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Encyclopedia > Pythonidae
Pythonidae
Indian python, Python molurus
Indian python, Python molurus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Infraorder: Alethinophidia
Family: Pythonidae
Fitzinger, 1826
Synonyms
  • Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826
  • Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831
  • Holodonta - Müller, 1832
  • Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840
  • Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843
  • Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Pythones - Cope, 1861
  • Pythonidae - Cope, 1864
  • Peropodes - Meyer, 1874
  • Chondropythonina - Boulenger, 1879
  • Pythoninae - Boulenger, 1890
  • Pythonini - Underwood & Stimson, 1990
  • Moreliini - Underwood & Stimson, 1990[1]
Common names: pythons.

The Pythonidae are a family of non-venomous snakes found in Africa, Asia and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Currently, 8 genera and 26 species are recognized.[2] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (945x945, 222 KB) Python molurus, from http://www. ... Binomial name Python molurus molurus The Indian Python or Indian Rock Python (Python molurus molurus) is a python found in India, especially in the estuarine mangrove forest, the arid scrub jungle and the cool dense rain forests. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... Common names: (none). ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... This article is about the toxin. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

Green tree python, Morelia viridis
Green tree python, Morelia viridis

Adults range in size from 0.5 to 10 meters (1.5 to 33 feet) in length. One species, Python reticulatus, the reticulated python, holds the record for world's longest snake: 10 m (32 ft 9.5 in). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 672 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Green Tree Python, Source: Keith Hooks @ Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, SC File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 714 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 672 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Green Tree Python, Source: Keith Hooks @ Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, SC File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Binomial name Morelia viridis (Schlegel, 1872) The Green Tree Python is a species of tree-dwelling python native to New Guinea, various islands in Indonesia, and the northern tip of Eastern Australia (Cape York Peninsula). ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Binomial name Python reticulatus Schneider, 1801 With a maximum recorded length (of a live animal) of just under nine metres (29. ...


The Pythonidae are distinguished from the family Boidae (boas) by the fact that they have teeth on the premaxilla: a small bone at the very front and center of the upper jaw. Most species have rows of heat-sensing organs between the sublabial scales: labial pits. Although not as well developed as the loreal pits of the subfamily Crotalinae (pitvipers), these organs enable the snakes to detect objects that are hotter than the surrounding environment, and enable hunting to take place in total darkness, such as inside caves. For other uses, see Boa (disambiguation). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The premaxilla is a pair of small bones at the very tip of the jaws of many animals, usually bearing teeth, but not always. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... Atheris ceratophora In reptiles, the sublabial scales, also called lower-labials or infralabials, are those scales that border the mouth opening along the lower jaw. ... {{Taxobox[[{| class=wikitable |- ]]</nowiki>]] --> </gallery> |} |}]]| [[Image:[[Media:Failed to parse (unknown error): == <nowiki>#REDIRECT [[<sup><small>[ == == == [[Image:[[Image:[[Media:[[Media:#REDIRECT [[#REDIRECT [[#REDIRECT [[ ---- ---- <math><math><math>[[Media:[[Media: == == == == == == [[[[[[color = pink]]]]]] == == == == == ==]]]] </math></math>]]]]]]]]]]]]]] == == ==]]]</nowiki> ==</math>]]]] | name = Crotalinae | image = TimberRattler. ...


Some species exhibit vestigial bones of the pelvis and rear legs, which are externally apparent in the form of a pair of anal spurs on each side of the cloaca. These spurs are larger in males than females, and are used by the male to grip and/or stimulate the female during copulation. Male of certain species occasionally cause spur related injuries to each other during territorial combat, and though more likely to be incidental than intentional, some captured specimens have shown multiple episodes of scarring from such injuries. Anal spurs on a male, albino burmese python Anal spurs are a pair of tiny claws found on each side of the vent of pythons, boas, and other primitive snakes. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ...


Color patterns vary from striking to nondescript brown or olive. It usually reflects appropriate camouflage for the native habitat. Even within a given species, there may be enormous differences in coloration and pattern in different parts of the geographic range. Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ...


