FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Qashqai" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Qashqai
Qashqai

Qashqai women spinning
Total population

c. 100000 (est.) Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... The Nissan Qashqai (Nissan Dualis in Japan, Nissan Rogue in the US, Nissan CCUV in China) is a compact crossover SUV to be released in early 2007 in Europe and Japan by the Japanese automaker Nissan. ... Download high resolution version (2479x1638, 787 KB)Permission to use photo given by M. Kiani. ... A hand-turned spinning wheel in action Cones of yarn for industrial use Z-twist and S-twist yarns Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials. ...

Regions with significant populations
Southwestern Iran:
  100000 [1]
Languages
Qashqai, Persian
Religions
Shi'a Islam [2]
Related ethnic groups
Iranian peoples, Turkic peoples

Qashqai /qash qa: ee/ (also spelled Ghashghai, Kashgai, Qashqay and Qashqa'i) are a Turkic-speaking tribal confederation of clans in Iran. Almost all of the Qashqais today speak Farsi as their first language. Qashqais mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan, but especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars. Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 3200-2700 BCE... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about the group of peoples who speak Iranian languages. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Esfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...


The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mi south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, have now settled, or are partially settled. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ...


The Qashqai are made up of a number of tribes and sub-tribes including the Amalaeh, Darreh-Shuri, Kashkuli, Shesh(6) Baluki, Farsimadan, Qaracheh, Rahimi and Safi -Khani.

Contents

History

Inside a Qashqai tent
Inside a Qashqai tent

Historically, the Qashqai are believed to have come from Central Asia, and may have been among the Turkic groups that arrived in Iran in the 11th or 12th centuries. Some of these groups began to identify themselves as Qashqai in the 18th century or possibly earlier. Download high resolution version (1319x940, 355 KB)Permission given to use this photo by M. Kiani, author. ... Download high resolution version (1319x940, 355 KB)Permission given to use this photo by M. Kiani, author. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


According to the Encyclopedia Iranica, they are "a conglomeration of clans of different ethnic origins, including Lurs, Kurds, and Arabs. But most of the Qashqai are of Turkic origin." [3] However, the Columbia Encyclopedia states that the Qashqai, as well as other migrant groups of the region, are of the "least mixed descent of the original Iranians." [4] Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Lurs are an ethnic group of Iranian peoples. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ...

"To survive, nomads have always been obliged to fight. They lead a wandering life and do not accumulate documents and archives.
But in the evenings, around fires that are burning low, the elders will relate striking events, deeds of valour in which the tribes pride themselves. Thus the epic tale is told from father to son, down through the ages.
The tribes of Central Asia were forced by wars, strife, upheavals, to abandon their steppes and seek new pasture grounds . . . so the Huns, the Visigoths, and before them the Aryans, had invaded India, Iran, Europe.
The Turks, forsaking the regions where they had dwelt for centuries, started moving down through the Turan and Caspian depressions, establishing themselves eventually on the frontiers of the Iranian Empire and in Asia Minor.
We are of Turkish language and race; some say that we are descendants of the Turkish Ghuzz Tribe, known for its cruelty and fierceness, and that our name is derived from the Turkish "Kashka" meaning "a horse with a white star on its forehead". Others think this name indicates that we came from Kashgar in the wake of Hulagu. Others still that it means "fugitive".
Though these versions differ, we believe that the arrival of our Tribes in Iran coincided with the conquests of Jengis Khan, in the thirteenth century. Soon after, our ancestors established themselves on the slopes of the Caucasus. We are descendants of the "Tribe of the Ak Koyunlu" the "Tribe of the White Sheep" famed for being the only tribe in history capable of inflicting a defeat on Tamerlane. For centuries we dwelt on the lands surrounding Ardebil, but, in the first half of the sixteenth century we settled in southern Persia, Shah Ismail having asked our warriors to defend this part of the country against the intrusions of the Portuguese. Thus, our Tribes came to the Province of Fars, near the Persian Gulf, and are still only separated from it by a ridge of mountains, the Makran.
The yearly migrations of the Kashkai, seeking fresh pastures, drive them from the south to the north, where they move to their summer quarters "Yeilak" in the high mountains; and from the north to the south, to their winter quarters, "Qishlaq".
In summer, the Kashkai flocks graze on the slopes of the Kuh-è-Dinar; a group of mountains from 12,000 to 15,000 feet, that are part of the Zagros chain.
In autumn the Kashkai break camp, and by stages leave the highlands. They winter in the warmer regions near Firuzabad, Kazerun, Jerrè, Farashband, on the banks of the river Mound, till, in April, they start once more on their yearly trek.
The migration is organised and controlled by the Kashkai Chief. The Tribes carefully avoid villages and towns such as Shiraz and Isfahan, lest their flocks, estimated at seven million head, might cause serious damage. The annual migration is the largest of any Persian tribe.
It is difficult to give exact statistics, but we believe that the Tribes now number 400,000 men, women and children." Told to Marie-Tèrése Ullens de Schooten by the 'Il Begh' Malek Mansur, brother of the 'Il Khan', Nasser Khan, Chief of the Kashkai Tribes, in 1953.[1]

