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Encyclopedia > Qazvin
Shazdeh Hosein shrine
Shazdeh Hosein shrine

Qazvin (Persian: قزوین, also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran with an estimated population of 331,409 in 2005. [1] Qazvin may refer to: Qazvin, a city in Qazvin province, Iran Qazvin province Caspian Sea, as it was known by ancient Arabic sources Category: ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_darb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_darb. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ...

Contents

Introduction and history

Qazvin (historically also rendered as Kazvin, Kasvin, and Casbin in the West) is a city in Iran, some 165 km northwest of Tehran, in Qazvin Province. It is at an altitude of about 1800 meters above sea level, and is a city with a cool but dry climate being south of the rugged Alborz range. Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qazvin province contains fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ...


The city was the location of a former capital of the Persian Empire and contains over 2000 architectural and archeological sites. It is a provincial capital today that has been an important cultural center throughout history. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. The name “Qazvin” or “Kasbin” is derived from Cas, an ancient tribe which lived south of the Caspian Sea a thousand years ago. The Caspian Sea itself in fact derives its name from the same origin. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages. The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


The city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur, when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions. Head of King Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty 4th century). ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ...

"Peighambariyeh": Here, four Jewish saints are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.

Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at important moments of Iranian history. Captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Genghis Khan (13th century), the Safavid monarchs made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire in 1548 only to have it moved to Isfahan in 1598. Image File history File links Peighambariyeh_Qazvin. ... Image File history File links Peighambariyeh_Qazvin. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Events Mary I of Scotland sent to France Births September 2 - Vincenzo Scamozzi, Italian architect (died 1616) September 29 - William V, Duke of Bavaria (died 1626) Francesco Andreini, Italian actor (died 1624) Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher, astronomer, and occultist (burned at the stake) 1600 (died 1600) Honda Tadakatsu, Japanese general... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


Hasan-i Sabbah established the headquarters of the Hashshashin at the nearby fortress of Alamut about 1090. Hasan ibn Sabbah (circa 1034 - 1124), or The Old Man of the Mountain, was an Iranian Ismaili missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Elburz Mountains of northern Iran. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... The remains of the fabled Alamut castle. ... Events Granada captured by Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravides Beginnings of troubadours in Provence Bejaia becomes the capital of the Algeria Births William of Malmsbury Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Saint Famianus Eliezer ben Nathan of Mainz Deaths Saint Malcoldia of Asti Saint Adalbero Categories: 1090 ...


Bombed and occupied by Russian forces in both World Wars, Qazvin is also the place from which the famous coup d’état that led to the rise of the first Pahlavi dynasty was launched in 1921. The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Qazvini Architecture

Qazvin contains several archeological excavations dating back 9000 years. There are also 23 castles from the Ismaili Assassins nearby as well. And in the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area. The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... Meimoon Ghaleh, one of several ancient castle ruins in or near Qazvin, Iran. ...


Qazvin contains few buildings from the Safavid era, when it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Ali Qapu mansion, today a museum in central Qazvin. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...

Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran.
Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran.

After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the prominence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools, among which the most magnificent are: Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin.
  • Heidarieh Mosque: Renovated by Amir Khomär-täsh after the earthquake of 1119 CE, the history of construction of this mosque goes back to pre-Islam, where it was a fire temple.
  • Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque): With an area of 14000m², this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavid period.
  • Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. Its present day form is attributed to the Seljukian era.
  • Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period.
  • Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
  • Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648.
  • Salehieh School-Mosque: Founded in 1845.
  • Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
  • Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
  • Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.

Qazvin contains three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall), a water reservoir, and the Cantor church, where a Russian pilot is buried. A Maquette of the entire compound made for architectural studies of the historical site. ... Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran. ...


According to explorers Pietro Della Valle (1588-1713), Jean Baptist Tavenier (1605-1689), Johannes Chardin (1643-1713), and others, there have been Christians of various sects living in Qazvin for centuries. Qazvin is where the Saint Hripsime Church is located, and is also where four Jewish prophets gave tidings of the arrival of Jesus Christ. Their tomb is now a popular shrine called Peighambariyeh.


Other attractions near Qazvin are the tombs of two Saljuki era princes, Aboo Saeed Bijar, son of Sad, and Aboo Mansoor Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as the Kharaghan twin towers. Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the first monuments in Islamic architecture to include a non-conic two-layered dome.


Unfortunately, both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in March 2003.

Famous Qazvinis

Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages.
Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages.

Aside from Shahzadeh Hossein, a Shiite saint, to whom a handsome shrine has been built, there have been an abundance of scientists and mystics who lived in Qazvin, or came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and villages of the province. Some of these are: Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_qazvin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shazdeh_hosein_qazvin. ...

