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Encyclopedia > Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
Ancestral name (姓): Ying (嬴)
Clan name (氏): Zhao¹ (趙),or Qin² (秦)
Given name (名): Zheng (政)
King of the State of Qin
Dates of reign: July 247 BCE–221 BCE
Official title: King of Qin (秦王)
Emperor of Qin Dynasty
Dates of reign: 221 BCE–Sept. 10, 210 BCE
Official title: First Emperor (始皇帝)
Temple name: None.
Posthumous name: None.
Dates are in the proleptic Julian calendar
———
1. As appears in the Records of the Grand Historian
by Sima Qian. Apparently, the First Emperor being born
in the State of Zhao where his father was a hostage, he later
adopted Zhao as his clan name (in ancient China clan names
often changed from generation to generation), but this is
not completely certain.

2. Based on ancient Chinese naming patterns, we can infer that
Qin was the clan name of the royal house of the State of Qin,
derived from the name of the state.

The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: 秦始皇; pinyin: Qín Shǐ Huáng; Wade-Giles: Ch'in Shih-huang) (259 BCESeptember 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BCE to 210 BCE, ruling under the name the First Emperor (Chinese: 始皇帝; pinyin: Shǐ Huáng Dì; Wade-Giles: Shih Huang-Ti). As the ruler of the Great Qin, he was known for the introduction of Legalism and also for unifying China. Image File history File links Qinshihuang2. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 45 BC. Historians since Bede have traditionally represented the years preceding AD 1 as 1 BC, 2 BC, etc. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... (Redirected from 259 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC 261 BC 260 BC - 259 BC... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 210 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... (Redirected from 247 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC... (Redirected from 221 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... (Redirected from 221 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC... (Redirected from 210 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... In Chinese history, Legalism (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fa-chia; literally School of law) was one of the four main philosophic schools in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (Near the end of the Zhou dynasty from about the sixth century BC to about the third...


Qin Shi Huang remains a controversial figure in Chinese history. Having unified China, he and his chief adviser Li Si passed a series of major reforms aimed at cementing unification, and they undertook some gigantic projects, most notably the precursor version of the current Great Wall of China, a city-sized mausoleum guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army, and a massive national road system, at the expense of numerous human lives. To ensure stability, he outlawed Confucianism and buried many of its scholars alive, banning and burning all books other than those officially decreed. Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Inside a building showing part of the re-assembled Terracotta Army standing in ranks in the pit. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


For all the tyranny of his autocratic rule, Qin Shi Huang is still regarded by many today as a pivotal figure in Chinese history whose unification of China has endured for more than two millennia (with interruptions). This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ...

Contents

Naming conventions

Qin Shi Huang was born in the Chinese month zhēng (正), the first month of the year in the Chinese calendar then in use, like January is now, and so he received the name Zheng (政), both characters being used interchangeably in ancient China. In Chinese antiquity, people never joined family names and given names together as is customary for all Chinese names today. Therefore, it is anachronistic to refer to Qin Shi Huang as "Ying Zheng". The given name was never used except by close relatives; it is incorrect to call Qin Shi Huang "Prince Zheng", or alternatively by the common dynastic term "King Zheng of Qin". As a king, he was referred to as "King of Qin" only. Had he received a posthumous name after his death like his father, he would have been known by historians as "King NN. (posthumous name) of Qin". A family name or surname is the part of a persons name indicating the family to which the person belongs. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After conquering the last independent Chinese state in 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang was the king of a state of Qin ruling over the whole of China, an unprecedented accomplishment. Wishing to show that he was no longer a simple king like the kings of old during the Warring States Period, he created a new title, huangdi (皇帝), combining the word huang (皇) from the legendary Three Huang (Three August Ones) who ruled at the dawn of Chinese history, and the word di (帝) from the legendary Five Di (Five Sovereigns) who ruled immediately after the Three Huang. These Three Huang and Five Di were considered perfect rulers, of immense power and very long lives. The word huang also meant "big", "great". The word di also referred to the Supreme God in Heaven, creator of the world. Thus, by joining these two words for the first time, Qin Shi Huang created a title on a par with his feat of uniting the seemingly endless Chinese realm, in fact uniting the world. Ancient Chinese, like ancient Romans, believed their empire encompassed the whole world, a concept referred to as all under heaven. (Redirected from 221 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from 2500 BC to 2205 BC, which is the time preceding the Xia dynasty. ... The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from 2500 BC to 2205 BC, which is the time preceding the Xia dynasty. ... All under heaven (Chinese: 天下; pinyin: tiān xi ) is a concept in Chinese history. ...


This word huangdi is rendered in English as "emperor", a word which also has a long history dating back to ancient Rome, and which English-speakers commonly deem to be superior to the word "king". Qin Shi Huang adopted the name First Emperor (Shi Huangdi, literally "commencing emperor"). He abolished posthumous names, by which former kings were known after their death, judging them inappropriate and contrary to filial piety, and decided that future generations would refer to him as the First Emperor (Shi Huangdi). His successor would be referred to as the Second Emperor (Er Shi Huangdi, literally "second generation emperor"), the successor of his successor as the Third Emperor (San Shi Huangdi, literally "third generation emperor"), and so on, for ten thousand generations, as the Imperial house was supposed to rule China for that long. ("Ten thousand" is equivalent to "forever" in Chinese, and also signifies "good fortune".) An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Filial piety is extended into the afterlife. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Romaji: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: The use of the phrase ten thousand years in various East Asian languages originated in ancient China as an expression used to wish long life to the Emperor, and is typically translated as long live...


