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Encyclopedia > Qazvin (city)
craftsmanship at Shazdeh Hosein shrine.
craftsmanship at Shazdeh Hosein shrine.

Qazvin (Persian: قزوین, also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran with an estimated population of 331,409 in 2005. [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_darb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_darb. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fārsi or پارسی Pārsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ...

Contents


Introduction and history

Qazvin (historically also rendered as Kazvin, Kasvin, and Casbin in the West) is a city in Iran, some 90 km (60 miles) northwest of Tehran, in Qazvin Province. It is at an altitude of about 1800 meters above sea level, and is a city with a cool but dry climate being south of the rugged Alborz range. A panorama of Sydney, Australia at night. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Alborz Mountains underneath clouds seen from Tehran Alborz (in Persian البرز), also written as Alburz or Elburz, is a mountain range in northern Iran, stretching from the borders of Armenia in the north-west to the southern end of the Caspian Sea, where also Tehran and Irans highest peak, Damavand...


The city was the location of a former capital of the Persian Empire and contains over 2000 architectural and archeological sites. It is a provincial capital today that has been a cultural center of mass throughout history. The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. The name “Qazvin” or “Kasbin” is derived from Cas, an ancient tribe which lived south of the Caspian Sea a thousand years ago. The Caspian Sea itself in fact derives its name from the same origin. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages. Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


However the city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been probably founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur, when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions. Head of King Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty 4th century). ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ...

"Peighambariyeh": Here, four Jewish saints are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.
"Peighambariyeh": Here, four Jewish saints are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.

Qazvin has been a hotbed of historical developments in Iranian history: Captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Genghis Khan (13th century), the Safavid monarchs made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire in 1548 only to have it moved to Isfahan in 1598. Image File history File links Peighambariyeh_Qazvin. ... Image File history File links Peighambariyeh_Qazvin. ... Events Births Deaths Paulinus of York, bishop of Northumbria November: Omar, Second caliph of Islam by assassination. ... Genghis Khan (c. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


Hasan-i Sabbah established the headquarters of the Hashshashin at the nearby fortress of Alamut about 1090. Hasan ibn Sabbah (circa 1034 - 1124), or The Old Man of the Mountain, was an Iranian Ismaili missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Elburz Mountains of northern Iran. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) had a militant basis as a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... The remains of the fabled Alamut castle. ... Events Granada captured by Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravides Beginnings of troubadours in Provence Bejaia becomes the capital of the Algeria Births William of Malmsbury Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Saint Famianus Eliezer ben Nathan of Mainz Deaths Saint Malcoldia of Asti Saint Adalbero Categories: 1090 ...


Bombed and occupied by Russian forces in both World Wars, Qazvin is also where the famous coup d’etat was launched from that led to the rise of the first Pahlavi dynasty in 1921. The Pahlavi dynasty began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Qazvini Architecture

Qazvin contains several archeological excavations dating back 9000 years ago. There are also 23 castles from the Ismaili Assassins nearby as well. And in the middle of the city, there lies the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanide edifices in the area. Meimoon Ghaleh, one of several ancient castle ruins in or near Qazvin, Iran. ...


Qazvin contains few buildings from the Safavid era when it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Ali Qapu mansion, today a museum in central Qazvin. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


After Islam, the abundant attendance of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the prevalence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools among which the most magnificent ones are: Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: hadÄ«th, Arabic pl. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: Fiqh) (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ...

  • Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin.
  • Heidarieh Mosque: Renovated by Amir Khomär-täsh after the earthquake of 1119 AD, the history of construction of this mosque goes back to pre-Islam, where it was a fire temple.
  • Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque): With an area of 14000m², this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavid period.
  • Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. Its present day form is attributed to the Seljukian era.
  • Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period.
  • Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
  • Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648.
  • Salehieh School-Mosque: Founded in 1845.
  • Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
  • Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
  • Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.

Qazvin actually contains three buildings built by The Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall), a water reservoir, and the Cantor church where a Russian pilot is buried. A Maquette of the entire compound made for architectural studies of the historical site. ... Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran. ...


According to explorers Pietro Della Valle (1588-1713), Jean Baptist Tavenier (1605-1689), Johannes Chardin (1643-1713), and others, there have been many Christians of various sects living in Qazvin for centuries. Qazvin is where The Saint Hripsime Church is located, and it is also where four Jewish prophets gave tidings of the arrival of Jesus Christ. Their tomb is now a popular shrine called Peighambariyeh.


Another attraction near Qazvin, is the tombs of two Saljuki era princes, Aboo Saeed Bijar son of Sad and Aboo Mansoor Iltai son of Takin, that are located in two separate towers known as the Kharaghan twin towers. Constructed in 1067, these are the first monuments in Islamic Architecture which include a non-conic two-layered dome.


Unfortunately, both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake on March 2003.

Famous Qazvinis

Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages.
Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages.

Aside from Shahzadeh Hossein, a shiite saint, where a handsome shrine has been built, there are an abundance of scientists and mystics who lived in Qazvin, or came from Qazvin, or whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and villages of the province. Some of these are: Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_qazvin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_qazvin. ...