Geographic range

Found in subsaharan Africa, peninsular India, Myanmar, southern China, Southeast Asia and the Philippines southeast through Indonesia to New Guinea and Australia.[1] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


In the United States, a population of Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus, has existed as an invasive species in the Everglades National Park since the late 1990s, which has damaged the local ecosystem. More than 300 have been removed. They are not native to the south Floridian marshlands, but have been deposited there by pet owners who no longer wished to care for them and also did not want to euthanize them. Scientists believe that the snakes are a grave threat to nearly every species of animal in the Everglades, including alligators. There have been several accounts of python vs. alligator encounters there, including one in the fall of 2005 between a 13 foot (4 m) python and a six foot (1.8 m) gator that proved fatal for both. The two were found with the alligator's body protruding from a tear in the snake's body.[3] Trinomial name Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, 1820 The Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) is a very large python native to southern Asia, and common in the US pet trade. ... Everglades National Park preserves the southern portion of the Everglades (all south of Tamiami Trail), but represents only 20 % of the original wetland area. ... This article refers to the large reptile. ...


Conservation

Many species have been hunted aggressively, which has decimated some, such as the Indian python, Python molurus. Binomial name Python molurus molurus The Indian Python or Indian Rock Python (Python molurus molurus) is a python found in India, especially in the estuarine mangrove forest, the arid scrub jungle and the cool dense rain forests. ...


Behavior

Black-headed python,Aspidites melanocephalus
Black-headed python,
Aspidites melanocephalus

Ambush predators, they typically remain motionless in a camouflaged position and then strike suddenly at passing prey. They will generally not attack humans unless startled or provoked, although females protecting their eggs can be aggressive. Large adult specimens can kill people. Unsuspecting children can and have become prey and swallowed whole after being suffocated. Reports of attacks on human beings were once more common in South and Southeast Asia, but are now quite rare. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Aspidites melanocephalus Peters, 1876 The Black Headed Python (Aspidites melanocephalus) is a constrictor snake found in the Northern Territory and Queensland of Australia. ...

Feeding

Prey is killed by a process known as constriction; after an animal has been grasped to restrain it, a number of coils are hastily wrapped around it. Then, by applying and maintaining sufficient pressure to prevent it from inhaling, the prey eventually succumbs due to asphyxiation. It has recently been suggested that the pressures produced during constriction cause cardiac arrest by interfering with blood flow, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. As opposed to popular belief, prey is not crushed; even when constricting normal sized prey, sufficient pressure to break bones is almost certainly never applied. Constriction is a method used by various snake species to kill their prey. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ...


Larger specimens usually eat animals about the size of a house cat, but larger food items are not unknown: some large Asian species have been known to take down adult Deer, and the African rock python, Python sebae, has been known to eat Gazelle). Prey is swallowed whole, and may take anywhere from several days or even weeks to fully digest. Despite their intimidating size and muscular power, they are generally not dangerous to humans. This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Binomial name Python sebae Gmelin, 1789 Synonyms Coluber sebae Coluber speciosus Boa hieroglyphica Python houttuyni Python natalensis Heleionomus variegatus Python liberiensis Python jubalis For the supervillain, see Rock Python. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Reproduction

Females lay eggs (oviparous). This sets them apart from the family, Boidae (boas), most of which bear live young (ovoviviparous). For other uses, see Boa (disambiguation). ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother up until they hatch or are about to. ...


Captivity

Most species in this family are available in the exotic pet trade. However, caution must be exercised with the larger species as they can be dangerous; cases of large specimens killing their owners have been documented.[4]


Genera

Species[2] Authority[2] Species[2] Subsp.*[2] Common name Geographic range[1]
Antaresia Wells & Wellington, 1984 4 0 Australia in arid and tropical regions.
Apodora Kluge, 1993 1 0 Papuan python Most of New Guinea, from Misool to Fergusson Island.
Aspidites Peters, 1877 2 0 Australia except in the south of the country.
Bothrochilus Fitzinger, 1843 1 0 Bismark ringed python The islands of the Bismark Archipelago, including Umboi, New Britain, Gasmata (off the southern coast), Duke of York and nearby Mioko, New Ireland and nearby Tatau (off the east coast), the New Hanover Islands and Nissan Island.
Leiopython Hubrecht, 1879 1 0 D'Albert's water python Most of New Guinea (below 1200 m), including the islands of Salawati and Biak, Normanby, Mussau, as well as a few islands in the Torres Strait.
Liasis Gray, 1842 3 2 Indonesia in the Lesser Sunda Islands, east through New Guinea and in northern and western Australia.
Morelia Gray, 1842 7 5 From Indonesia in the Maluku Islands, east through New Guinea, including the Bismark Archipelago and in Australia.
PythonT Daudin, 1803 7 4 Pythons Africa in the tropics south of the Sahara (not including southern and extreme southwestern Madagascar), Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, the Nicobar Islands, Myanmar, Indochina, southern China, Hong Kong, Hainan, the malayan region of Indonesia and the Philippines.

