FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pyruvic acid
Pyruvic acid
Pyruvic acid
Chemical name 2-oxopropanoic acid
Other names α-ketopropionic acid
acetylformic acid
pyroracemic acid
Pyr
Chemical formula C3H4O3
Molecular mass 88.06 g/mol
CAS number [127-17-3]
Density 1.250 g/cm³
Melting point 11.8 °C
Boiling point 165 °C
SMILES CC(C(O)=O)=O
Disclaimer and references

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCO2H) is an alpha-keto acid which plays an important role in biochemical processes. The carboxylate anion of pyruvic acid is known as pyruvate. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1011, 28 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pyruvic acid ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Keto acids are organic acids containing a ketone group along with the carboxylic acid groups. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylic acids, also known as alkanoic acids, are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group and have the general chemical formula R-C(=O)-OH, also written as R-COOH, where R is a hydrogen or an alkyl group. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ...

Contents

Chemistry

Pyruvic acid is a colorless liquid with a smell similar to acetic acid. It is miscible with water, and soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether. In the laboratory, pyruvic acid may be prepared by heating a mixture of tartaric acid and potassium hydrogen sulfate, or by the hydrolysis of acetyl cyanide, formed by reaction of acetyl chloride with potassium cyanide: Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... Tartaric acid or H2C4H4O6 is a white crystalline organic acid. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Acetyl chloride, also known as ethanoyl chloride, is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. ... Potassium cyanide or KCN is the potassium salt of hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid. ...

CH3COCl + KCN → CH3COCN
CH3COCN → CH3COCOOH

Biochemical role

Pyruvate is an important chemical compound in biochemistry. It is the output of the metabolism of glucose known as glycolysis. One molecule of glucose breaks down into two molecules of pyruvic acid, which are then used to provide further energy, in one of two ways. Provided that sufficient oxygen is available, pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl-coenzyme A, which is the main input for a series of reactions known as the Krebs cycle. Pyruvate is also converted to oxaloacetate by an anaplerotic reaction and then further broken down to carbon dioxide. These reactions are named after Hans Adolf Krebs, the biochemist awarded the 1953 Nobel Prize for physiology, jointly with Fritz Lipmann, for research into metabolic processes. The cycle is also called the citric acid cycle, because citric acid is one of the intermediate compounds formed during the reactions. A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway by which a 6-carbon glucose (Glc) molecule is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ... - of Greek origin, meaning to fill up Anaplerotic reactions are those that form intermediates of the TCA or citric acid cycle. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (August 25, 1900 – November 22, 1981) was a German, later British medical doctor and biochemist. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... Categories: Stub | Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ...


If insufficient oxygen is available, the acid is broken down anaerobically, creating lactic acid in animals and ethanol in plants. Pyruvate from glycolysis is converted by anaerobic respiration to lactate using the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and the coenzyme NADH in lactate fermentation, or to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fermentation (biochemistry). ... Lactic acid is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Coenzymes are a small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anaerobic respiration. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Pyruvic acid is a key intersection in the network of metabolic pathways. Pyruvic acid can be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol. Therefore it unites several key metabolic processes. In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell, catalyzed by enzymes, resulting in either the formation of a metabolic product to be used or stored by the cell, or the initiation of another metabolic pathway (then called a flux generating step). ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ... The general structure of an α-amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... Alanine (Ala, A) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Pyruvate production by glycolysis

phosphoenolpyruvate Pyruvate kinase pyruvate
image:2-phospho-D-glycerate_wpmp.png   image:pyruvate_wpmp.png
ADP ATP
ADP ATP
 
  Pyruvate kinase

Compound C00074 at KEGG Pathway Database. Enzyme 2.7.1.40 at KEGG Pathway Database. Compound C00022 at KEGG Pathway Database. Name Phosphoenolpyruvate; Phosphoenolpyruvic acid; PEP Formula C3H5O6P Mass 167. ... Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme involved in glycolysis. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Image File history File links 2-phospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Pyruvate_wpmp. ... ADP may refer to: Among organizations and companies: Aéroports de Paris, airport authority for the Parisian region in France. ... ATP may refer to: Chemistry/Biochemistry Adenosine triphosphate, the universal energy currency of all living organisms Companies Alberta Theatre Projects, a major Canadian theatre company. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_YYYY_horiz_med. ... ADP may refer to: Among organizations and companies: Aéroports de Paris, airport authority for the Parisian region in France. ... ATP may refer to: Chemistry/Biochemistry Adenosine triphosphate, the universal energy currency of all living organisms Companies Alberta Theatre Projects, a major Canadian theatre company. ... Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme involved in glycolysis. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ...


Pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA

pyruvate pyruvate dehydrogenase complex acetyl CoA
image:pyruvate_wpmp.png   image:acetyl_co-A_wpmp.png
CoA + NAD+ CO2 + NADH + H+
 
 

Note that decarboxylation is only one of several possible reactions for pyruvate. The Pyruvate decarboxylation reaction links the metabolic pathways glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that transform pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | Thiols ... Image File history File links Pyruvate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Acetyl_co-A_wpmp. ... CoA may refer to: Coat of arms Coenzyme A Commonwealth of Australia, the full legal name of Australia Chart of Accounts COA Coa Category: ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ...

Pyruvic acid's role in the origin of life

Main article: iron-sulfur world theory

Current evolutionary theory on the origin of life posits that the first organisms were anaerobic because the atmosphere of prebiotic Earth was almost devoid of oxygen. As such, requisite biochemical materials must have preceded life and recent experiments indicate that pyruvate can be synthesized abiotically. In vitro, iron sulfide at sufficient pressure and temperature catalyzes the formation of pyruvic acid. Thus, argues Günter Wächtershäuser, the mixing of iron-rich crust with hydrothermal vent fluid is suspected of providing the fertile basis for the formation of life. Günter Wächtershäuser, a chemist turned patent lawyer, is mainly known for his groundbreaking and influential work on the origin of life, and in particular his iron-sulfur world theory, a theory that life on Earth had hydrothermal origins. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... Iron(II) sulfide is a form of iron sulfide (others include iron pyrite aka Fools Gold), and can be obtained by reacting iron and sulfur under great heat. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Günter Wächtershäuser, a chemist turned patent lawyer, is mainly known for his groundbreaking and influential work on the origin of life, and in particular his iron-sulfur world theory, a theory that life on Earth had hydrothermal origins. ...


See also


 v  d  e 
Glycolysis Metabolic Pathway
Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
ATP ADP ATP ADP NADP+ + Pi NADPH + H+
+ 2
NADP+ + Pi NADPH + H+
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphoglycerate 2-phosphoglycerate Phosphoenolpyruvate Pyruvate Acetyl Co-A
ADP ATP H2O ADP ATP CoA + NADPH + H+ NADP+ + CO2
2 2 2 2 2 2
ADP ATP H2O

Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway by which a 6-carbon glucose (Glc) molecule is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr). ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell, catalyzed by enzymes, resulting in either the formation of a metabolic product to be used or stored by the cell, or the initiation of another metabolic pathway (then called a flux generating step). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a phosphorylated glucose molecule on carbon 6. ... Fructosephosphates are sugar phosphates based upon fructose. ... Fructosephosphates are sugar phosphates based upon fructose. ... DHAP (or Dihydroxyacetonephosphate) is a biochemical compound involved in many reactions, from the Calvin Cycle in plants to the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in Leishmania mexicana. ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... G3P (structure) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is an intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ... Image File history File links D-glucose_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Alpha-D-glucose-6-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Beta-D-fructose-6-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Beta-D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Glycerone-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_YYYY_horiz_med. ... 1,3-bisphosphogylcerate (1,3BPG), also known as PGAP. This 3-carbon molecule, is a metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. ... Glycerate 3-phosphate (GP) or 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG). ... ... Name Phosphoenolpyruvate; Phosphoenolpyruvic acid; PEP Formula C3H5O6P Mass 167. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyl-CoA Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidization of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle. ... Image File history File links 1,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links 3-phospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links 2-phospho-D-glycerate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Phosphoenolpyruvate_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Pyruvate_wpmp. ... CoA may refer to: Coat of arms Coenzyme A Commonwealth of Australia, the full legal name of Australia Chart of Accounts COA Coa Category: ... Image File history File links Acetyl_co-A_wpmp. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_YYYY_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NNNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_reversible_NYYN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ... Image File history File links Biochem_reaction_arrow_foward_YYNN_horiz_med. ...

References

  • George D. Cody, Nabil Z. Boctor, Timothy R. Filley, Robert M. Hazen, James H. Scott, Anurag Sharma, Hatten S. Yoder Jr., "Primordial Carbonylated Iron-Sulfur Compounds and the Synthesis of Pyruvate," Science, 289 (5483) (25 August 2000) pp. 1337 - 1340. [1]

External links

  • Links to external chemical sources.

  Results from FactBites:
 
pyruvic acid: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (632 words)
Pyruvic acid is a colorless liquid with a smell similar to acetic acid.
In the laboratory, pyruvic acid may be prepared by heating a mixture of tartaric acid and potassium hydrogen sulfate, or by the hydrolysis of acetyl cyanide, formed by reaction of acetyl chloride with potassium cyanide:
Pyruvate from glycolysis is converted by anaerobic respiration to lactate using the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and the coenzyme NADH in lactate fermentation, or to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m