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Encyclopedia > Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
Clan name: Aixin-Jueluo (愛新覺羅)
Aisin-Gioro
Given name: Hongli (弘曆)
Hung Li
Dates of reign: 18 October 17358 February 1796¹
Era name: Qianlong (乾隆; Ch'ien-lung)
Abkai Wehiyehe
Era dates: 12 February 17368 February 1796
Temple name: Gaozong (高宗)
Gaodzung
Posthumous name:
(short)
Emperor Chun (純皇帝)
Yongkiyangga hūwangdi
Posthumous name:
(full)
Emperor Fatian Longyun Zhicheng Xianjue Tiyuan Liji Fuwen Fenwu Qinming Xiaoci Shensheng Chun
法天隆運至誠先覺體元立極敷文奮武欽明孝慈神聖純皇帝
General note: Names given in Chinese, then in Manchu (full posthumous name in Chinese only).
———
General note: Dates given here are in the Gregorian calendar.
———
1. Officially abdicated (taking effect from February 9, 1796) and received the title Taishang Huang (
太上皇). In practice, however, ruled in the stead of his son Jiaqing until his death.

The Qianlong Emperor (born Hongli, September 25, 1711February 7, 1799) was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China. The fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796, at which point he retired in favor of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor - a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor. Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power until his death in 1799. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (397x723, 519 KB) http://guangxu. ... Like the Mongols, the Manchus were simply called by given name but they had their own clan names (hala in Manchu). ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; Pinyin: àixÄ«n juéluó; Manchu: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... Manchu given names were used solely or with titles but not with clan names. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Temple names (Traditional Chinese: 廟號 Simplified Chinese: 庙号 Pinyin: miào hào;), are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Vietnamese (such dynasties as Tran,Anterior Lê and Nguyen Dynasty) and most Korean rulers of the Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties. ... A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic languages of Altaic family; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 100 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... Taishang Huang (Chinese: 太上皇, tàishàng huáng) was a Chinese title, sometimes translated in English as Grand Emperor or Emperor Emeritus, used all across Eastern Asia for a retired emperor. ... The Jiaqing Emperor (November 13, 1760 - September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeast China). ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... The Qing Dynasty was founded as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616, and changed its name to Qing in 1636. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ... The Jia Qing Emperor (November 13, 1760 – September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ... The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; Pinyin: KāngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was the fourth Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over all of China, from 1661 to 1722. ...

Contents

Early years

There are many myths and legends that say Hongli was actually a Han and not of Manchu descent, whilst there were some that say Hongli is only half Manchu and half Han Chinese descent. Nevertheless, looking at historical records, Hongli was adored both by his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor and his father, the Yongzheng Emperor. Some historians argue that the main reason why Kangxi Emperor appointed Yongzheng as his successor to the throne was because of Qianlong as he was his favourite grandson and felt that Hongli's mannerism and ways to be very close to his own. As a teenager he was very able in martial arts, and possessed very great literary ability. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Kāngxī; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was the fourth Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over all of China, from 1661 to 1722. ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


After his father's succession to the throne in 1722, Hongli became the Prince Bao (寶親王). Like many of his uncles, Hongli entered in a battle of succession with his older-half brother Hongshi, who had the support of a large faction of court officials, as well as Yinsi, the Prince Lian. For many years the Yongzheng Emperor did not allow the position of Crown Prince, but many speculated he favoured Hongli. Hongli went on inspection trips to the south, and was known to be an able negotiator and enforcer. Hongli was also chosen as chief regent on occasions, when his father was away from the capital. // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Hongshi (Chinese: 1704—c. ... Yinsi Aisin-gioro (爱新觉罗·胤禩) was born to Emperor Kangxi and his concubine, Liang Fei of the Wei family, in 1681, and was the Eighth Imperial Prince. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ...