  • Ali Akbar Dehkhoda: Prominent linguist and author of Iran's first modern Persian dictionary, originally from Qazvin.
  • Obeid e Zakani: Famous 14th-century poet noted for his satire and obscene verses. His Masnavi Mush-O-Gorbeh ('Mouse and Cat') is a political satire.
  • Aref Ghazvini.
  • Nassim Shomal.
  • Oveis Qarani: A celebrity of early Islam, thought to have been killed here while fighting against an army of Deilamian origin. His tomb is known as Sultan Veis.
  • Hamdollah Mostowfi: The great Il-Khanid historian and writer (1281-1349) and author of The Selected History (Tarikh Gozideh), Nezhatol Qoloub and Zafar Nameh. The turquoise conic dome and its inscription in Sols calligraphy in which Mostowfi’s family tree and his works are introduced are the features that distinguish the tomb from other historical monuments of Qazvin.
  • Imam Ahmad Ghazali: Famous Iranian sufi who died in 1126 CE and was buried beside Shahzadeh Hossein. His tomb was until the end of the 16th century the pilgrimage place for mystical sects. Following Shah Tahmasb's stern policies against philosophers and mystics, which led to the destruction of Ghazali's tomb, a group of his disciples took the remains of his body to the present place in Imamzadeh Ismail alley, where they constructed a new mausoleum. This monument was destroyed in Mohammad Shah Qajar's period, but was rebuilt by Majdol Islam Qazvini in 1910. Beside Ghazali's tomb there is another tomb belonging to Soltan Seyed Mohammad Vali, dating from 1625 CE.
  • Molla Khalil Ibn Ghazi Qazvini: Famous faghih (religious jurist) and commentator of the Qur'anin the Safavid period (d 1678).
  • Shahidsaless: Killed in 1846. The third religious leader after Imam Ali who was murdered during prayer.
  • Ra'ees ol-Mojahedin: The late Mirza Hassan Sheikhol Islam, son of Mirza Masood Sheikhol Islam, leader of the liberals and constitutionalists of Qazvin, whose endeavors and devotion to abolish the Qajar dynasty and conquer Tehran brought the title of Raeesol Mojahedin (chief of fighters) for him.
  • Ali Ibn Shäzän
  • Ibn Maja, author of the last of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims.
  • Kheirol Nesaj
  • Ibrahim Estanbeh Heravi
  • Razi-olddin Taleghani
  • Noor-olddin Geeli
  • Ali Ibn Ghazi Ibn Ahmad
  • Imam-olddin Rafee
  • Siah Kolah
  • Nasser Takmil Homayoun
  • Vaez Qazvini
  • Allameh Zarabadi
  • Sheikh Alak Qazvini
  • Davoud Ibn Soleiman Ghazi
  • Pir e Sefid
  • Pir e Alamdar
  • Molla Abdolvahab Darolshafaee
  • Mohammad Ibn Yahya: Commentator of Qamoosol Loghat
  • Táhirih
  • Yousef Alikhani
  • Javad Mojabi
  • Hassan Roudbarian

Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Obeid e zakani (d. ... Tomb of Hamdollah Mostowfi, Qazvin, Iran. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Nasser Takmil Homayoun is an Iranian historian. ... Táhirih (Arabic: ‎ The Pure One) or Qurratul-`Ayn (Arabic: ‎ Comfort of the Eyes) are both titles of Fátimih Baraghání (b. ... Born in 1975 in the villages of Rodbar death in the city of the Iranian Caspian Arabic graduates from the University of Tehran. ... Javad Mojabi (Persian: , born 1939 in Qazvin, Iran) is an Iranian poet, writer, researcher, and literary critic. ... Hassan Roudbarian (حسن رودباریان in Persian, born July 6, 1978 in Ghazvin) is an Iranian football player, currently playing for Pas Tehran in the IPL and a member of the Iranian national team. ...

Qazvin today

A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran-Iraq war.
A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran-Iraq war.

Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz. Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power. Image File history File linksMetadata Qazvinjangtahmili. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Qazvinjangtahmili. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Swatch of black cotton velvet decorator fabric used for drapery Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Colleges and universities

Qazvin has four institutes of higher education:

  1. Imam Khomeini International University
  2. Islamic Azad University of Qazvin
  3. Qazvin University of Medical Sciences
  4. Shahid Babaee Technical Institute

The Imam Khomeini International University is a university in Iran (Persia), offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. ... Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, is a medical school in Qazvin Province of Iran. ...

See also

An ab anbar with double domes and windcatchers in the central desert city of Naeen, near Yazd. ... Ab anbar of Sardar-i Bozorg, in Qazvin, is the largest single domed ab anbar in Iran. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Qazwini, Qazvini, al-Quazvini, meaning (a person) from Qazvin, may refer to one of the following persons. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921.
Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921.


Coordinates: 36°16′N, 50°00′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Qazvin, Iran: Mesjed of Koucheek, from 1921 National Geographic Magazine. ... Qazvin, Iran: Mesjed of Koucheek, from 1921 National Geographic Magazine. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Qazvin (313 words)
City in northwestern Iran with 320,000 inhabitants (2005 estimate), in Teheran Province, 150 km northwest of Teheran on a wide, fertile plain on the southern foot of the Alborz Mountains.
Qazvin is the commercial centre of its surrounding agricultural region.
Qazvin is well connected to Teheran, Rasht and Hamadan by road, and Teheran and Tabriz by railways.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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