon had the entire Chinese population forcibly relocated to the southern suburbs which became known as the "Outer Citadel" (外城 wàichéng). The northern walled city called "Inner Citadel" (內城 nèichéng) was portioned out to the remaining Manchu eight Banners, each responsibled for guarding a section of the Inner Citadel surrounding the Forbidden City palace complex (紫禁城 Zǐjìnchéng). For other uses, see Ming. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ...


The policy of posting Banner troops as territorial garrison was not to protect but to inspire awe in the subjugated populace at the expense of their expertise as cavalry. As a result, after a century of peace and lack of field training the Manchurian Banner troops had deteriorated greatly in their combat worthiness. Secondly, before the conquest the Manchu banner was a 'citizen' army, and its members were Manchu farmers and herders obligated to provide military service to the state at times of war. The Qing government's decision to turn the banner troops into a professional force whose every welfare and need was met by state coffers brought wealth, and with it corruption, to the rank and file of the Manchu Banners and hastened its decline as a fighting force. This was mirrored by a similar decline in the Green Standard Army. During peace time, soldiering became merely a source of supplementary income. Soldiers and commanders alike neglected training in pursuit of their own economic gains. Corruption was rampant as regional unit commanders submitted pay and supply requisitions based on exaggerated head counts to the quartermaster department and pocketed the difference. When the Taiping rebellion broke out in 1850s the Qing Court found out belatedly that the Banner and Green Standards troops could neither put down internal rebellions nor keep foreign invaders at bay. Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5...


Transition and modernization

General Zeng Guofan

Early during the Taiping rebellion, Qing forces suffered a series of disastrous defeats culminating in the loss of the regional capital city of Nanjing (南京) in 1853. The rebels massacred the entire Manchu garrison and their families in the city and made it their capital. Shortly thereafter a Taiping expeditionary force penetrated as far north as the suburbs of Tianjin (天津) in what was considered Imperial heartlands. In desperation the court ordered a Chinese mandarin Zeng Guofan (曾國藩) to organize regional and village militias (Tuányǒng 團勇 and Xiāngyǒng 鄉勇) into a standing army to contain the rebellion. Zen's strategy was to rely on local gentries to raise a new type of military organization from those provinces that the Taiping rebels directly threatened. This new force became known as the Xiang Army (湘軍), named after Hunan region where it was raised. Xiang Army was a hybrid of local militia and a standing army. It was given professional training, but was paid for by regional coffers and funds its commanders—mostly Chinese gentries—could muster. Xiang Army and its successor the Huai Army (淮軍) created by Zen's colleague and pupil Li Hongzhang (李鴻章)were collectively called Yongying (勇營). Image File history File links Zeng_Guofan. ... Image File history File links Zeng_Guofan. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... Taiping (also Itu Aba, Chinese: 太平島) is the largest island of Nansha Islands (Spratly Islands) in the South China Sea. ... General Zeng Guofan Marquess ZÄ“ng Guófán, (t. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Li Hongzhang (February 15, 1823 – November 7, 1901) was a Chinese general who ended several major rebellions, and a leading statesman of the late Qing Empire. ...


Prior to forming and commanding the Xiang Army, Zen had no military experience. Being a classically educated Mandarin his blueprint for the Xiang Army was taken from a historical source — the Ming Dynasty General Qi Jiguang (戚繼光) who because of the weakness of regular Ming troops had decided to form his own 'private' army to repel raiding Japanese pirates in the mid sixteenth century. Qi's doctrine was based on Neo-Confucian ideas of binding troops' loyalty to their immediate superiors and also to regions from which they were raised. This initially gave the troops an excellent esprit de corps. However, Qi's Army was an ad hoc solution to the specific problem of combating pirates, as was Zen's original intend for the Xiang Army that to eradicate the Taiping rebels. However, circumstances saw that the Yongying system became a permanent institution within the Qing military, which in the long run created problems of its own for the beleaguered central government. For other uses, see Ming. ... Statue of Qi Jiguang in Penglai, Shandong Province Qi Jiguang ( Simplified Chinese: 戚继光; Traditional Chinese: 戚繼光; Pinyin: qī jì gūang) ( November 12, 1528 - January 5, 1588) was a Chinese military general and national hero during the Ming Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ...