Qin Shi Huang had now become the First Emperor of the State of Qin. The official name of the newly united China was still "State of Qin", as Qin had absorbed all the other states. The names Zhonghua (中華) or Zhongguo (中國) were never used officially for the country of China until 1912 when the Republic of China (中華民國) was founded. Contemporaries called the emperor "First Emperor", dropping the phrase "of the State of Qin", which was obvious without saying. However, soon after the emperor's death, his regime collapsed, and China was beset by a civil war. Eventually, in 202 BCE the Han Dynasty managed to reunify the whole of China, which now became officially known as the State of Han (漢國), or Empire of Han. Qin Shi Huang could no longer be called "First Emperor", as this would imply that he was the "First Emperor of the Empire of Han". The custom thus arose of preceding his name with Qin (秦), which no longer referred to the State of Qin, but to the Qin Dynasty, a dynasty replaced by the Han Dynasty. The word huangdi (emperor) in his name was also shortened to huang, so that he became known as Qin Shi Huang. It seems likely that huangdi was shortened to obtain a three-character name, because it is rare for Chinese people to have a name composed of four or more characters. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... (Redirected from 202 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded...


This name Qin Shi Huang (i.e., "First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty") is the name that appears in the Records of the Grand Historian written by Sima Qian, and is the name most favored today inside China when referring to the First Emperor. Westerners sometimes write "Qin Shi Huangdi", which is improper given Chinese naming conventions; it is more conventional to write "Qin Shi Huang" or "First Emperor of Qin". The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ...


Youth and King of Qin: the conqueror

At the time of the young Zheng's birth, China was divided into warring feudal states. This period of Chinese history is referred to as the Warring States Period. The competition was extremely fierce and by 260 BCE there were only a handful of states left (the others having been conquered and annexed), including Zheng's state, Qin, which was the most powerful. It was governed by a Legalist government and focused earnestly on military matters. Legalism taught that laws were obeyed out of fear not respect. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Examples of feudalism#China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... (Redirected from 260 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC 261 BC - 260 BC... Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦), pronounced something like Shin, (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ...


Zheng was born in Handan, the capital of the enemy State of Zhao, so he had the name Zhao Zheng. He was the son of Zichu (子楚), a prince of the royal house of Qin who served as a hostage in the State of Zhao under an agreement between the states of Qin and Zhao. Zichu later returned to Qin after many adventures and with the help of a rich merchant called Lü Buwei, and he managed to ascend the throne of Qin, Lü Buwei becoming chancellor (prime minister) of Qin. Zichu is known posthumously as King Zhuangxiang of Qin. According to a widespread story, Zheng was not the actual son of Zichu, but the son of the powerful chancellor Lü Buwei. This tale arose because Zheng's mother had originally been a concubine of Lü Buwei before he gave her to his good friend Zichu shortly before Zheng's birth. However, the story is dubious since the Confucians would have found it much easier to denounce a ruler whose birth was illegitimate. Handan (Simplified: 邯郸; Traditional: 邯鄲; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei Province of China. ... State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Lü Buwei (Chinese: 呂不韋; pinyin: lÇš bù wéi) - according to Chinese beliefs, he was the real father of the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, Ying Zheng(贏政). The story that he was the real father came about because Qin Shi Huangs mother, the queen, was originally a concubine... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... King Zhuangxiang of Qin, personal name Zichu, was a ruler of the State of Qin, a part of what is now China, during the 3rd century BCE. This article is based on the biography of Lü Buwei which is part of the Records of the Grand Historian written by Sima... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Zheng ascended the throne in 245 BCE at the age of 13, and was king under a regent until 238 BCE when, at the age of 21 and a half, he staged a palace coup and assumed full power. Contrary to the accepted rules of war of the time, he ordered the execution of prisoners of war. He continued the tradition of tenaciously attacking and defeating the feudal states (dodging a celebrated assassination attempt by Jing Ke while doing so) and finally took control of the whole of China in 221 BCE by defeating the last independent Chinese state, the State of Qi. (Redirected from 245 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC 246 BC - 245 BC... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... (Redirected from 238 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC 239 BC - 238 BC... Coup redirects here. ... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... (Redirected from 221 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC... State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ...


Then in that same year, at the age of 38, the king of Qin proclaimed himself First Emperor, making him the most powerful man in China (see chapter above).