Ascension to the throne

Even before Hongli was read out to the assembled court, it was widely known who the new emperor would be. The young Hongli had been a favorite of his grandfather, Kangxi, and his father alike; Yongzheng had entrusted a number of important ritual tasks to him while Hongli was still a prince, and included him in important court discussions of military strategy. Hoping to avoid repetition of the succession crisis that had tainted his own accession to the throne, he had the name of his successor placed in a sealed box secured behind the tablet over the throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity (Qianqing Gong). The name in the box was to be revealed to other members of the imperial family in the presence of all senior ministers only upon the death of the Emperor. Yongzheng died suddenly in 1735, the will was taken out and read out before the entire Qing Court and Hongli became the 4th Manchu Emperor of China. He took the Reign title of Qianlong (乾隆), meaning strong/heavens (qian); prosperous (long), or put together, the Era of Strong Prosperity. The Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Qianqing Palace (乾清宫) is a palace in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The Emperor of China (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huángdì) was the title given to the rulers of China from the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: 年號, simplified Chinese: 年号, pinyin nían hào) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ...


Frontier Wars

The Qianlong Emperor was a successful military leader, presiding over a huge consolidation in the territory controlled by the Qing dynasty. This was made possible not only by Chinese strength but also by the disunity and declining strength of the Inner Asian peoples. Under Qianlong, Chinese Turkestan was incorporated into the Qing dynasty's rule and renamed Xinjiang, while to the West, Ili was conquered and garrisoned. The Qing also dominated Outer Mongolia after inflicting a final defeat on the Western Mongols. Throughout this period there were continued Mongol interventions in Tibet and a reciprocal spread of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Ili or Illi can refer to: Ili River Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Outer Mongolia makes up Mongolia (presently a sovereign state) and Tannu Uriankhai (the majority of which is the modern-day Tuva Republic, a federal subject of the Russian Federation), while Inner Mongolia (内蒙古; Nèi MÄ›nggÇ”) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...

Further information: Ten Great Campaigns

Qianlong again sent armies into Tibet and firmly established the Dalai Lama as ruler, with a Qing resident and garrison to preserve Chinese suzerainty. Further afield, military campaigns against the Burmese, Nepalese, and Gurkhas forced these peoples to submit and send tribute. The Ten Great Campaigns were a series of wars fought during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, much celebrated in the official Qing Dynasty annals. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (Tibetan: ཏ་ཱལའི་བླ་མ་; Wylie: Taa-la’i Bla-ma; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dálài LÇŽmā) form a tulku lineage of Gelug leaders which trace back to 1391. ... Gurkha, also spelt as Gorkha, are people from Nepal who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ...


In Vietnam, things did not work out so well. In 1787 the last Le king fled Vietnam and formally requested aid to restore him to his throne in Thanglong (Hanoi today). The Qianlong Emperor agreed and sent a large army into Vietnam to remove the Tay Son (peasant rebels who had captured all of Vietnam). The capital, Thanglong, was conquered in 1788 but a few months later, the Chinese army was defeated in a surprise attack during Tet by Nguyen Hue, the second and most capable of the three Tay Son brothers. The Chinese government gave formal protection to the Le emperor and his family but did not intervene in Vietnam for another 90 years. 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i)  , estimated population 3,083,800 (2004), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Tay Son Dynasty Origin of the Tay Son The name of Tay Son is used in many ways referring back to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasty established between the eras of the Le and Nguyen dynasties. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For the river in Roussillon, France, see Têt River. ...


Overall the Qianlong Emperor's military expansion captured millions of square miles and brought into the empire non-Chinese peoples - such as Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Evenks and Mongols - who were at least potentially hostile. It was also a very expensive enterprise. In fact, the funds in the Imperial Treasury were almost used up due to the military expeditions. This may have been the cause of the later decline of the dynasty when the army was unable to develop and upgrade their weapons when faced with a Western threat. The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks or Qazaqs), (in Kazakh: Қазақтар []; in Russian: Казахи; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Evenks (obsolete: Tungus, autonym: Эвэнки) are a nomadic Tungusic people, one of the Northern Indigenous Peoples (pop. ... Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol) are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China or more specifically on the Central Asian plateau north of the Gobi desert and south of Siberia. ...