Qing troops training in Western drill

Firstly, Yongying system signalled the end of Manchu dominance in Qing military establishment. Although the Banners and Green Standard armies lingered on as parasites depleting resources, henceforth the Yongying corps became Qing government's de facto first-line troops. Secondly the Yongying corps were financed through provincial coffers and were led by regional commanders. This devolution of power weakened the central government's grip on the whole country, a weakness further aggravated by foreign powers vying to carve up autonomous colonial territories in different parts of the Empire in the later half of the nineteenth century. Despite these serious negative effects the measure was deemed necessary as tax revenue from provinces occupied and threatened by rebels had ceased to reach the cash-strapped central government. Finally, the nature of Yongying command structure fostered nepotism and cronyism amongst its commanders whom as they ascended up the bureaucratic ranks laid the seeds to Qing's eventual demise and the outbreak of regional warlordism in China during the first half of the twentieth century. Image File history File links Qing_Dynasty_troop. ... Image File history File links Qing_Dynasty_troop. ... German Emperors bore the title of Warlord (German: Kriegsherr), sometimes as a formal label of honour, sometimes in grim earnest. ...

Beiyang Army in training
Beiyang Army in training

By late nineteenth century, China was fast descending into a semi-colonial state. Even the most conservative elements within the Qing court could no longer ignore China's military weakness in contrast to the foreign "barbarians" literally beating down its gates. In 1860, during the Second Opium War the capital Beijing was captured and the (Old) Summer Palace sacked by a relatively small Anglo-French coalition force numbering 25,000. Although the Chinese pride themselves as the inventor of gunpower, and firearms had been in continual use in Chinese warfare since as far back as the Sung Dynasty, the advent of modern weaponry resulting from the European Industrial Revolution had rendered China's traditionally trained and equipped army and navy obsolete. The government attempts to modernize during the Self-Strengthening Movement were in the view of most historians with hindsight piecemeal and yielded little lasting results. Various reasons for the apparent failure of late-Qing modernization attempts have been advanced including the lack of funds, lack of political will, and unwillingness to depart from tradition. These reasons remain disputed.[11] Image File history File links Beiyang_Army. ... Image File history File links Beiyang_Army. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Self-Strengthening Movement (Traditional Chinese: ; c 1861–1894) was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ...


Losing the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895 was a watershed for the Qing government. Japan, a country long regarded by the Chinese as little more than an upstart nation of pirates, had convincingly beaten its larger neighbour and in the process annihilated the Qing government's pride and joy—its modernized Beiyang Fleet then deemed to be the strongest naval force in Asia. In doing so, Japan became the first Asian country to join the previously exclusively western ranks of colonial powers. The defeat was a rude awakening to the Qing court especially when set in the context that it occurred a mere three decades after the Meiji reforms set a feudal Japan on course to emulate the Western nations in their economic and technological achievements. Finally, in December 1894, the Qing government took some concrete steps to reform military institutions and to re-train selected units in westernized drills, tactics and weaponry. These units were collectively called the New Army (新式陸軍), the most successful of which was the Beiyang Army (北洋軍) under the overall supervision and control of an ex-Huai Army commander, the Han Chinese general Yuan Shikai (袁世凱), who exploited his position to eventually become Republic president, dictator and finally abortive emperor of China. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Ding Yuan, the flagship of Beiyang Fleet The Beiyang Fleet (Traditional Chinese: 北洋艦隊; Simplified Chinese: 北洋舰队; Pinyin: Bêiyáng Jiàndùi) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The New Armies (Simplified Chinese: 新军) were the modernized Qing armies trained and equipped according to western standards. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