First Emperor: the unifier

始皇帝 Shǐ Huángdì"First Emperor"(small seal scriptfrom 220 BCE)
始皇帝
Shǐ Huángdì
"First Emperor"
(small seal script
from 220 BCE)

To avoid a recurrence of the political chaos of the Warring States Period, Qin Shi Huang and his prime minister Li Si completely abolished feudalism. They instead divided the empire into thirty-six commanderies. Power in the commanderies was in the hands of governors dismissed at will by the central government. Civilian and military powers were also separated to avoid too much power falling in the hands of a single civil servant. Thus, each commandery was run by a civilian governor (守 shōu) assisted by a military governor (尉 wèi). The civilian governor was superior to the military governor, a constant in Chinese history. The civilian governor was also reassigned to a different commandery every few years to prevent him from building up a base of power. An inspector (監 jiàn) was also in post in each commandery, in charge of informing the central government about the local implementation of central policies, reporting on the governors' exercise of power, and possibly resolving conflicts between the two governors. Image File history File links 始皇帝_(篆文).svg‎ This is a vector version (created in Inkscape) of a very low-quality JPEG found at w:Image:ShiHuangDi1. ... Image File history File links 始皇帝_(篆文).svg‎ This is a vector version (created in Inkscape) of a very low-quality JPEG found at w:Image:ShiHuangDi1. ... 《尋隱者不遇》—賈島 松下問童子 言師採藥去 隻在此山中 雲深不知處 Seeking the Master but not Meeting by Jia Dao Beneath a pine I asked a little child. ... (Redirected from 220 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC - 220 BC... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Inspector is a rank in many police forces. ...


This administrative system was only an extension to the whole empire of the system already in place in the State of Qin before the Chinese unification. In the State of Qin, feudalism had been abolished in the 4th century BCE, and the realm had been divided into commanderies, with centrally appointed governors. State of Qin (small seal script, 220 BC) Qin or Chin (Wade-Giles) (秦) (778 BC-207 BC) was a state during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of China. ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian...


Qin Shi Huang commanded all the members of the former royal houses of the conquered states to move to Xianyang, the capital of Qin, in modern day Shaanxi province, so they could be kept under tight surveillance for rebellious activities. Qin Shi Huang also ordered most previously existing books burned, excepting some medical and agricultural texts held in the palace archives. Xianyang (Simplified Chinese: 咸阳; Traditional Chinese: 咸陽; pinyin: ) was the capital of the state of Qin during the Warring States Period in Chinese history, and remained to be capital during the short-lived Qin Dynasty. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... To burn the classics and to bury the scholars (焚书坑儒) refers to a policy in the Qin Dynasty. ...


Qin Shi Huang and Li Si unified China economically by standardizing the Chinese units of measurements such as weights and measures, the currency, the length of the axles of carts (so every cart could run smoothly in the ruts of the new roads), the legal system, and so on. The emperor also developed an extensive network of roads and canals connecting the provinces to improve trade between them and to accelerate military marches to revolting provinces. Qin Shi Huang is additionally credited with inventing a primitive version of the first pool table. The Chinese units (Chinese: 市制; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally market system) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in China. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ...


Perhaps most importantly, the Chinese script was unified. Under Li Si, the seal script of the state of Qin, which had already evolved organically during the Eastern Zhou out of the Zhou dynasty script, was standardized through removal of variant forms within the Qin script itself. This newly standardized script was then made official throughout all the conquered regions, thus doing away with all the regional scripts and becoming the official script for all of China. Contrary to popular belief, Li Si did not invent the script, nor was it completely new at the time. Edicts written in the new script were carved on the walls of sacred mountains around China, such as the famous carved edicts of Mount Taishan, to let Heaven know of the unification of Earth under an emperor, and also to propagate the new script among people. However, the script was difficult to write, and an informal Qin script remained in use which was already evolving into an early form of clerical script. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... 《尋隱者不遇》—賈島 松下問童子 言師採藥去 隻在此山中 雲深不知處 Seeking the Master but not Meeting by Jia Dao Beneath a pine I asked a little child. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Tai Shan Porters at Tai Shan Taishan(泰山) is a mountain in Taian, Shandong, China. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The clerical script or chancery script (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: lìshu; Japanese: 隸書体, Reishotai;) is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which, due to its high legibility to modern readers, is still being used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards and advertisements. ...


Shi Huang made the color black the official court color. Among the five primary elements, the color for water is black. He often claimed that to Qin belongs the virtue of water. This might be due to his "taming of the Yellow River", a process of building numerous massive dams and tributaries to the Yellow River. Such an enormous undertaking certainly would not have been possible without a unified China.


Qin Shi Huang continued military expansion during his reign, annexing regions to the south (what is now Guangdong province was penetrated by Chinese armies for the first time) and fighting nomadic tribes to the north and northwest. These tribes (the Xiongnu) were subdued, but the campaign was essentially inconclusive, and to prevent the Xiongnu from encroaching on the northern frontier any longer, the emperor ordered the construction of an immense defensive wall, linking several walls already existing since the time of the Warring States. Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


This wall, for whose construction hundreds of thousands of men were mobilized, and an unknown number died, is a precursor of the current Great Wall of China. It was built much further north than the current Great Wall, which was built during the Ming Dynasty, when China had at least twice as many inhabitants as in the days of the First Emperor, and when more than a century was devoted to building the wall (as opposed to a mere ten years during the rule of the First Emperor). Very little survives today of the great wall built by the First Emperor. The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... For other uses, see Ming. ...


By his order, 12 Jin Ren, 12 bronze colossus were made from the collected weapons after his unification of China. 12 Jin Ren(chinese:十二金人) were 12 huge bronze Colossus made by the order of Shihuangdi,the First emperor of China,by collecting the weapons and casted them,after he had conquered the other 6 states. ...