The Qashqai were a significant political force in Iran during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During World War I they were influenced by a German consular official Wilhelm Wassmuss and sided with the Germans.[2] During World War II the Qashqais organized resistance against the British occupation forces and received some help from the Germans, once again becoming the major political force in southern Persia. In 1945-1946 there was a major rebellion of a number of tribal confederacies, including the Qashqais, who fought valiantly until the invading Russians were repelled. The Qashqais revolted during 1962-1964 due to the land reforms of the White Revolution.[3] The revolt was put down and within a few years many Qashqai's had settled.[4] Most of the tribal leaders were sent to exile. After the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979 the living leader Khosrow Khan Qashqai moved back to Iran from Germany. He was soon arrested and executed in public for promoting an uprising against the government. Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Ardabil (in persian: اردبیل other name: Ardebil ancient name: Artavil ) a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Isamail Adil Shah (1510 - 1534) was the king of Bijapur who spent most of his time extending his territory. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Wilhelm Wassmuss (Ohlendorf, 1880–November 29, 1931) was a German diplomat, also known as the German Lawrence or the Wassmuss of Persia. Wassmuss was born in Ohlendorf 60 kilometer south-east of Hanover and after a university education entered the German Foreign Service. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reform programs launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran, His Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. ...


Qashqai carpets and weavings

Qashqai caravan halt
Qashqai caravan halt

The Qashqai are renowned for their magnificent pile carpets and other woven wool products. They are sometimes referred to as "Shiraz" rather than because Shiraz was the major marketplace for them in the past. The wool produced in the mountains and valleys near Shiraz is exceptionally soft and beautiful and takes a deeper color than wool from other parts of Iran. Download high resolution version (1422x939, 253 KB)Permission given to use photo by M. Kiani, File links The following pages link to this file: Qashqai Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1422x939, 253 KB)Permission given to use photo by M. Kiani, File links The following pages link to this file: Qashqai Categories: GFDL images ...

"No wool in all Persia takes such a rich and deep colour as the Shiraz wool. The deep blue and the dark ruby red are equally extraordinary, and that is due to the brilliancy of the wool, which is firmer and, so to say, more transparent than silk, and makes one think of translucent enamel"[5]

Qashqai carpets have been said to be "probably the most famous of all Persian tribal weavings."[6] Qashqai saddlebags, adorned with colorful geometric designs, "which are superior to any others made."[7]


Cultural References

  • Nissan Motors have introduced a small SUV named Qashqai. In 2006, Nissan Motor Corporation, named its new European model after the Qashqai people.[5][6] [7] The designers believe that the buyers "will be nomadic in nature too".[8] The new unconventional name was however met with surprise and even skepticism.[9]