  • Ali Akbar Dehkhoda: Prominent linguist and author of Iran's first modern Persian dictionary, was originally from Qazvin.
  • Obeid e Zakani: Famous 14th century poet noted for his satire and obscene verses. His Masnavi Mush-O-Gorbeh (Mouse and Cat) is a political satire.
  • Oveis Qarani: A celebrity of early Islam, thought to have been killed here while fighting against an army of Deilamian origin. His tomb is known as Sultan Veis.
  • Hamdollah Mostowfi: The great Il-Khanid historian and writer (1281-1349) and author of The Selected History (Tarikh Gozideh), Nezhatol Qoloub and Zafar Nameh. The turquoise conic dome and its inscription in Sols calligraphy in which Mostowfi’s family tree and his works are introduced are the features that distinguish the tomb from other historical monuments of Qazvin.
  • Imam Ahmad Ghazali: Famous Iranian sufi who died in 1126 CE and was buried beside Shahzadeh Hossein. His tomb up to the end of the 16th century CE became the pilgrimage place for mystical sects. Following Shah Tahmasb’ s stubborn policies against philosophers and mystics and destroying Ghazali’s tomb, a group of his disciples took the remains of his body to the present place in Imamzadeh Ismail alley and constructed a new mausoleum for him. The monument was destroyed again in Mohammad Shah Qajar’s period only to be re-constructed by Majdol Islam Qazvini in 1910. Beside Ghazali’s tomb there is another tomb belonging to Soltan Seyed Mohammad Vali which dates back to 1625A.D.
  • Molla Khalil Ibn Ghazi Qazvini: Famous faghih (religious jurist) and famous commentator of the Qur'anin Safavid period (d 1678).
  • Shahid Sales: Killed in 1846.
  • Ra'ees ol-Mojahedin: The late Mirza Hassan Sheikhol Islam son of Mirza Masood Sheikhol Islam, leader of the liberals and constitutionalists of Qazvin whose endeavors and devotion to abolish the Qajar dynasty and conquer Tehran brought the title of Raeesol Mojahedin (chief of fighters) for him.
  • Ali Ibn Shäzän
    Qazvin is a center for agriculture, due to favorable climatic conditions.
    Enlarge
    Qazvin is a center for agriculture, due to favorable climatic conditions.
  • Ibn Maja, author of the last of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims.
  • Kheirol Nesaj
  • Ibrahim Estanbeh Heravi
  • Razi-olddin Taleghani
  • Noor-olddin Geeli
  • Ali Ibn Ghazi Ibn Ahmad
  • Imam-olddin Rafee
  • Siah Kolah
  • Nasser Takmil Homayoun
  • Vaez Qazvini
  • Allameh Zarabadi
  • Sheikh Alak Qazvini
  • Davoud Ibn Soleiman Ghazi
  • Pir e Sefid
  • Pir e Alamdar
  • Molla Abdolvahab Darolshafaee
  • Mohammad Ibn Yahya: Commentator of Qamoosol Loghat
  • Táhirih

Postage stamp comemmorating Dehkhodas Centennial Birthday. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fārsi or پارسی Pārsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Tomb of Hamdollah Mostowfi, Qazvin, Iran. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Qurān, (Arabic: recitation, also transliterated as Quran, Koran), is the holy book of Islam. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Image File history File links Qazvin, is an agriculture center of Iran. ... Image File history File links Qazvin, is an agriculture center of Iran. ... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... Hadith (Arabic: hadÄ«th, Arabic pl. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Nasser Takmil Homayoun is an Iranian historian. ... Táhirih (literally The Pure One) and Qurrat al-Ayn (قرة العين, literally Comfort of the Eyes or Solace of the Eyes) are the religious titles of Fatima Baraghani (1814-1820, died 1852 - birth date uncertain, as birth records were destroyed at her execution), an influential poet and theologian of the B...

Qazvin today

Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz. Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cloth. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides, pelts and skins of animals, primarily cows. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ...


Colleges and universities

Qazvin has four institutes of higher education:

  1. Imam Khomeini International University
  2. Islamic Azad University of Qazvin
  3. Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
  4. Shahid Babaee Technical Institute

See also

An ab anbar with double domes and windcatchers in the central desert city of Naeen, near Yazd. ... Ab anbar of Sardar-i Bozorg, in Qazvin, is the largest single domed ab anbar in Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... Qazwini, Qazvini, al-Quazvini, meaning (a person) from Qazvin, may refer to one of the following persons. ...

External links

Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921.
Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921.
  • Qazvin Society of Chemists
  • Qazvin Bureau of Technicians
  • Construction Engineering Regulatory Commission of Qazvin
  • Taban (Newspaper based in Qazvin)
  • Sedaye Sanat (Economic Monthly from Qazvin)
  • Qazvin Phone Directory
  • Qazvin Photographer's Guild
  • Qazvin Province Information Network
  • Qazvin Tourism Bureau
  • Qazvin Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Mir Emad Qazvini website
  • Qazvin Visual Arts Association
  • Qazvin Calligraphers Council
  • Qazvin Red Crecent Rescue Emergency Unit
  • Qazvin Industrial Estates Corporation
  • Qazvin Electric Power Company
  • Satellite Picture by Google Maps

  Results from FactBites:
 
Qazvin (city) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1281 words)
Qazvin (Persian: قزوین, also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran with an estimated population of 331,409 in 2005.
Qazvin (historically also rendered as Kazvin, Kasvin, and Casbin in the West) is a city in Iran, some 90 km (60 miles) northwest of Tehran, in Qazvin Province.
Qazvin has been a hotbed of historical developments in Iranian history: Captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Genghis Khan (13th century), the Safavid monarchs made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire in 1548 only to have it moved to Isfahan in 1598.
Qazvin (city) - definition of Qazvin (city) in Encyclopedia (273 words)
Qazvin (historically also rendered as Kazvin, Kasvin, and Casbin in the West) is a city in Iran, some 140 km northwest of Tehran, in Qazvin province.
Qazvin was the capital of Persia for 60 years during the reign of the Safavid empire.
Qazvin was the capital of Persia for much of the 16th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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