Death and aftermath

Imperial tours of Qin Shi Huang
Imperial tours of Qin Shi Huang

Later in his life, Qin Shi Huang feared death and desperately sought the fabled elixir of life, visiting Zhifu Island several times to this end. He even sent a Zhifu islander Xu Fu with ships carrying hundreds of young men and women in search of the Penglai Mountain, where the immortals lived. These people never returned, as they knew that if they returned without the promised elixir, they would surely be executed. Legends claim that they settled down in one of the Japanese islands, a view that many Chinese and Japanese people are familiar with today. The imperial tours of Qin Shi Huang were probably the greatest in Chinese history. ... The imperial tours of Qin Shi Huang were probably the greatest in Chinese history. ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ... // Zhifu Island (芝罘島 Pinyin: Zhīfù dǎo, Wade-Giles: Chih-fu tao), or North Island (北島 Běi dǎo, Pei tao), is an islet with historical significance in Shandong, China. ... Xu Fu Xu Fu (Chinese: 徐福) was a court sorceror in Qin Dynasty China. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Horai. ...


The emperor often took tours to major cities in his empire to inspect the efficiency of the bureaucracy and to symbolize the presence of Qin's prestige. Nevertheless, these trips provided opportunities for assassins, the most famous of whom was Zhang Liang. After his assassination had been attempted too often for comfort, he grew paranoid of remaining in one place too long and would hire servants to bear him to different buildings in his palace complex to sleep in each night. He also hired several "doubles" to make it less clear which figure was the emperor. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Zhang Liang (張良, d. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


The emperor died while on one of his tours to Eastern China, on September 10, 210 BCE (Julian Calendar) at the palace in Shaqiu prefecture, about two months away by road from the capital Xianyang. Reportedly, he died of swallowing mercury pills, made by his court scientists and doctors, which contained too much of the liquid metal. The "theory," devised by alchemists, was that if mercury could even absorb gold, then if eaten, it would give that person its own powers, making him immortal. Mercury compounds were mixed with some food so as to make it edible. Ironically, these pills were meant to make Qin Shi Huang immortal. is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 210 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ...


Prime Minister Li Si, who accompanied him, was extremely worried that the news of his death could trigger a general uprising in the empire, given the brutal policies of the government, and the resentment of the population forced to work on Herculean projects such as the great wall in the north of China or the mausoleum of the emperor. St. ...


It would take two months for the government to reach the capital, and it would not be possible to stop the uprising. Li Si decided to hide the death of the emperor, and return to Xianyang.


Most of the imperial entourage accompanying the emperor was left uninformed of the emperor's death, and each day Li Si entered the wagon where the emperor was supposed to be travelling, pretending to discuss affairs of state.


The secretive nature of the emperor while alive allowed this stratagem to work, and it did not raise doubts among courtiers. Li Si also ordered that two carts containing fish be carried immediately before and after the wagon of the emperor. The idea behind this was to prevent people from noticing the foul smell emanating from the wagon of the emperor, where his body was starting to decompose severely. A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ...


Eventually, after about two months, Li Si and the imperial court were back in Xianyang, where the news of the death of the emperor was announced.


Qin Shi Huang did not like to talk about death and he never really wrote a will. After his death, Li Si and the chief eunuch Zhao Gao persuaded his eighteenth son Huhai to forge the Emperor's will. Li Si was afraid that if Prince Fusu ascended the throne, it would endanger his position since Fusu was once exiled by the late emperor because of Li's thoughts. In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... Zhao Gao 趙高 (died end of October 207 BC) was the chief eunuch during the Qin Dynasty of China, who played an instrumental role in the downfall of the Qin Dynasty. ... Qin Er Shi (229 BC - beginning October 207 BC), literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin Dynasty in China from 210 BC until 207 BC. Qin Er Shi was the son of Qin Shi Huang (the First Emperor of Qin), but he was... Fusu (扶蘇) (died 210 BC) was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the heir by tradition. ... Fusu (扶蘇) (died 210 BC) was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the heir by tradition. ...


They forced his first son Fusu to commit suicide, stripped the command of troops from Meng Tian, a loyal supporter of Fusu, and killed his family. Huhai became the Second Emperor (Er Shi Huangdi), known by historians as Qin Er Shi. Fusu (扶蘇) (died 210 BC) was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the heir by tradition. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Meng Tian (蒙恬) was a general of the Qin Dynasty who distinguished himself against the Xiongnu and the construction of the Great Wall of China. ... Qin Er Shi (229 BC - beginning October 207 BC), literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin Dynasty in China from 210 BC until 207 BC. Qin Er Shi was the son of Qin Shi Huang (the First Emperor of Qin), but he was...


Qin Er Shi was not nearly as capable as his father. Revolts against him quickly erupted. His reign was a time of extreme civil unrest, and everything the First Emperor had worked for crumbled away, within a short period. The imperial palace and state archives were burned: this has been disastrous for later historians, because after the burning of the books by his father, almost the only written records left were those in the palace archives. The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Archive of the AMVC An archive refers to a collection of historical records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ...