Fall of the dynasty

Yuan Shikai was an adept politician and general

By the early twentieth century, mass civil disorder had begun and continuously grown. Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu emperor both died in 1908, leaving a relatively powerless and unstable central authority. Puyi, the eldest son of Zaifeng, Prince Chun, was appointed successor at age two, leaving Zaifeng with the regency. This was followed by the dismissal of General Yuan Shikai from his former positions of power. In mid 1911 Zaifeng created the "Imperial Family Cabinet", a ruling council of the Imperial Government almost entirely consisting of Aisin Gioro relatives. This brought a wide range of negative opinions from senior officials like Zhang Zhidong. http://history. ... http://history. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the... 2nd Prince Chun The 2nd prince Chun (醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Aisin Gioro (Chinese: 愛新覺羅; pinyin: ixīn j o1) was the family name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty. ... Zhang Zhidong (Chinese:张之洞; Wade-Giles: Chang Chih-Tung; Courtesy Xiaoda 孝达; Pseudonyms: Xiangtao 香涛, Xiangyan 香岩, Yigong 壹公, Wujing-Jushi 无竞居士, later Baobing 抱冰; Posthumous name: Wenxiang 文襄) (1837—1909) was an eminent Chinese politician during the late Qing Dynasty who advocated for controlled reform. ...


The Wuchang Uprising succeeded on October 10, 1911, and was followed by a proclamation of a separate central government, the Republic of China, in Nanjing with Sun Yat-sen as its provisional head. Numerous provinces began "separating" from Qing control. Seeing a desperate situation unfold, the Qing government brought an unwilling Yuan Shikai back to military power, taking control of his Beiyang Army, with the initial goal of crushing the revolutionaries. After taking the position of Prime Minister (內閣總理大臣) and creating his own cabinet, Yuan went as far as to ask for the removal of Zaifeng from the regency. This removal later proceeded with directions from Empress Dowager Longyu. The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Yehenara, Empress Xiao Ding Jing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后叶赫那拉氏); is better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (Chinese: 隆裕皇后), (given name: Jingfen 靜芬) (1868 - 1913). ...


With Zaifeng gone, Yuan Shi-kai and his Beiyang commanders effectively dominated Qing politics. He reasoned that going to war would be unreasonable and costly, especially when noting that the Qing Government had a goal for constitutional monarchy. Similarly, Sun Yat-sen's government wanted a Republican constitutional reform, both aiming for the benefit of China's economy and populace. With permission from Empress Dowager Longyu, Yuan began negotiating with Sun Yat-sen, who decided that his goal had been achieved in forming a republic, and that therefore he could allow Yuan to step into the position of President of the Republic. In 1912, after rounds of negotiations, Longyu issued the Imperial Edict bringing about the abdication of the child emperor Puyi. Puyi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ) (February 7, 1906–October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the last Emperor of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling as the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) between 1908 and 1911, and non-ruling emperor between 1911 and 1924), the twelfth emperor of the...


The collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912 brought an end to over 2,000 years of imperial China and began an extended period of instability of warlord factionalism. Obvious political and economic backwardness combined with widespread criticism of Chinese culture led to questioning and doubt about the future. China's turbulent history since the overthrow of the Qing may be understood at least in part as an attempt to understand and recover significant aspects of historic Chinese culture and integrate them with influential new ideas that have emerged within the last century. The Qing dynasty is the source of much of this magnificent culture, but its perceived humiliations also provide much from which to learn.

Preceded by
Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
1644 – 1912
Succeeded by
Republic of China