The Nissan Qashqai (Nissan Dualis in Japan, Nissan Rogue in the US, Nissan CCUV in China) is a compact crossover SUV to be released in early 2007 in Europe and Japan by the Japanese automaker Nissan. ... Nissan Motor Co. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ullens de Schooten, Marie-Tèrése. (1956). Lords of the Mountains: Southern Persia & the Kashkai Tribe. Chatto and Windus Ltd. Reprint: The Travel Book Club. London, pp. 53-54. See also pp. 114-118.
  2. ^ Ullens de Schooten, Marie-Tèrése. (1956). Lords of the Mountains: Southern Persia & the Kashkai Tribe. Chatto and Windus Ltd. Reprint: The Travel Book Club. London, p. 114.
  3. ^ Federal Research Division, p.125
  4. ^ Federal Research Division, p.125
  5. ^ Hawley, Walter A. (1913) Oriental Rugs Antique & Modern. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York (1970), p. 116.
  6. ^ Bennett, Ian (1978) "Later Persian Weaving." In: Rugs & Carpets of the World, edited by Ian Bennett, pp. 241, 243. Ferndale Editions, London, 1978. ISBN 0-905-746-24-4.
  7. ^ Hawley, Walter A. (1913) Oriental Rugs Antique & Modern. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York (1970), p. 117.

References

  • Beck, Lois. 1986. The Qashqa'i of Iran. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03212-9
  • Hawley, Walter A. 1913. Oriental Rugs: Antique and Modern. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York. 1970. ISBN 0-486-22366-3.
  • Kiani, M. 1999. Departing for the Anemone: Art in Gashgai Tribe. Kian nashr Publications, Shiraz. ISBN 964-91200-0-9.(This beautiful book has hundreds of photos, both black and white and colored, illustrating daily life of the Qashqai people, their rugs and weaving. The text is in Persian but the color photos also have English captions).
  • Ullens de Schooten, Marie-Tèrése. (1956). Lords of the Mountains: Southern Persia & the Kashkai Tribe. Chatto and Windus Ltd. Reprint: The Travel Book Club. London.

“Farsi” redirects here. ...

Further reading

  • Shahbazi, Mohammad. 2001. "The Qashqa'i Nomads of Iran (Part I): Formal Education." Nomadic Peoples NS (2001) Vol. 5. Issue 1, pp. 37-64.
  • Shahbazi, Mohammad. 2002. "The Qashqa'i Nomads of Iran (Part II): State-supported Literacy and Ethnic Identity." Nomadic Peoples NS (2002) Vol. 6. Issue 1, pp. 95-123.
  • Federal Research Division (June 30, 2004). Iran A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing, 340. 

See also

Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Yaylag (also spelled yaylak or ailoq, Turkish: yaylağ, Russian: яйлаг) is a Turkic term, meaning summer highland pasture (from yay, meaning summer, and -lagh or -lağ, a possessive suffix in Turkic languages). ... The Nissan Qashqai (Nissan Dualis in Japan, Nissan Rogue in the US, Nissan CCUV in China) is a compact crossover SUV to be released in early 2007 in Europe and Japan by the Japanese automaker Nissan. ...

External links

  • www.qashqai.net(An excellent site containing information on the history, woven arts, poetry, society and an extensive bibliography).
  • A personal site on the Qashqai (A good background introduction to Qashqai history and society.)
  • "Qashqai" on the Encyclopedia Iranica A detailed and authoritative entry on this tribe and their history
  • Guide to Qashqai rugsA guide to Qashqai rugs with many useful links and references.

Images

Qashqai saddlebags Download high resolution version (1003x712, 300 KB)Permission given to use photo by M. Kiani, File links The following pages link to this file: Qashqai Categories: GFDL images ...

Qashqai women weaving a carpet Download high resolution version (1423x931, 235 KB)Permission given to use photo by M. Kiani. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Persian Rugs: Guide to Qashqai Rugs (834 words)
The Qashqai are one of tribes of migratory herders in Iran.
The Qashqai are primarily descended from Turkoman or Azeri/Ersari tribes.
Qashqai, the Kashkuli Bozork (greater) and the Kashkuli Kuchek (lesser).
Автосалон AMI | Автосалон | Deutsche Welle | 20.04.2004 (728 words)
Qashqai - это название кочевого племени, обитающего в горах на севере Ирана.
Nissan Qashqai построен на легковой платформе модели Nissan Almera будущего поколения.
Nissan Qashqai обладает всеми внедорожными качествами и в то же время - вполне приспособлен для передвижений по городу.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m