Artistic achievements

The Qianlong Emperor During the 1st Year of his Reign

The Qianlong Emperor was also a major patron of the arts. The most significant of his commissions was a catalogue of all important works on Chinese culture, the Siku quanshu (四庫全書). Produced in 36,000 volumes, containing about 3450 complete works and employing as many as 15,000 copyists, the entire work took some twenty years. It preserved many books, but it was also intended as a means of ferreting out and suppressing those deemed offensive to the rulling manchurians. Some 2,300 works were listed for total suppression and another 350 for partial suppression. The aim was to destroy the writings that were anti-Qing or rebellious, that insulted previous barbarian dynasties, or that dealt with frontier or defense problems. Image File history File links Qianlong1. ... This is the current collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... Siku quanshu (Traditional Chinese: 四庫全書; Simplified Chinese: 四库全书; pinyin: si4ku4 quan2shu1), or encyclopedia of the four archives, is the largest collection of Chinese philopsophers, historians, and poets in Chinese History. ...


Qianlong was a prolific poet and a collector of ceramics, an art which flourished in his reign; a substantial part of his collection is in the Percival David Foundation in London. Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... The Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art is a collection of Chinese ceramics and related items in London, England. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Later years

In his later years, Qianlong was rather disillusioned and sedated with power and glory. With Heshen as the highest ranked minister and most favoured by Qianlong at the time, the day to day governance of the country was left in the hands of Heshen whilst Qianlong himself indulged on everyday luxuries and his favourite pastime of hunting. It is widely said that Heshen laid the foundation for further collapse and corruption of the Qing government and eventually came to a point where it was impossible to reverse the negative impact already done to all levels of Qing Government at the time. Baron Heshen (Chinese: ; pinyin: Héshēn; other transliteration: Hoshen) (1750 - February 22, 1799), from the Manchu Niohuru clan, was a Manchu official of the Qing Dynasty. ...


Worse still, the proposed cultural exchange between the British Empire at the time and the Qing Empire collapsed when Heshen further encouraged Qianlong to maintain the belief that the Qing Empire was the centre of the world and need not pay much attention to the British proposal for trade and cultural exchange. The British trade ambassador at the time, George Macartney, was humiliated when granted an audience with the Qianlong Emperor only to find just an Imperial Edict placed on the Dragon Throne. This announced to him that the Qing Empire had no need for any goods and services that the British could provide and that the British should recognize that the Qing Empire was far greater. George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney (14 May 1737 - 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ...


Insistent demands from Heshen and the Qing Court that the British Trade ambassadors should kneel and kowtow to the empty dragon throne worsened matters. The British of course rejected these demands and insisted they would kneel only on one knee and bow to the Dragon throne as they did for their own monarch. This caused uproar in the Qing Empire at that time. The Trade ambassadors were dismissed and told to leave China immediately. They were further told that the Qing Empire had no particular interest in doing trade with them, with strict orders given to all local governors not to allow the British to carry out any trade or business in China. Kowtowing Kowtow, from the Chinese term kòu tóu (Cantonese: kau tàuh) (叩頭), is the act of deep respect shown by kneeling and bowing so low as to touch the head to the ground. ...


Legends

Qianlong was the son of Chen Yuanlong of Haining. Emperor Kangxi chose the heir to his throne based not just on his son's capability to govern the Empire, but also whether his grandson was of no lesser calibre, to ensure the Manchus' everlasting reign over the country. Yongzheng's own son was a weakling and he surreptitiously arranged for his daughter to be swapped for Chen Yuanlong's son, who became the apple of Kangxi's eye. Thus, Yongzheng got to succeed the throne, and his "son", Hongli, subsequently became Emperor Qianlong. Later, Qianlong went to the southern part of the country four times, he stayed in Chen's house in Haining, leaving behind his calligraphy and also frequently issued imperial decrees making and maintaining Haining as a tax-free state.


However there are major problems with this story being: 1) His eldest surviving son Hongshi was only 7 when Hongli was born far too early to make the drastic choice of replacing a child of royal birth with an outsider (and risking disgrace if not death) 2) Yongzheng had three other princes that survived to adulthood who had the potential of ascending the throne. Indeed given the fact that Hongshi was forced to commit suicide, the story would have been far more logical if he was the adopted child of Yongzheng.


Stories about Qianlong visiting the Jiang Nan area disguised as a commoner had been a popular topic for many generations. In total, he has visited Jiang Nan for eight times, as opposed to the Kangxi emperor's 6 inspections. Jiang Nan (Chinese: 江南, Wade-Giles: Chiang nan) refers to the southern part of the lowest reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of the Yangtze Delta. ...