Within four years of Qin Shi Huang's death, his son was killed by Zhao Gao when the rebellious army approached the capital, and soon the Qin Dynasty crumbled to civil strife. Zhao Gao then appointed Fusu's son, Ziying, to be the next emperor. Ziying tricked Zhao Gao by refusing to attend his coronation, then stabbed the eunuch to death. But Liu Bang's army had approached the capital, and Ziying was forced to take an immediate decision of abdication, in order to avoid another ruthless rebel general, Xiang Yu, who was notorious for his brutality. Liu Bang then founded the Han dynasty. Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from... Xiang Yu (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsiang Yü; 232 BC - 202 BC) was a prominent general during the fall of the Qin Dynasty. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


Han Dynasty, rejected legalism (in favor of Confucianism) and moderated the laws, but kept Qin Shi Huang's basic political and economic reforms intact. In this way his work was carried on through the centuries and became a lasting feature of Chinese society. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Mausoleum and Terracotta Army

Main article: Terracotta Army
Part of the Terracotta Army
Part of the Terracotta Army

Qin Shi Huang was buried in his mausoleum, with the famous Terracotta Army, near modern day Xi'an (Shaanxi province). The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 86 KB)Terra Cotta Army archeological museum at Xian photo taken by Richard Chambers on AAA Yantze Sampler tour May 2004 with Olympus C-740 digital camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 86 KB)Terra Cotta Army archeological museum at Xian photo taken by Richard Chambers on AAA Yantze Sampler tour May 2004 with Olympus C-740 digital camera. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... Xian redirects here. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the...


For 2000 years, a secret army of clay soldiers protected the hidden tomb of China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang. Until 1974 none knew of its existence; now Chinese archaeologists are gradually unfolding the mystery, with sexy results.



The site measures some three miles across and took 700,000 conscripts to construct it. Many wonders of the tomb were described by a Chinese historian, Sima Qian, writing less than a century after the emperor's death. He wrote of rare jewels, a map of the heavens with stars represented by pearls, and, on the floor of the tomb, a panorama map of China with the rivers and seas represented by flowing mercury. The mound itself was said to have been coated with molten copper to protect it, with crossbows lined up to shoot anyone who tried to break in. Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ...


Sima Qian never mentioned, however, the terracotta army - which was discovered by a team of well diggers. It is the detail of the terracotta armies that makes it so valuable. The soldiers were created with a series of mix-and-match clay molds and then further individualized by the artists' hand.


All the standing warriors were attached to clay plinths that rested on the tiled floor, which still resembles a modern pavement. Chinese archaeologists have been meticulous and patient in their work. The main tomb (located at 34°22′52.75″N, 109°15′13.06″E) containing the emperor has yet to be opened and there is still hope that it remains intact.


A magnetic scan of the site has revealed that a large number of coins are lying in the unopened tomb, occasioning speculation that the royal treasury was interred with the emperor. Scans of the earth atop the tomb have revealed unusually high concentrations of mercury in the shape of China's waters, adding further to the credibility of Sima Qian's description.


Historiography of Qin Shi Huang

A modern statue of Qin Shi Huang, located near the site of the Terracotta Army
A modern statue of Qin Shi Huang, located near the site of the Terracotta Army

In traditional Chinese historiography, the First Emperor was almost always portrayed as a brutal tyrant, superstitious (a result of his interest in immortality and assassination paranoia), and sometimes even as a mediocre ruler. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 135 KB) A statue of Emperor Cin Shihhuang, the first emperor of China, near the terracotta army of Xian, which was originally built to accompany his tomb. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 135 KB) A statue of Emperor Cin Shihhuang, the first emperor of China, near the terracotta army of Xian, which was originally built to accompany his tomb. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


Ideological prejudices against the Legalist State of Qin were established as early as 266 BCE, when Confucian philosopher Xun Zi disparaged it. Later Confucian historians condemned the emperor who had burned the classics and buried Confucian scholars alive. They eventually compiled a list of the Ten Crimes of Qin to highlight his tyrannical actions. Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... (Redirected from 266 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 271 BC 270 BC 269 BC 268 BC 267 BC 266 BC - 265... Xunzi Xún Zǐ (荀子, or Hsün Tzu c. ... Confucian historians condemned the emperor Qin Shi Huang in the Ten Crimes of Qin, a list that was compiled to highlight his tyrannical actions. ...


The famous Han poet and statesman Jia Yi concluded his essay The Faults of Qin (过秦论), with what was to become the standard Confucian judgment of the reasons for Qin's collapse. Jia Yi's essay, admired as a masterpiece of rhetoric and reasoning, was copied into two great Han histories and has had a far-reaching influence on Chinese political thought as a classic illustration of Confucian theory. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no memorials. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...


He explained the ultimate weakness of Qin as a result of its ruler's ruthless pursuit of power, harsh laws and unbearable burdens placed on the population in projects such as the Great Wall - the precise factor which had made it so powerful; for as Confucius had taught, the strength of a government ultimately is based on the support of the people and virtuous conduct of the ruler. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ...


Because of this systematic Confucian bias on the part of Han scholars, some of the stories recorded about Qin Shi Huang are doubtful and some may have been invented to emphasize his bad character. Some of the stories are plainly fictitious, designed to tarnish the First Emperor's image, e.g. the story of a stone fallen from the sky engraved with words denouncing the emperor and prophesying the collapse of his empire after his death. For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ...