*) Not including the nominate subspecies (typical forms).
T) Type genus.[1] Categories: Stub | Pythons ... This article is about the year. ... Binomial name Apodora papuana Peters & Doria, 1878 Synonyms Liasis papuanus Morelia papuana Liasis maximus Liasis tornieri The Papuan Python (Apodora papuana) is a species of python native to the lower elevations of New Guinea and Indonesia. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Misool is one of the four major islands in the Raja Ampat Islands in West Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia. ... Fergusson Island is the largest island of the DEntrecasteaux Islands, in Papua New Guinea. ... Species Aspidites melanocephalus Aspidites ramsayi Aspidites is a genus of snakes in the family Pythonidae. ... Wilhelm Karl Hartwich Peters (April 22, 1815 - April 20, 1883) was a German naturalist and explorer. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Species Bothrochilus boa Bothrochilus is a genus of snakes in the family Pythonidae. ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the coast of New Guinea in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ... Umboi Island seen from space. ... (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ... Duke of York Islands seen from space Duke of York Island is the largest island of Duke of York Islands, Papua New Guinea, at . ... Location of New Ireland Province New Ireland (Tok Pisin: Niu Ailan) is a about 8,650 km² large island in Papua New Guinea. ... New Hanover seen from space (false color) New Hanover Island, (German: ), also called Lavongai, is a large volcanic island in New Ireland Province, part of the Bismarck Archipelago of the New Guinea Islands region of Papua New Guinea, at . ... Green Islands seen from space. ... Categories: Stub | Pythons ... Ambrosius Arnold Willem Hubrecht (1853-1915) was a Dutch zoölogist. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Salawati is one of the four major islands in the Raja Ampat Islands in West Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia. ... Fishing boats lined up at Kota Biak, Indonesia Biak is a small island located in Cenderawasih Bay near the northern coast of Papua, an Indonesian province, and is just northwest of New Guinea. ... Topographic map of Normanby Island. ... Mussau Island seen from space Mussau Island is the largest island of St. ... Torres Strait and islands The Torres Strait - Cape York Peninsula is at the bottom; several of the Torres Strait Islands can be seen strung out towards Papua New Guinea to the north. ... Liasis is a genus of pythons. ... John Edward Gray. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... Synonyms Morelia - Gray, 1842 Simalia - Gray, 1849 Chondropython - Meyer, 1874 Aspidopython - Meyer, 1874 Hypaspistes - Ogilby, 1819 Australiasis - Wells & Wellington, 1984 Nyctophylopython - Wells & Wellington, 1984[1] Common names: (none). ... Maluku redirects here. ... Python is a genus within the family Pythonidae which contains probably the best known species typically referred to as pythons. ... François Marie Daudin (March 25, 1774–1804) was a French zoologist. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ...


Taxonomy

Pythons are more related to boas than to any other snake-family. Some sources consider this group a subfamily of the Boas (Pythoninae). This article is about the Korean pop singer. ...


Gallery

See also

  • List of pythonid species and subspecies.
  • Pythonidae by common name.
  • Pythonidae by taxonomic synonyms.

This is a list of all genera, species and subspecies of the family Pythonidae, otherwise referred to as pythonids or pythons. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c d e Pythonidae (TSN 563893). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 15 September 2007.
  3. ^ Huge, Freed Pet Pythons Invade Florida Everglades at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ National Geographic News. Accessed 16 September 2007.
  4. ^ The Keeping of Large Pythons at Anapsid. Accessed 16 September 2007.

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Wikispecies has information related to:
Pythonidae

  Results from FactBites:
 
PYTHON (PRIDE - CONTROL) (939 words)
A genus of very large, nonpoisonous snakes of burma, indo-china, etc. That crush their prey to death, the typical genus of the family pythonidae.
In classic mythology, a monster serpent inhabiting the caves of parnassus and preying upon the people of delphi and their flocks; it was slain by apollo.
Pythonidae - a family of peropod snakes, having intermaxillary teeth and rudimentary hind limbs; the rock snakes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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