Some stories say that Qianlong had multiple Samurai Swords in his possession. Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ...


Family

The Qian Long Emperor in Old Age
The Qian Long Emperor in Old Age
  • Mother: Empress Xiao Sheng Xian (1692-1777) of the Niuhuru Clan (Chinese: 孝聖憲皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Enduringge Temgetulehe Hūwanghu)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x924, 136 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 18th century Qianlong Emperor User:Edward/Images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x924, 136 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 18th century Qianlong Emperor User:Edward/Images ... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... Empress Xiao Sheng Xian (Chinese: 孝圣宪皇后钮祜禄氏; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Enduringge Temgetulehe Hūwanghu), 1692 - 1777, was a daughter of Ling Chu, the First Prince Liang Rong of the Manchu yellow banner corps, and granddaughter of Prince Eidu of the Niuhuru Clan. ...

Consorts

Empress Xiao Xian Chun (Chinese: 孝贤纯皇后富察氏), also known as Empress Xiao Xian, (March 28, 1712 - April 8, 1748). ... Empress Xiao Yi Chun (Chinese: 孝仪纯皇后魏佳氏) 1727 - 1775 came from the Han Chinese Wei clan. ... The Imperial Noble Consort Hui Xian (Chinese: 慧贤皇贵妃高氏), (? - 1745) came from the Manchu Gao clan. ... The Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui (Chinese: 纯惠皇贵妃) 1713 - 1760 came from the Manchu Sugiya clan. ... Lady Gingiya, the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia The Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia (Chinese: 淑嘉皇贵妃), (? - 1755), came from the Korean Gin clan. ... Lady Lu, the Imperial Noble Consort Qing Gong The Imperial Noble Consort Qing Gong (Chinese: 庆恭皇贵妃陆氏), (1724 - 1774), was an Imperial Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of China, and came from the Lu clan. ... Noble Consort Ying The Noble Consort Ying (Chinese: 颖贵妃巴林氏)(1731 - 1800), was born during the ninth year of Emperor Yongzhengs reign. ... Noble Consort Wan The Noble Consort Wan (Chinese: 婉贵妃) 1716 - 1807, was the daughter of Chen Tingzhang (Chinese: 陈廷章). She was given to the Prince Hongli (later the Qian Long Emperor) in order of the Yongzheng Emperor as a concubine. ... Noble Consort Xun The Noble Consort Xun (Chinese: 循贵妃伊尔根觉罗氏) (? - 1797), was the daughter of the Governor General Guilin (Chinese: 总督桂林). She came from the Manchu Yirgen Gioro clan. ... Noble Consort Xin The Noble Consort Xin (Chinese: 忻贵妃戴佳氏), was the daughter of the Governor General Na Sutu (Chinese: 总督那苏图). She came from the Manchu Daigiya clan, and entered the imperial court during the eighteenth year of Emperor Qianlongs reign. ... The Consort Dun (Chinese: 敦妃汪氏)(1746 - 1806) came from the Manchu Wang clan. ... The Consort Shu (Chinese: 舒妃叶赫那拉氏), (1728 - 1777), came from the Manchu Yehenara clan. ... The Fragrant Concubine (Chinese: 香妃; pinyin: , Uyghur Iparhan) is a figure in Chinese legend who was taken as a consort by the Qianlong Emperor during the 17th century. ... The Worthy Lady Shun (Chinese: 顺贵人) (1748 - 1788), came from the Manchu Niuhuru clan. ...

Children

Sons

  • 2nd: Prince Yong Lian [永璉] (1730 - 1738), 1st Crown Prince, son of Empress Xiao Xian Chun
  • 5th: Prince Yong Qi [永琪] (1741-1766), bore the title Prince Rong of the blood (榮親王)
  • 7th: Prince Yong Zhong [永琮] (1746 - 1748), 2nd Crown Prince, son of Empress Xiao Xian Chun
  • 8th: Prince Yong Xuan [永璇], son of the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia
  • 11th: Prince Yong Xin [永瑆], son of the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia
  • 15th: Prince Yong Yan [永琰] the (Jia Qing Emperor), son of Empress Xiao Yi Chun. In 1789 he was made Prince Jia of the 1st rank (嘉親王).
  • 17th: Prince Yong Lin [永璘], given the title as the 1st Prince Qing Yong Lin. His grandson is Prince Yi Kuang, bore the title Prince Qing [慶親王奕劻] (February 1836 - January 1918).
  • 18th: Prince ?