This makes it difficult to know the truth about other stories. For instance, the accusation that he had 460 scholars executed by having them buried with only their heads above ground and then decapitated seems unlikely to be completely true, but we have no way to know for certain.


Only in modern times were historians able to penetrate beyond the limitations of traditional Chinese historiography. The political rejection of the Confucian tradition as an impediment to China's entry into the modern world opened the way for changing perspectives to emerge.


In the three decades between the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the outbreak of the Second World War, with the deepening dissatisfaction with China's weakness and disunity, there emerged a new appreciation of the man who had unified China. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In the time when he was writing, when Chinese territory was encroached upon by foreign nations, leading Kuomintang historian Xiao Yishan emphasized the role of Qin Shi Huang in repulsing the northern barbarians, particularly in the construction of the Great Wall. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the...


Another historian, Ma Feibai (马非百), published in 1941 a full-length revisionist biography of the First Emperor entitled Qin Shi Huangdi Zhuan (《秦始皇帝传》), calling him "one of the great heroes of Chinese history". For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ...


Ma compared him with the contemporary leader Chiang Kai-shek and saw many parallels in the careers and policies of the two men, both of whom he admired. Chiang's Northern Expedition of the late 1920s, which directly preceded the new Nationalist government at Nanjing was compared to the unification brought about by Qin Shi Huang. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ...


With the coming of the Communist Revolution in 1949, new interpretations again surfaced. The establishment of the new, revolutionary regime meant another re-evaluation of the First Emperor, this time following Marxist theory. Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


The new interpretation given of Qin Shi Huang was generally a combination of traditional and modern views, but essentially critical. This is exemplified in the Complete History of China, which was compiled in September 1955 as an official survey of Chinese history. Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


The work described the First Emperor's major steps toward unification and standardisation as corresponding to the interests of the ruling group and the merchant class, not the nation or the people, and the subsequent fall of his dynasty a manifestation of the class struggle. Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ...


The perennial debate about the fall of the Qin Dynasty was also explained in Marxist terms, the peasant rebellions being a revolt against oppression — a revolt which undermined the dynasty, but which was bound to fail because of a compromise with "landlord class elements". In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... A landlord, is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ...


Since 1972, however, a radically different official view of Qin Shi Huang has been given prominence throughout China. The re-evaluation movement was launched by Hong Shidi's biography Qin Shi Huang. The work was published by the state press to be a mass popular history, and it sold 1.85 million copies within two years. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the new era, Qin Shi Huang was seen as a farsighted ruler who destroyed the forces of division and established the first unified, centralized state in Chinese history by rejecting the past. Personal attributes, such as his quest for immortality, so emphasized in traditional historiography, were scarcely mentioned.


The new evaluations described how, in his time (an era of great political and social change), he had no compunctions in using violent methods to crush counter-revolutionaries, such as the "industrial and commercial slave owner" chancellor Lü Buwei. Unfortunately, he was not as thorough as he should have been and after his death, hidden subversives, under the leadership of the chief eunuch Zhao Gao, seized power and used it to restore the old feudal order. A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ...


To round out this re-evaluation, a new interpretation of the precipitous collapse of the Qin Dynasty was put forward in an article entitled "On the Class Struggle During the Period Between Qin and Han" by Luo Siding, in a 1974 issue of Red Flag, to replace the old explanation. The new theory claimed that the cause of the fall of Qin lay in the lack of thoroughness of Qin Shi Huang's "dictatorship over the reactionaries, even to the extent of permitting them to worm their way into organs of political authority and usurp important posts." Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


Qin Shi Huang was ranked #17 in Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ...


Mao Zedong, chairman of the People's Republic of China, was reviled for his persecution of intellectuals. Being compared to the First Emperor, Mao responded: "He buried 460 scholars alive; we have buried forty-six thousand scholars alive... You [intellectuals] revile us for being Qin Shi Huangs. You are wrong. We have surpassed Qin Shi Huang a hundredfold."[2] Mao redirects here. ...