For other uses, see Ming. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Officially Qing court history states that Nurhachi died from illness. However because the cause of death mentioned is unusually vague, some historians propose that based on historical circumstantial evidence and through reading official Ming court history (Zh:《明熹宗实录》) Nurhaci might have died from cannon wounds sustained at the siege of Liaoning.
  2. ^ The exact figure of Li Zicheng's rebel forces at the battle of Shanhai Guan is disputed. Some primary sources such as the official Qing & Ming Court histories (Zh: 《清世祖实录》, 《明史》) cited 200,000. Whereas other sources cited figures varying from 60,000 to 400,000. In view of "established tradition" of victors inflating the strength of their vanquished enemies to play up the magnitude of their victories, as well as armies inflating their own strength to bolster morale, these "official figures" should be taken with a pinch of salt. Modern historians generally estimate Li's army to be no larger than 100,000.
  3. ^ The motivation of Wu Sangui's actions, apart from obvious self-preservation, was never fully explained. Most primary sources including the Ming and Qing official court histories are understandably bias against a person who turned "traitor" to both parties.
  4. ^ The classical Confucian tract 'On Filial Piety' states that "A person's body and hair, being gifts from one's parents, are not to be damaged." (Zh:《孝经》: 身体发肤,受之父母,不敢毁伤。), Prior to Qing dynasty adult Han Chinese men customarily did not cut their hair but instead wore it in the form of a top-knot.
  5. ^ Dorgon's death is sometimes misquoted as 1650 because the Chinese lunar calendar does not fall exactly into the corresponding solar year, the exact date of Dorgon's death was on the ninth day of the twelfth month in the seventh year of Shunzhi's reign (Zh: 順治七年十二月九日) which falls on January 1651.
  6. ^ This event was recorded by a visiting Italian Jesuit Martin Martinius in his account "Bellum Tartaricum" with original text in Latin, first published in Rome 1654. First English edition, London: John Crook, 1654.
  7. ^ Contrary to mainstream historical opinion, a 1912 manuscript copy of an earlier document titled "Chronicles of the Rebellion of Prince Yanping" (Zh:《延平王起义实录》) discovered in 1992 by a descendant of Koxinga claimed that Emperor Shuzhi was killed by a cannon barrage from Koxinga’s Navy while personally directing the campaign to capture the island of Taiwan.
  8. ^ For a translation of the emperor's letter, see Têng Ssu-yü and John King Fairbank, eds., China's Response to the West: A Documentary Survey, 1839–1923 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979).
  9. ^ Beatrice S. Bartlett. Monarchs and Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing China, 1723–1820. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.
  10. ^ Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." Journal of Asian Studies 59, no. 3 (2000): 603-46.
  11. ^ Wakeman, Fredric. China in Disintegration. 

Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... First Gate Under Heaven, under repairs in 2003. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Wu Sangui (Chinese: 吳三桂; pinyin: Wú Sānguì; WG: Wu San-kuei) (1612 - October 2, 1678) was a Ming Chinese general who opened the gates of the Great Wall of China at Shanhai Pass to let Manchu soldiers into China proper. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The Great Qing Legal Code or Qing Code (Chinese: 大清律例; Manchu: Daicing gurun-i fafun-i bithe kooli) was the legal code of Qing dynasty (1644-1912). ... The Qing Dynasty was founded as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616 by Nurhaci, a Manchu of the Aisin-Gioro Clan, and changed its name to Qing in 1636. ... This is a list of Manchu clans. ... . ... The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. ... The headwear of an official during the Manchu Dynasty in China consisted of (in winter) a black velvet cap, or (in summer) a hat weaved in rattan or similar materials, both with a finial on top. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... ... Mongolia (Mongolian Proper, including modern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tannu Urianhai, Höh Nuur - Qinghai, Ili Tarbagatai - Northern Xinjiang and excluding Buryatia) was subject to Qing dynasty between the end of the 17-th and beginning of the 20-th centuries. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The following table of Chinese monarchs is in no way inclusive. ...

External links

Recommended Reading

  • Elliot, Mark C. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001
  • Spence, Jonathan. The Search for Modern China. New York: W W Norton & Company, 1990
  • Spence, Jonathan. God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan. New York: W W Norton & Company, 1997


  Results from FactBites:
 
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Qing dynasty (1316 words)
Chinese Revolution of 1911 The overthrow of the Manchu QING dynasty and the establishment of a Chinese republic.
Talons and Teeth: County Clerks and Runners in the Qing Dynasty.
have unearthed 41 tombs from the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) in Shexian county in...
b. The Qing Dynasty. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (1250 words)
In agriculture, the development of faster-ripening strains of rice—30-day growing cycles were achieved in Qing times—made possible larger yields, which in turn meant more crops and the ability to sustain more people from the same amount of land.
Ultimately, the Qing sent an armada to put an end to the Zhengs' attacks on its coast, when Zheng Keshuang (1670–1707), Zheng Jing's son and the last of the Zhengs to control Taiwan, surrendered to the Qing.
Qing military colonies were established in the region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m