Daughters Empress Xiao Xian Chun (Chinese: 孝贤纯皇后富察氏), also known as Empress Xiao Xian, (March 28, 1712 - April 8, 1748). ... Aisin-Gioro Yongqi (永琪) was the fifth son of the Qianlong Emperor, and bore the title Prince Rong (荣亲王). [edit] Portrayal In Dramas Prince Rong is perhaps best-known as a fictionalised character in Princess Pearl television series, portrayed by eminent Taiwanese actor Alec Su and Hong Kong actor Leo Ku in... Empress Xiao Xian Chun (Chinese: 孝贤纯皇后富察氏), also known as Empress Xiao Xian, (March 28, 1712 - April 8, 1748). ... Lady Gingiya, the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia The Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia (Chinese: 淑嘉皇贵妃), (? - 1755), came from the Korean Gin clan. ... Lady Gingiya, the Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia The Imperial Noble Consort Shu Jia (Chinese: 淑嘉皇贵妃), (? - 1755), came from the Korean Gin clan. ... The Jia Qing Emperor (November 13, 1760 – September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ... Empress Xiao Yi Chun (Chinese: 孝仪纯皇后魏佳氏) 1727 - 1775 came from the Han Chinese Wei clan. ... Yikuang, the Prince Qing, in Imperial Robes Yikuang, the Prince Qing (Simplified Chinese: 庆亲王奕劻, Wade-Giles:Prince Ching), (February 1836 - January 1918) was a Manchu noble of the late Qing Dynasty. ...

Empress Xiao Xian Chun (Chinese: 孝贤纯皇后富察氏), also known as Empress Xiao Xian, (March 28, 1712 - April 8, 1748). ... Empress Xiao Xian Chun (Chinese: 孝贤纯皇后富察氏), also known as Empress Xiao Xian, (March 28, 1712 - April 8, 1748). ... The Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui (Chinese: 纯惠皇贵妃) 1713 - 1760 came from the Manchu Sugiya clan. ... Empress Xiao Yi Chun (Chinese: 孝仪纯皇后魏佳氏) 1727 - 1775 came from the Han Chinese Wei clan. ... Baron Heshen (Chinese: ; pinyin: Héshēn; other transliteration: Hoshen) (1750 - February 22, 1799), from the Manchu Niohuru clan, was a Manchu official of the Qing Dynasty. ... The Jiaqing Emperor (November 13, 1760 - September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Qianlong Emperor
Qing Dynasty
Born: September 25 1711; Died: February 7 1799
Preceded by:
The Yong Zheng Emperor
Emperor of China
1735-1796
Succeeded by:
The Jia Qing Emperor

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (1718 - 1793), a French Jesuit missionary, was born at Toulon in February 1718. ... Giuseppe Castiglione (郎世宁 1688-1766) was a Jesuit missionary to China. ... Manwen Laodang (滿文老檔) is a set of Manchu official documents of the Qing Dynasty, compiled during the late Qianlong period based on Jiu Manzhou Dang. ... The Canton System served as a means for China to control trade within their own country. ... Xi Yang Lou (Chinese: 西洋楼; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit: Western Mansion(s)) are ruins of 18th-century European-style imperial buildings on the grounds of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, China. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... The Yongzheng Emperor (born Yinzhen 胤禛 December 13, 1678 - October 8, 1735) was the fourth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1722 to 1735. ... The Emperor of China (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huángdì) was the title given to the rulers of China from the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. ... The Jia Qing Emperor (November 13, 1760 – September 2, 1820) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CHINA: THE THREE EMPERORS, 1662-1795: The Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736–95) (482 words)
Moreover the Qianlong Emperor saw himself in the role of preserver and restorer of the Chinese cultural heritage.
The Qianlong Emperor was a passionate poet and essayist.
Most particular to the Qianlong Emperor is another type of inscription, revealing a unique practice of dealing with works of art that he seems to have developed for himself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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