Qin Shi Huang in fiction

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Qin Shi Huang
  • During the Korean War, the play Song of the Yi River was produced. The play was based on the attempted assassination of Qin Shi Huang (called "Ying Zheng") by Jing Ke of Wei, at the request of the Prince of Yan, in 227 BCE. In the play Ying Zheng was portrayed as a cruel tyrant and an aggressor and invader of other states. Jing Ke, in contrast, was a chivalrous warrior who said that "tens of thousands of injured people are all my comrades." A huge newspaper ad for this play proclaimed: "Invasion will definitely end in defeat; peace must be won at a price." The play portrayed an underdog fighting against a cruel, powerful foreign invader with help from a sympathetic foreign volunteer.
  • Jorge Luis Borges (18991986), the Argentine writer, wrote an acclaimed essay on Qin Shi Huang, 'The Wall and the Books' (La muralla y los libros), included in the 1952 collection Other Inquisitions (Otras Inquisiciones). It muses on the opposition between large-scale construction (the Wall) and destruction (book-burning) that defined his reign, in order to make a point about 'the aesthetic experience'.
  • The book Lord of the East, published in 1956, is a historical romance about the favourite daughter of Qin Shihuang, who runs away with her lover. The story uses Qin Shihuang to create the barrier for the young couple.
  • The 1984 book Bridge of Birds (by Barry Hughart) portrays the emperor as a power-hungry megalomaniac who achieved immortality by having his heart removed by an "Old Man of the mountain."
  • The Chinese Emperor, by Jean Levi, appeared in 1984. This work of historical fiction moves from discussions of politics and law in the Qin state to fantasy, in which the First Emperor's terracotta soldiers were actually robots created to replace fallible humans.
  • In the Area 51 book series, Qin Shi Huang is revealed to be an alien exile stranded on Earth during an interstellar civil war. The Great Wall is actually designed to display the symbol for 'help' in his language, and he orders it built in the hope that a passing spaceship would notice it and rescue him.
  • In the Magic Tree House book series, one book is titled "Day of the Dragon King." The Dragon King is Qin Shi Huangdi.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... Dave Reid is the most beautiful man on Earth. ... (Redirected from 227 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 232 BC 231 BC 230 BC 229 BC 228 BC - 227 BC... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Borges redirects here. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bridge of Birds is a fantasy novel by Barry Hughart, first published in 1984. ... Barry Hughart (born March 13, 1934) is classified as a fantasy author. ... Megalomania currently refers to the following Wikipedia articles: Megalomania (mental illness), a pattern of character traits and behaviors. ... This article is about the year. ... Look up historical fiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... The Area 51 novels are a series of science fiction novels by American author Robert Doherty. ... Dinosaurs Before Dark book cover // Magic Tree House Very Important Note: Magic Tree House is a book series for young children by Mary Pope Osborne. ...

Films and television

  • The 1963 Japanese movie Shin No Shikoutei portrays Qin Shihuang as a battle-hardened emperor with his roots in the military. Despite his rank, he is shown lounging around a campfire with common men. A female character, Lady Chu, serves as a foil who questions whether the emperor's cause is just. He converts her from an enemy to a loyal concubine.
  • In the 1986 film Big Trouble in Little China, the First Emperor is said to have been responsible for the sorcerer Lo Pan's curse.
  • Hong Kong Asia Television Limited (ATV) Channel made a TV drama called "The Rise of the Great Wall - Emperor Qin Shi Huang" (秦始皇) during the 1980s. It was one of ATV's most expensive projects, with 63 episodes chronicling Qin Shi Huang's life from his birth to his death. The title song summed up most of the storyline: "The land shall be under my foot; nobody shall be equal to me."
  • The 1996 movie The Emperor's Shadow uses legends about Qin Shi Huang to make a political statement on Chinese Communism. The film focuses on his relationship with the rebellious musician Gao Jianli, known historically as a friend of the would-be assassin Jing Ke. Gao plays a song for the assassin before he sets out to kill the emperor.
  • The 1999 movie The Emperor and the Assassin focuses on the identity of the emperor's father, his supposed heartless treatment of his officials, and a betrayal by his childhood lover, paving the way for Jing Ke's assassination attempt. The director of the film, Chen Kaige, sought to question whether the emperor's motives were meritorious. A major theme in this movie is the conflict between the Emperor’s dedication to his vows and to his lover, Lady Zhao.
  • In the animated series Histeria, Pepper Mills wanted Shi Huang Di's autograph, thinking he was Scooby Doo.
  • The 2001 Hong Kong TVB serial drama A Step into the Past, based on a book with the same title, stars Raymond Lam Fung as Zhao Pan, a man from the Kingdom of Zhao who takes over the identity of the emperor (called "Ying Zheng") and rises to power. He is unwittingly helped by Hong Siu Lung, a time traveller from the 21st century.
  • The 2002 movie Hero, starring Jet Li, tells the story of assassination attempts on Qin Shi Huang (played by renowned Chinese actor Chen Daoming) by legendary warriors. It portrays him as a powerful ruler willing to take any steps to bring unification to his people.
  • In 2005 The Discovery Channel ran a drama-documentary special on Qin Shi Huang called First Emperor: The Man Who Made China, featuring James Pax as the emperor. It was shown on the UK Channel 4 in 2006.
  • In The Myth (2005), Jackie Chan plays both a modern-day archaeologist and a general under Qin Shi Huang. Kim Hee-sun starred alongside Jackie Chan as a Korean Princess who was forced to marry Qin Shi Huang.
  • Bob Bainborough portrayed Qin Shi Huang in an episode of History Bites.
  • In the animated Martin Mystery series, the hero finds that the Terracotta Army is actually kept to keep the First Emperor inside his tomb and not help him in the spiritual world.
  • In My Date With A Vampire series 2, a flashback shows that Qin Shi Huang was the Emperor who was deceived that the way to having Immortality was found, and was turned into a vampire.
  • In the 2008 film The Mummy: The Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, Qin Shi Huang is the film's villain and is played by Jet Li.

Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A swampy marsh area ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Big Trouble in Little China (also known as John Carpenters Big Trouble in Little China) is a 1986 comedy/action film, directed by John Carpenter and starring Kurt Russell and Kim Cattrall, set in San Franciscos Chinatown. ... Asia Television Limited (logo aTV) (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was Hong Kongs first television station under Rediffusion. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... English release of The Emperors Shadow. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Gao Jianli was a citizen of Yan, a Chinese state during the Warring States Period, and a player of the Zu (a type of musical instrument). ... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... This article is about the year. ... DVD case cover. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Chen Kaige (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chen Kai-ko) (born August 12, 1952) is a Chinese film director. ... Histeria! was a cartoon show made by Warner Bros. ... Scooby-Doo IS THE SHIT is a short ass-running American animated television series produced for your mom Saturday morning television in several different versions from 1969 to the present. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... REDIRECT Television Broadcasts Limited ... A Step into the Past (Chinese: 尋秦記; literal translation: The Chronicles of Finding Qin) is a Hong Kong television drama produced by TVB, released in 2001 and adapted from the novel Xun Qin Ji by Huang Yi. ... Raymond Lam Raymond Lam Fung is a Hong Kong TVB actor and singer. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... 20XX redirects here. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Hero (Chinese: 英雄; pinyin: ) is a film first released in China on October 24, 2002. ... Jet Li (born April 26, 1963) is a Chinese martial artist, actor, Wushu champion, and international film star. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Chen Daoming (陈道明; pinyin: Chén DÇŽomíng) (born April 26, 1955) is a Chinese actor. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is an American cable TV network, based in Silver Spring, MD, that has a variety of science programming, particularly documentaries and nature shows. ... James Pax is best known as an actor. ... This article is about the British television station. ... The Myth (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a 2005 Chinese film directed by Stanley Tong. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chan Kong-Sang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Jackie Chan Sing Lung (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or Jackie Chan SBS, (born on April 7, 1954) is a Chinese martial artist, action star, actor, director, screenwriter, film producer, singer and stunt performer. ... Kim Hee-sun (Kim Hee-seon, 김희선, b. ... History Bites was a television series on the History Television network that ran from 1998-2003. ... For the Italian comic book, see Martin Mystère. ... The Mummy 3, a working title,[2] is an upcoming film that follows up The Mummy and The Mummy Returns. ... Jet Li (born April 26, 1963) is a Chinese martial artist, actor, Wushu champion, and international film star. ...

Music

The First Emperor is an opera with a libretto written in English by Tan Dun and Ha Jin, and music by Tan Dun. ... Tan Dunn (pinyin: Tán Dùn, 譚盾; born August 18, 1957) is a Chinese composer, most widely known as the Grammy and Oscar award winning composer for the soundtracks of the movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ...

Video games

  • The 1995 computer game Qin: Tomb of the Middle Kingdom depicts a fictional archaeological mission to explore the First Emperor's burial site. The emperor is featured in several voiceovers in Mandarin Chinese.
  • The video game Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb portrays Indiana Jones entering the tomb of Qin Shi Huang to recover "The Heart of the Dragon".
  • In the 2002 computer game Price Of Qin, the user plays as Qin Shi Huang's first son Fu Su, who was forced to commit suicide in history. But in this game, Fu Su does not die, he will fight for his birth right to inherit the throne and seek for the truth of Qin Shi Huang's death.
  • In the 2005 computer game Civilization IV, Qin Shi Huang is one of the two playable leaders of China. The other is Mao Zedong.
  • In the computer game Emperor: Rise of the Middle Kingdom, the Qin Dynasty campaign has the player as the head architect of Qin Shi Huang, in charge of seeing the construction of the capitol, the great wall, as well as his tomb and the terracotta army, although the game takes liberties with the timeframes in which these events actually take place.

Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Indiana Jones and the Emperors Tomb is an action video game developed by The Collective and published by LucasArts in 2003 featuring cover art by Drew Struzan. ... Dr. Henry Walden Jones, Jr. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Sid Meiers Civilization IV (Civilization IV or Civ4) is a turn-based strategy computer game released in 2005 and developed by lead designer Soren Johnson under the direction of Sid Meier and Meiers studio Firaxis Games. ... Mao redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ "Emperor Qin Shi Huang -- First Emperor of China", TravelChinaGuide.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. 
  2. ^ Mao Zedong sixiang wan sui! (1969), p. 195. Referenced in Governing China (2nd ed.) by Kenneth Lieberthal (2004).

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Wood, Frances (2007). The First Emperor of China. Profile. ISBN 1846680328. 

See also

The Terracotta Army (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) or Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a collection of 8,099 life-size Chinese terra cotta figures of warriors and horses located near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ). The figures were discovered... Burning of the books and burial of the scholars (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Fénshū Kēngrú) is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of 213 BC and 206 BC. // According to the Records...

External links

  • Qin Shihuang Mausoleum
Qin Shi Huang
Preceded by
Zhuangxiang
King of Qin
246 BCE – 221 BCE
Title merged
into crown
New title
Proclaimed
emperor
Emperor of China
221 BCE – 210 BCE
Succeeded by
Qin Er Shi
Persondata
NAME Qin Shi Huang
ALTERNATIVE NAMES First Emperor
SHORT DESCRIPTION First emperor of a unified China
DATE OF BIRTH November / December 260 BCE
PLACE OF BIRTH Handan, State of Zhao
DATE OF DEATH September 10, 210 BCE
PLACE OF DEATH Shaqiu prefecture, China

 
 

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